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meanest offices, and sometimes even washed explanations of the New Testament are chiefly the feet of the sister-servitors. In her last ill- of an ethical kind. A collection of his sermons ness she was attended by the cardinal of Ostia, was printed both during his life and after his and was visited by the pope, who promised her death ; as well as his occasional discourses on that no relaxation should be permitted in the scriptural and other topics: One of these, enconvents of her order, which he confirmed titled, “ An Exhortation to Rcunion," addressed anew. She died in 1253, and was canonized to the separatists from the Roman church, was by pope Alexander IV. Moreri.-A.
printed separately. He wrote in a clear and ČLARIO (Lat. Clarius), ISIDORE, a learned natural style, with solidity and judgment. Du ecclesiastic of the sixteenth century, took his Pin. Tiraboschi. ---A.
-A name from Chiari in the territory of Brescia, CLARKE, SAMUEL, a scholar, divine, and where he was born in 1495. He entered into metaphysician, of the first rank, was born in the order of St. Benedict, at the monastery of 1675 at Norwich, of which city his father was St. John in Parma, where he made an extraor- alderman, and for several years a representative dinary progress in sacred and profane literature, in parliament. He had his early education at the so as to acquire the reputation of one of the free-school of his native place, whence he removmost learned men of his time. At the same ed to Caius college, Cambridge. In this semi
. time he was universally esteemed for the purity nary he distinguished himself for application and of his morals, the warmth of his charity, and abilities, so as to become a kind of example of his zeal for the reformation of manners, and the excellence in the university. He had not long promotion of peace and good-will among Chris- passed the age of twenty-one, when he pubtians. He distinguished himself greatly as a lished a Latin translation of Rohault's Phypreacher and an orator, and made various ora- sics, with annotations formed upon the Newtions on public occasions. In 1537 he was tonian philosophy. Rohault had written in the made prior of the monastery of St. Peter in system of Descartes, which was then the faModena. He was afterwards abbot of Pon- vourite of many ingenious men, among whom tido near Bergamo, and of St. Mary in Cesena. was Mr. Ellis, Clarke's tutor. The pupil, His final promotion, in 1547, was to the however, had the discernment to see that the bishopric of Foligno, which see he governed principal foundation of Cartesianism was mere with great reputation, assiduously attending to hypothesis, and he was a convert to the solid the instruction of the poor, and promoting lite- reasonings of the Principia of Newton. But rature among those of superior condition, by as these were at that time received and underthe institution of an academy of learned men. stood by few, he thought that the vehicle of an He was present at the council of Trent, both established system like that of Rohault would in the quality of abbot and of bishop, and gave be the most convenient for the gradual introample proof of his learning and eloquence in duction of true philosophy, and he was right that assembly. He died of a fever in 1555 at in his conjecture: for Clarke's Rohault became Foligno, and his remains were honoured by the for a long time the standing text for lectures in people almost as those of a saint. The princi- the university, and familiarised students with pal work of Clarius was a reform of the vulgate the language and reasonings of the Newtonian translation of the whole Bible, with annotations system. This work went through four editions upon the difficult passages. Though he extended with successive improvements, and it was tranthis reform only to passages in which he thought Nated into English by Dr. John Clarke, dean of the sense of..ahe original misrepresented; he Sarum, the author's brother. He next engaged
serts;..ihat tie:has corrected it in upwards of in the serious study of divinity, the ground%places. This freedom used with the vul- work of which he made a careful perusal of gåte:gate Gtance to the rigid catholics, and the the Old and New Testament in their original • fitseeeehition of his work, printed at Venice in tongues. He took orders, and became chap:8542, pasijut: into the Index Expurgatorius. lain to Dr. Moore, bishop of Norwich, in
ärel; the deputies of the council of which office he succeeded the celebrated WhisTrent allowed it to be read, omitting the pre- ton, who warmly recommended him to his face and the prolegomena. Clarius was accused patron. With bishop Moore, Clarke lived upon of plagiarism, in having made great use of Se- terms of the most intimate friendship and famibastian Munster's annotations on the Old Tes- liarity; and it is to their mutual honour, that tament, without acknowledgment. The fact this confidence proceeded so far as to induce is true, but the spirit of the times would not the bishop at his death to entrust all his domesallow him to quote a protestant author. His tic concerns in his chaplain's hands. Mr.
