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God. He is not continent, but habitually exempt from passion, waiting until he can put on the divine form. All virtue is habitual in him, so that he cannot lose it even for a moment.'
It will not have escaped our readers, that Clement has adopted the term Gnostic, not for the purpose of giving any sanction to either the name or errors of Gnosticism, but as claiming for Christianity the possession of all that might be conveyed by the term in its higher import. Nothing can be more clearly marked than his distinction between the true and the spurious Gnostic.
Of the remaining extant works assigned to Clement as their author, the Bishop of Lincoln has not failed to take due notice; but the intimations already supplied by us will enable general readers to understand the character and object of the learned and fluent Alexandrian. For ourselves, we cannot rate this eminent man quite so highly as some of his admirers might seem to require. Eusebius spoke of him as the 'admirable.' St. Jerome, as cited by Tillemont, eulogized his works as containing all that was of highest mystery in the sacred writings, and all that was most curious in profane science. St. Cyril of Alexandria, and other ecclesiastical authors, have also spoken with admiration of this eminent man. We shall not venture to contradict these high authorities, and, leaving the matter in the hands of those who may choose to take the surer method of judging for themselves, pass on to a brief notice of a composition ascribed to Clement, but differing in many important respects from his recognized writings. The Hypotyposes,' a term used by Clement to express the delineation, form, or outline of a thing,' appear to have contained valuable information concerning the early history of Christianity, but in other respects to have been deeply contaminated by heresy and indecency. Eusebius and Photius are the principal authorities for this very indifferent character of a work so much at variance with the acknowledged productions of Clement, as to suggest to the latter a doubt whether Clement was really the author of these absurdities.' Dupin suggests a different explanation. If,' he says, this work were so replete with errors, as should appear placed beyond all doubt by the testimony of Photius, who had actually seen it, it must have been composed by St. Clement, before he had been thoroughly instructed in the Christian religion, and while he 'was yet entangled in the opinions of Plato: and this appears to me highly probable, since we cannot affirm that he was not the author of these books, which are assigned to him on the authority of universal antiquity, nor can it be plausibly supposed that they have been so extensively falsified by heretics. The opinions themselves, moreover, are precisely those of a man endeavouring to reconcile the philosophy of Plato with the Chris
'tian religion; or rather they are those of a half-christianized Platonist. Tillemont inclines to the opinion that ascribes the erroneous portions of the work to heretical interpretation.
Art. V. Elementary Art; or the Use of the Lead Pencil advocated and explained. By J. D. Harding. Folio. Twenty-six Plates. Price £2 2s. London, 1834.
MR. Harding has done more than any other artist in existence, to aid the progress, on right executive principles, of the student of landscape. He has, from time to time, published lithographical drawings, combining high quality with easy purchase; and we have at hand a collection of these, including almost every variety of scenery, and furnishing a series of lessons of the greatest practical value. His "Drawing-book for 1834," containing twenty-four subjects, of 'infinite variety', is of itself a course of instruction. Plate 10 is a beautiful specimen of artist-like combination;-a picture made up from a bank, a ditch, a meagre tree, a few sheep, and a shattered fence. Plate 17 is a beautiful arrangement of tree, meadow, and water, brought into compact by lines of deep shadow. Plate 27 (23) is an admirably managed woodland scene. But the whole is good; and these are mentioned, rather as gratifying individual taste, than as essentially better than others where all are valuable.
The greater and more elaborate Work now before us, is in all respects worthy of Mr. Harding's distinguished ability. It is not, we presume, meant as a pothook-and-hanger book; but it takes up the learner at an early stage, and carries him on to an advanced period; in fact, to the very last term at which mere instruction can be necessary. The examples are excellent, both in themselves and in their adaptation; while the aid of Briggs and Landseer, though hardly requisite, commends at once the modesty of the Author, and his anxiety for the completeness of his Work. He has availed himself of one method of instruction that is, we believe, in art, quite original, though in morals as old as the Spartans and their drunken Helots: he has introduced some capital imitations of drawings, such as we have often seen pass current as excellent, but full of the grossest outrages against sound principle and genuine execution. So thoroughly like are they to certain villanies of the sort which we have seen and handled, that we could fancy he had actually caught the perpetrators, and set them down to work, by way both of warning and penalty. His dissection, too, of these impostures, and his exposure of their violations of truth and right feeling, are clear and effective. His theory of the relative effect of outline and shadow, is also well illustrated by examples of error and its cor
rection. Characters of trees, effects of light and shade, selection of general subjects and particular forms, are richly and expressively elucidated by the instructions and examples of this valuable book. The authorship of the volume might perhaps have been improved by a little compression; but artists are somewhat apt to be eloquent, when writing or talking on the subject of art, and we are accustomed to let them, in this and in other matters, have their own way.
A work of this kind was really wanted; since, notwithstanding a decided general improvement, there is still so much wretched teaching abroad, both in town and country, that some such collection of canons as the present ought to be everywhere at hand, by way both of test and of example. We do not feel it necessary to enter further into particulars, or we could be wordy on the advantages of such a referee. Nor shall we be specific in our criticism of the different subjects: we shall only mention, as peculiarly to our taste, a park-scene at Alnwick, and a beech-grove at Buckhurst.
