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meanest offices, and sometimes even washed the feet of the sister-servitors. In her last illness she was attended by the cardinal of Ostia, and was visited by the pope, who promised her that no relaxation should be permitted in the convents of her order, which he confirmed anew. She died in 1253, and was canonized by pope Alexander IV. Moreri.-A.

CLARIO (Lat. Clarius), ISIDORE, a learned ecclesiastic of the sixteenth century, took his name from Chiari in the territory of Brescia, where he was born in 1495. He entered into the order of St. Benedict, at the monastery of St. John in Parma, where he made an extraordinary progress in sacred and profane literature, so as to acquire the reputation of one of the most learned men of his time. At the same time he was universally esteemed for the purity of his morals, the warmth of his charity, and his zeal for the reformation of manners, and the promotion of peace and good-will among Christians. He distinguished himself greatly as a preacher and an orator, and made various orations on public occasions. In 1537 he was made prior of the monastery of St. Peter in Modena. He was afterwards abbot of Pontido near Bergamo, and of St. Mary in Cesena. His final promotion, in 1547, was to the bishopric of Foligno, which see he governed with great reputation, assiduously attending to the instruction of the poor, and promoting literature among those of superior condition, by the institution of an academy of learned men. He was present at the council of Trent, both in the quality of abbot and of bishop, and gave ample proof of his learning and eloquence in that assembly. He died of à fever in 1555 at Foligno, and his remains were honoured by the people almost as those of a saint. The principal work of Clarius was a reform of the vulgate translation of the whole Bible, with annotations upon the difficult passages. Though he extended this reform only to passages in which he thought the sense of the original misrepresented; he asserts that he has corrected it in upwards of Bodo places. This freedom used with the vulgate gate offence to the rigid catholics, and the first ethition of his work, printed at Venice in 542, put into the Index Expurgatorius. Afterwards the deputies of the council of Trent allowed it to be read, omitting the preface and the prolegomena. Clarius was accused of plagiarism, in having made great use of Sebastian Munster's annotations on the Old Testament, without acknowledgment. The fact is true, but the spirit of the times would not allow him to quote a protestant author. His

explanations of the New Testament are chiefly of an ethical kind. A collection of his sermons was printed both during his life and after his death; as well as his occasional discourses on scriptural and other topics: One of these, entitled, "An Exhortation to Reunion," addressed to the separatists from the Roman church, was printed separately. He wrote in a clear and natural style, with solidity and judgment. Du Pin. Tiraboschi.-A.

CLARKE, SAMUEL, a scholar, divine, and metaphysician, of the first rank, was born in 1675 at Norwich, of which city his father was alderman, and for several years a representative in parliament. He had his carly education at the free-school of his native place, whence he remov ed to Caius college, Cambridge. In this feminary he distinguished himself for application and abilities, so as to become a kind of example of excellence in the university. He had not long passed the age of twenty-one, when he published a Latin translation of Rohault's Physics, with annotations formed upon the Newtonian philosophy. Rohault had written in the system of Descartes, which was then the favourite of many ingenious men, among whom was Mr. Ellis, Clarke's tutor. The pupil, however, had the discernment to see that the principal foundation of Cartesianism was mere hypothesis, and he was a convert to the solid reasonings of the Principia of Newton. But as these were at that time received and understood by few, he thought that the vehicle of an established system like that of Rohault would be the most convenient for the gradual introduction of true philosophy; and he was right in his conjecture: for Clarke's Rohault became for a long time the standing text for lectures in the university, and familiarised students with the language and reasonings of the Newtonian system. This work went through four editions with successive improvements, and it was tranflated into English by Dr. John Clarke, dean of Sarum, the author's brother. He next engaged in the serious study of divinity, the groundwork of which he made a careful perusal of the Old and New Testament in their original tongues. He took orders, and became chaplain to Dr. Moore, bishop of Norwich, in which office he succeeded the celebrated Whiston, who warmly recommended him to his patron. With bishop Moore, Clarke lived upon terms of the most intimate friendship and familiarity; and it is to their mutual honour, that this confidence proceeded so far as to induce the bishop at his death to entrust all his domestic concerns in his chaplain's hands. Mr.

Clarke first became an author in his proper - profession in 1699, when he published "Three practical Essays upon Baptism, Confirmation, and Repentance." This work displayed great seriousness of mind; and Whiston, who was not inclined to believe that religious fervour in ereased in proportion as a man became more conversant with the world, esteemed it the most serious piece that the author ever wrote. It was followed by "Reflections on Part of a Book called Amyntor," by Toland, relating to the genuineness of certain works referred to the apostolic age, but not received into the canon of scripture. His "Paraphrases on the four Gospels" soon succeeded, which are distinguished by brevity and plainness. About this time he obtained two small livings, one in Norwich, and the other near it; and he accustomed himself to preach without notes, which practice he continued till he became rector of St. James's. He was appointed in 1704 to preach the sermons at Boyle's lecture, when he chose for his subject the being and attributes of God; and such was the satisfaction he gave, that he was appointed to the same office the next year, when his subject was the evidences of natural and revealed religion. These sermons, in number sixteen, were thrown into continued discourses, and printed, together in one volume, which has passed through several editions. They raised very high the author's character as a close and acute reasoner; though his metaphysical arguments à priori for the existence of a deity were by many objected to as too subtle and hypothetical, and less satisfactory than the common mode of deducing the idea of a first cause from the effects visible in creation. Pope, who had probably other reasons for his spleen against our divine than mere theological differences, has thought proper to allude to him in some lines of the Dunciad, which conclude thus,