Clarke first became an author in his proper reputation of such a man as Clarke can be in profession in 1699, when he published “Three jured; nor does the value of his "Demonstra: practical Essays upon Baptism, Confirmation, tion” scem impaired in the public opinion, by and Repentance." This work displayed great the more formidable discussion it underwent in seriousness of mind; and Whiston, who was polemical controversy.
The ethical system not inclined to believe that religious fervour in- which he introduced into the “ Evidences of ereased in proportion as a man became more Religion," was founded upon the eternal differ: conversant with the world, esteemed it the ences, relations, and fitnesses, of things; and most serious piece that the author ever wrote. these notions and terms were adopted by variIt was followed by “ Reflections on Part of a ous authors of the time, and became in some Book called Amyntor,” by Toland, relating to measure fashionable. They were opposed, inthe genuineness of certain works referred to deed, by other moralists, and were at length the apostolic age, but not received into the generally exchanged for the sentimental ideas of canon of scripture. His “ Paraphrases on the 'the innate beauty of virtue, introduced by lord four Gospels” soon succeeded, which are dis- Shaftesbury, and improved by professor Huttinguished by. brevity and plainness. About cheson. Dr. Clarke's system, however, cond
this time he obtained two small livings, one in tinued to have able supporters, ainong whom · Norwich, and the other near it; and he accuse one of the most eminent was the late Dr.
tomed himself to preach without notes, which Price. In 1706 he published a .- Lettet to practice he continued till he became rector of Mr. Dodwell,” in reply to that learned writer's St. James's. He was appointed in 1704 to Epistolary Discourse concerning the Immorpreach the sermons at Boyle's lecture, when he tality of the Soul. This was a philosophical chose for his subject the being and attributes and argumentative defence of the immateriality of God; and such was the satisfaction he gave, of the soul, against what were thought the that he was appointed to the same office the very dangerous opinions advanced by Dodwell, next year, when his subject was the evidences who had attempted to prove its natural mortaof natural and revealed religion. These ser- lity. During the same year he gave an elegant mons, in number sixteen, were thrown into Latin translation of sir Isaac Newton's Opcontinued discourses, and printed together in tics, which facilitated the introduction of his one volume, which has passed through several system into the other countries of Europe. editions. They raised very high the author's The great philosopher was so well pleased with character as a close and acute reasoner; though this work, that he presented Mr. Clarke with his metaphysical arguments à priori for the ex- 500l., or 1col. for each of his children. Biistence of a deity were by many objected to as shop Moore now introduced his friend and too subtle and hypothetical, and less satisfactory former chaplain to the notice of queen Anne, than the common mode of deducing the idea who named him one of her chaplains in ordiof a first cause from the effects visible in crea- nary, and presented him, in 1509, with the tion. Pope, who had probably other reasons rectory of St. James's, Westminster, the highest for his spleen against our divine than mere preferment he ever obtained. On account of theological differences, has thought proper to this promotion, he thought it proper to take his ållude to him in some lines of the Dunciad, degree of doctor in divinity at Cambridge, and which conclude thus,
the public exercise he performed on this occaWe nobly take the high priori road,
sion was a memorable event in the academical And reason downward till we doubt of God.