A valuable supplement, with two illustrative aquatints, on the management of the brush', is followed by three or four pages of useful directions in the choice of materials. In one point, however, we differ from Mr. Harding;-we dislike nick-nacks. With him, we patronize French blocks, though not quite so zealously as he does; but we utterly eschew the whole tribe of 'pencil-holders.' A little change in the form of materials, by wearing down or cutting away, is advantageous rather than otherwise, as accustoming the hand to rely more absolutely upon itself. In nine cases of this kind out of ten, the remedy is worse than the disease. It was but the other day that we were called upon to admire an apparatus for sketching in the open air: we took it at first for a portable clothes-horse, but, when taken to pieces and explained, it proved to be a magazine of most inconvenient accommodations, unsteady to the hand, annoying to the feet, and about as fit for the scrambling, wading, and clambering of picturesque travel, as a Punch-and-Judy box strapped at one's back.
Art. VI. Winkles's Cathedrals. Nos. 1 to 6. 8vo., price 1s. each. London, 1835.
IF F the originator of this useful and interesting publication had doubled his charge and extended his plan, the work would have been not only more intrinsically valuable, but more popular and profitable. Even now, a more critical discrimination and a slight enlargement would give it advantages in which it is deficient. The rule seems to be, that each cathedral shall occupy only two or, at most, three numbers; a limitation of which we
exceedingly question the policy; and we would suggest the expediency of continuing the survey until the more important points of each structure may be exhausted. There should be the nave, the transept, the Lady-chapel, the chapter-house, the cloisters, the crypt, with views of the exterior, and of such other parts as might be worthy of special notice. One Number might be in outline, containing plan, section, details; and if this extension should carry on each subject to five parts, surely such an illustration of some of the noblest monuments of human invention and skill, at a price so easy, must command unbounded patronage. Of the Numbers before us we have little to say but in praise with one exception, the views are well chosen and fairly handled. Some of the exteriors are defective in clearness and expression, and there seems some mismanagement about the West front of York Cathedral: to our eye, it forms an acute angle with the flank. The south-east view from the river is altogether bad: it is neither illustrative nor picturesque, and it puzzles us to guess how any one accustomed to look on nature for an artist's purposes, could think of selecting such a subject.
Mr. Winkles has just published proposals for a cheap, and we can have no doubt valuable, work on a similar plan, comprehending the more important continental cathedrals. It would, of course, be idle to suppose, that two Numbers-why not three ?and eight plates, can be made to include all the interesting points of a complicated building: we would, however, recommend particular attention to the Apsis, a feature of great elaboration in the Gothic churches of the Continent, and varying, by its polygonal construction, from our own more familiar forms. Ground plans are promised; but we must remind Mr. Winkles that no illustration can be satisfactory, that does not include a transverse section, and a sectional view of at least one compartment of the nave. If details are at all given, the flying buttress should not be neglected.
Art. VII. 1. Ireland's Misery and Remedy: or, Ireland a Field of Missionary Labour. A Discourse delivered April 9, 1835, at the Monthly Meeting of the London Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches. By John Hoppus, M.A., 8vo. pp. 70. London, 1835.
2. The Irish Church. The Reform Association to the Reformers of England, Scotland, and Wales. 8vo. pp. 40. London, 1835. 3. Antichrist; Papal, Protestant, and Infidel. An Estimate of the Religion of the Times; comprising a View of the Origin and Genius of the Roman Catholic System, and of its Identity with every Form of Nominal Christianity. By the Rev. John Řiland,
M.A. Republished, with a Preliminary Address, in Reference to the Third Centenary of the English Reformation, on the 4th of October, 1835. 12mo. London, 1835.
IT T is to the honour of the Protestant Dissenters of this country, that almost with one voice they have protested against the iniquities of the Irish Church Establishment. They are reproached with making common cause with the Papists; a reproach which comes with peculiar grace from the members of a Church which makes common cause with the Romish episcopacy against all the Presbyterian churches of Christendom,-denying the validity of any other ministry save her own orders and the Romish, acknowledging the Romish bishops as true bishops, and excommunicating all Dissenters as, in the language of Anglican prelates, abandoned to the uncovenanted mercies of God. Truly, the charge of an alliance with Papists comes with matchless consistency from the members of a Church the most nearly allied of all the Protestant churches to the Romish, in her constitution, ritual, and pretensions; and whose prelates, in their political character, have made common cause with the Gallican, the Spanish, and the Portuguese priesthood, standing forward as the favourers of the execrable Miguel and the sanguinary Carlos, those upholders of all that is vile in Popery in their respective countries. Common cause with the oppressor, Protestant Dissenters have never made. Common cause with the oppressed and persecuted, whether it be French Protestants, or Irish Papists, or West India slaves, we trust that Dissenters will never refuse to make. If the Irish were Mohammedans, instead of Papists, it would make no difference in this matter. The injustice of compelling Moslem to contribute to the support of the Christian faith, would not be more palpable than quartering a Protestant priesthood upon a Romish peasantry. The principle which binds the Dissenter to the Papist is a very simple one, and it rests upon higher authority than the law of tithes. It is this: "As ye would that men should do unto you, so do ye unto them likewise." This bond of alliance is one of humanity, of citizenship, not of ecclesiastical affinity, like that which connects the Romish and Anglican Churches. Where and when has the Church of England ventured to assail Established Popery? Nowhere: she only tramples upon it in the form of beggary and political weakness. Her missionaries are the ecclesiastical tax-gatherer and the ' tithe dragoon.' She quarrels with no religion that pays tribute and respects her ascendancy, with no heresy that does not put on the attitude of dissent. She asks not for congregations, but for revenues, and counts not the alienation of the people, but that of the sinecure, to be the extinction of Protestantism. Such is the political Church against which Dissenters are politically