annals. The thesis he maintained was, “ No
dogma of christian faith, delivered in the holy But Clarke himself does not deny that the ar- scriptures, is contrary to right reason;" and his gument à posteriori is by far the more generally defence against the scholastic attacks of the useful ; and he has employed the priori argu. divinity-professor, Dr. James, displayed conment only in opposition to Spinoza, Hobbes, summate skill in argumentation, with the most and other metaphysical reasoners against the familiar use of the Latin language.' Persons existence and attributes of deity, who could present at this exercise could not speak of it not be refuted any other way. Surely it is no without rapture, even when become old men. matter of just blame to have deviated from the In 1712, Dr. Clarke appeared as a philolocommon tract in proof of a point, the import- gist, in editing a fine edition of “ Cæsar's ance of which is universally acknowledged, and Commentaries" in folio, accounted one of the which may receive confirmation from opposite noblest productions of the British press at that quarters. It is not by poetical attacks that the period, and praised by Addison in the. Spectator (No. 367). It was, with much more as if the situation was not very suitable to a propriety than Barnes's Anacreon, dedicated court divine. Yet few of that class seem to to the great duke of Marlborough, who, have been less under the influence of ambition, though he could not read the words of Cæsar, or the desire of promotion, than Dr. Clarke. could emulate his actions. In the same year An alteration which he made in the doxologies he published a work which involved him deeply of the singing psalms, for the use of his pain theological controversy, and of a kind which rish, revived, in 1718, a portion of the trinitacould not but hurt an ingenuous spirit. This rian controversy, and the bishop of London was his “Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity,” thought it necessary to warn his clergy from in which that mysterious tenet was examined adopting the innovation. Dr. Clarke's emoluon critical principles, as deducible from the ments about this time were augmented by prewords of the sacred writings; and with a re- sentation to the mastership of Wigstan's hosult so different from the orthodox doctrine, as spital in Leicester, a preferment not requiring maintained by the church of England, that it subscription. He published in 1724 a volume became a subject of complaint from the lower containing seventeen sermons on various occahouse of convocation, met in 1714. It is af- sions, of which eleven had not before been firmed, that previously to the publication a printed. As a writer of sermons, Dr. Clarke message was sent to Dr. Clarke by some of the is characterised by solidity of reasoning, and ministers of queen Anne, dissuading him from justness of observation, expressed in plain, publishing a work likely to excite angry conten- clear, and manly language ; he therefore, with tion, at a time when free sentiments of any most of the eminent English divines, takes his kind could scarcely be tolerated; but that he station among the instructive and didactic paid no regard to this reinonstrance. When preachers, rather than the orators. Upon the the storm came on, however, he found it ex- death of sir Isaac Newton, he was offered the pedient to take some steps to allay it. The lucrative place of master of the Mint, obviously upper house of convocation, which was less as a mode of conferring that pecuniary reward animated with doctrinal zeal than the lower, on his merit which his scruples with respect to and seemed chiefly solicitous to silence dissen- subscription, and his theological deviations, şion, found a kind of temper in the business ; rendered impracticable by means of professional and Dr. Clarke was prevailed upon to write a advancement; but he perfectly concurred with paper, which was by some industriously repre- his most serious friends in thinking that the acsented as a retractation, though it went no ceptance of a secular office would be derogatory further than certain explanations and compli- from his character. A letter of his, addressed ances for the sake of peace. Whiston's unsub- to Mr. Hoadly, “ On the Proportion of Vemitting zeal for what he thought the truth was, locity and Force in Bodies in Motion,” appearhowever, offended with this sacrifice to human ed in 1728, and was printed in the Philosophiprudence ; and there is reason to believe that cal Transactions. In 1729 he distinguished Dr. Clarke himself was not perfectly satisfied himself as a philologist, by publishing the twelve with his conduct on the occasion. Several first books of “ Homer's Iliad," in 4to. Of this books and pamphlets were written in the con- the Latin translation is in great part new, and troversy set on foot by Dr. Clarke's work on annotations of the editor accompany every the Trinity, in which Dr. Waterland particu- page. Dr. Clarke's reputation as a scholar is larly distinguished himself as a champion of principally founded on this performance, which orthodoxy. In 1715 and 1716 a disputation is particularly rich in grammatical knowledge, was carried on between Clarke and the illus- and nice observation concerning the structure trious Leibnitz, concerning the principles of of the Greek tongue. The author's son pubnatural philosophy and religion, in which these lished in 1732 the remaining twelve books of learned and acute writers exercised all their the Iliad, of which he informs us that his facontroversial skill. A collection of the papers ther had finished the annotations, and had rewhich passed on this occasion was published in vised the text and version, of the three first, 1717, dedicated to the princess of Wales, af- and part of the fourth. This edition of Homer terwards queen Caroline, who had- conde- has been received into the great schools, and is scended to be the medium of this conference, in high esteem. Dr. Clarke enjoyed a very and the witness and judge (as bishop Hoadly short time the applause which this learned says) of every step in it. Dr. Clarke was a work obtained. He was suddenly attacked, in favourite with her, and the placing of his bust May, 1729, as he was going to preach before in her hermitage gave rise to a sarcasm of Pope, the judges at Serjeant's-inn, with a pleuritie complaint, which proved fatal within a few and frequent correspondent of the learned days; at a time of life (his fifty-fourth year) printer, Bowyer; and it is conjectured, that a when his powers of mind were in their full . Discourse on the Commerce of the Romans," vigour, and many more services to religion and printed in his Miscellaneous Tracts, was literature might be expected from him. He written by Mr. Clarke. But his great work, on left in MS., prepared for the press, an “ Ex- which his reputation is chiefly founded, was position of the Church Catechism,” being the “ The Connection of the Roman, Saxon, and substance of weekly lectures read at St. James's English Coins ; deducing the antiquities, cuschurch, which was published by his brother, toms, and manners of each people to modern the dean of Sarum, and, according to the times ; particularly the origin of feudal tenures usual fate of his theological works, immediately and of parliaments : illustrated throughout with gave birth to a controversy. Ten posthumous critical and historical remarks on various auvolumes of his “ Sermons” were likewise pub- thors, both sacred and profane,”. 4to. 1767: lished by his brother. A report was spread, This work was dedicated to the duke of Newfounded principally upon the assertion of the castle, and received some useful criticism in chevalier Ramsay, that Dr. Clarke, towards manuscript from the speaker Onslow; but it the close of his life, greatly repented of his was peculiarly indebted for several notes and attack upon the received opinions concerning valuable additions to its printer, Mr. Bowyer. the 'Trinity, and retracted his principles on that Its foundation was the discovery of the old head. The falsity of this representation is, Saxon pound by Martin Folkes, but it took a however, undoubtedly proved, as well by the very wide range, and comprehended many impositive testimony of his son, and some of his portant topics, historical and political. Some intimate friends, as by the circumstances of his of the author's opinions, however, were very having prepared for the press, a short time controvertible ; as, that the Celts were origibefore his death, a new edition of his “ Scrip- nally Tyrian or Phoenician colonies ; that the ture Doctrine of the Trinity,” and of his feudal system originated from the Romans ; having left recent emendations in his Common- and that the Commons, as such, had no share Prayer-book, founded upon similar sentiments in the Saxon legislature. His other literary of that doctrine.
labours were assisting Bowyer in his translation The private character of Dr. Clarke was of Trappe's Lectures on Poetry, and writing extremely amiable: upright, mild, unaffected, notes to the version of La Bleterie's Life of chearful, even sometimes to playful simplicity, Juliań. From the testimony of his friend, Mr. he seems formed to have gone through the Hayley, he had an elegant turn for English world without an enemy, had he not touched poetry ; and an epigram which he has quoted upon the “ debateable land” of polemics. His from him displays considerable wit. He was a intellectual character was that of pure reason, man of a mild and benevolent temper, pious, undisturbed by passion or enthusiasm, and charitable, and friendly. He assiduously perclosely pursuing its object with all the powers formed the duties of his station, and shewed of methodical accuracy, and logical acuteness. his zeal for literature by procuring many valuHis memory was remarkably strong, and his able additions to the cathedral library of Chiattention indefatigable. If not one of the bright- chester. In 1770 he was promoted to the est genuises, he is certainly one of the ablest chancellorship of his diocese, but he enjoyed men this island can boast. Biogr. Britan.-A. his dignity a short time, dying in October,
CLARKE, William, a learned antiquary, 1771. His son, the rev. Edward Clarke, rewas born in 1696 at Haghmon abbey, Shrop- sided in Spain for some time, as chaplain to the shire. He was brought up to the church, and earl of Bristol, the English embassador, and entered of St. John's college, Cambridge, of published “ Letters concerning the Spanish which he became a fellow. For some time he Nation,” 4to. which were favourably received was domestic chaplain to the duke of New- by the public. Bingr. Britan.-A. castle, which situation he quitted on being pre
CLAUDE LE LORRAIN,properly CLAUDE sented, in 1724, by archbishop Wake, to the Gele’e, a painter of unrivalled excellence in rectory of Buxted in Sussex. He married the landscape, was born in 1600, of obscure padaughter of the learned Dr. William Wotton ; rentage, at the castle of Chamagne, in the dioand he first appeared as a writer in a preface to cese of Toul in Lorraine. When very young that author's “ Leges Walliæ.” In 1738 he he was placed in the service of a pastry cook, was made prebendary and residentiary of the which, after the death of his parents, he deshurch of Chichester. He was an intimate serted, and walked to Friburg, where his elder
brother John was an engraver in wood. "From places. Out of humour with this employ, le him he received some instructions in drawing, joined son:e French painters who were going to with which he accompanied a relation, a lace- Rome. At Marseilles he had a violent fever, merchant, to Rome. He was left in that capi- which nearly brought hiin to his grave, and his tal destitute of friends, or money, and was convalescence consumed all his money, so that obliged to apply for reception in the lowest he was obliged to sell two of his pictures to an capacity, at the house of the painter Augustin amateur, in order to complete his journey. Tassi, . From him, Claude imbibed come of On his second return to Rome, at the age of the principles of the art; and he was employed thirty, he appeared as a consummate master of for a year in painting grotesques and arabes, his art, and was enabled to supply all the deques. The view of some landscapes and per- mands upon his pencil, though his works now spectives sent from Naples by Goffredi Wals, bore a high price. His reputation caused other excited in him so much admiration, that he re- painters to copy his style, and stcal his thoughts; solved to visit that city. He trusted entirely to whence he adopted the excellent method of his talents for the means of travelling and sub- making drawings in a book of all the pictures sistence; and he passed two years with Gof- he sent abroad, as well in order to identify fredi, improving himself in architecture and them, as to avoid repeating his subjects. This perspective. He then returned to. Tassi at book, which he entitled “ Libro di Verita” (the Rome, who received him with pleasure, and often book of truth), containing about two hundred made him eat at his table. The real master of designs, is now in the possession of the Duke Claude was Nature. This he studied in all its of Devonshire. Claude was a man of simplicity, variations, and no painter ever expressed its and of regular manners, a lover of peace, and charms with greater fidelity. He frequently ready to give lessons in his art to those who continued in the fields from dawn to sun-set, desired them. He lived in a state of celibacy, marking every play of light in the sky, or upon much tormented with the gout, which, howsurrounding objects, studying the character of ever, did not prevent his arriving at his eightyeach period of the day, and storing a faithful second year. He died at Rome in 1682. His memory with every authentic feature of rural works are numerous, and form the ornament náture. These he transferred to his pieces, of all the principal cabinets and collections. touching and retouching with extreme dili- Such of them as have reached the present time gence, till he had rendered his imitation as per- undamaged bear excessive prices. "He etched fect as the art would admit. Claude, probably with his own hand a set of landscapes, in which in consequence of an original want of instruc- the same chiaro-scuro is observed as in his tion, did not excel in human figures, nor could paintings. Several of his pieces have been enall the after-pains he took, though considerable, graved by different masters. D'Argenville Vies remedy this deficiency : whence he was ac- des Printres. Pilkington's Dictionary.-A. customed to employ other artists, inferior to CLAUDE, JOnn, one of the most eminent himself, to supply figures in his pieces. His among the French protestant ministers, was own peculiar excellences, in which no painter born in 1619, at La Sauvetat in the Agenois, has ever equalled him, are the warmth and lus: where his father was minister. He was edutre of his lights, the admirable keeping of his cated with great care in classical learning by his distances, the delicacy and variety of his tints, father, and sent to finish his studies at diont and the sweetness and harmony diffused over auban. After being admitted into the ministry; the whole. He likewise represents particular he served two country churches, and then that objects with great truth and exactness, and in of Nismes. At this place, which possessed an his larger pieces every species of tree may be academy for the protestants, he gave private distinguished by its appropriate character. At lectures in divinity, which acquired him great Rome he soon became celebrated, and obtained reputation, and were much frequented by stularge employment; but wearied with a seden- dents. He had been eight years minister at tary life, he made the tour of Italy, and im- Nismes, when the opposition he made to a perproved his style of colouring from the Vene- son whom the court had gained over to attempt tian masters. He next travelled through Ger- a re-union of the protestants with the establish many in his way to his native province, and he ed church, caused a prohibition to be issued remained a year at Nancy, with a relation who against his exercising the ministerial functions painted for the duke of Lorraine, assisting him in Languedoc. He thereupon repaired to Paris, in executing the architecture and perspective of in order to have the interdiction removed; and the dome of the Carmelite church, and other there, at the solicitation of mad, de Turenne, he