We nobly take the high priori road,

And reason downward till we doubt of God. But Clarke himself does not deny that the argument à posteriori is by far the more generally useful; and he has employed the priori argument only in opposition to Spinoza, Hobbes, and other metaphysical reasoners against the existence and attributes of deity, who could not be refuted any other way. Surely it is no matter of just blame to have deviated from the common tract in proof of a point, the importance of which is universally acknowledged, and which may receive confirmation from opposite quarters. It is not by poetical attacks that the

reputation of such a man as Clarke can be injured; nor does the value of his "Demonstra+ tion" seem impaired in the public opinion, by the more formidable discussion it underwent in polemical controversy. The ethical systém which he introduced into the "Evidences of Religion," was founded upon the eternal differ ences, relations, and fitnesses, of things; and these notions and terms were adopted by vari ous authors of the time, and became in some measure fashionable. They were opposed, in deed, by other moralists, and were at length generally exchanged for the sentimental ideas of the innate beauty of virtue, introduced by lord Shaftesbury, and improved by professor Hutcheson. Dr. Clarke's system, however, continued to have able supporters, among whom one of the most eminent was the late Dr. Price. In 1706 he published a "Letter to Mr. Dodwell," in reply to that learned writer's Epistolary Discourse concerning the Immor tality of the Soul. This was a philosophical and argumentative defence of the immateriality of the soul, against what were thought the very dangerous opinions advanced by Dodwell, who had attempted to prove its natural mortality. During the same year he gave an elegant Latin translation of sir Isaac Newton's Optics, which facilitated the introduction of his system into the other countries of Europe: The great philosopher was so well pleased with this work, that he presented Mr. Clarke with 500l., or 100l. for each of his children. Bishop Moore now introduced his friend and former chaplain to the notice of queen Anne, who named him one of her chaplains in ordinary, and presented him, in 1709, with the rectory of St. James's, Westminster, the highest preferment he ever obtained. On account of this promotion, he thought it proper to take his degree of doctor in divinity at Cambridge, and the public exercise he performed on this occasion was a memorable event in the academical annals. The thesis he maintained was, "No dogma of christian faith, delivered in the holy scriptures, is contrary to right reason;" and his defence against the scholastic attacks of the divinity-professor, Dr. James, displayed 'consummate skill in argumentation, with the most familiar use of the Latin language. Persons present at this exercise could not speak of it without rapture, even when become old men.

In 1712, Dr. Clarke appeared as a philolo gist, in editing a fine edition of " Cæsar's Commentaries" in folio, accounted one of the noblest productions of the British press at that period, and praised by Addison in the Spec

tator (No. 367). It was, with much more propriety than Barnes's Anacreon, dedicated to the great duke of Marlborough, who, though he could not read the words of Cæsar, could emulate his actions. In the same year he published a work which involved him deeply in theological controversy, and of a kind which could not but hurt an ingenuous spirit. This was his "Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity," in which that mysterious tenet was examined on critical principles, as deducible from the words of the sacred writings; and with a result so different from the orthodox doctrine, as maintained by the church of England, that it became a subject of complaint from the lower house of convocation, met in 1714. It is affirmed, that previously to the publication a message was sent to Dr. Clarke by some of the ministers of queen Anne, dissuading him from publishing a work likely to excite angry contention, at a time when free sentiments of any kind could scarcely be tolerated; but that he paid no regard to this remonstrance. When the storm came on, however, he found it expedient to take some steps to allay it. The upper house of convocation, which was less animated with doctrinal zeal than the lower, and seemed chiefly solicitous to silence dissension, found a kind of temper in the business; and Dr. Clarke was prevailed upon to write a paper, which was by some industriously represented as a retractation, though it went no further than certain explanations and compliances for the sake of peace. Whiston's unsubmitting zeal for what he thought the truth was, however, offended with this sacrifice to human prudence; and there is reason to believe that Dr. Clarke himself was not perfectly satisfied with his conduct on the occasion. Several books and pamphlets were written in the controversy set on foot by Dr. Clarke's work on the Trinity, in which Dr. Waterland particularly distinguished himself as a champion of orthodoxy. In 1715 and 1716 a disputation was carried on between Clarke and the illustrious Leibnitz, concerning the principles of natural philosophy and religion, in which these learned and acute writers exercised all their controversial skill. A collection of the papers which passed on this occasion was published in 1717, dedicated to the princess of Wales, afterwards queen Caroline, who had- condescended to be the medium of this conference, and the witness and judge (as bishop Hoadly says) of every step in it. Dr. Clarke was a favourite with her, and the placing of his bust in her hermitage gave rise to a sarcasm of Pope,

as if the situation was not very suitable to a court divine. Yet few of that class seem to have been less under the influence of ambition, or the desire of promotion, than Dr. Clarke. An alteration which he made in the doxologies of the singing psalms, for the use of his parish, revived, in 1718, a portion of the trinitarian controversy, and the bishop of London thought it necessary to warn his clergy from adopting the innovation. Dr. Clarke's emoluments about this time were augmented by presentation to the mastership of Wigstan's hospital in Leicester, a preferment not requiring subscription. He published in 1724 a volume containing seventeen sermons on various occasions, of which eleven had not before been printed. As a writer of sermons, Dr. Clarke is characterised by solidity of reasoning, and justness of observation, expressed in plain, clear, and manly language; he therefore, with most of the eminent English divines, takes his station among the instructive and didactic preachers, rather than the orators. Upon the death of sir Isaac Newton, he was offered the lucrative place of master of the Mint, obviously as a mode of conferring that pecuniary reward on his merit which his scruples with respect to subscription, and his theological deviations, rendered impracticable by means of professional advancement; but he perfectly concurred with his most serious friends in thinking that the acceptance of a secular office would be derogatory from his character. A letter of his, addressed to Mr. Hoadly, " On the Proportion of Velocity and Force in Bodies in Motion," appeared in 1728, and was printed in the Philosophical Transactions. In 1729 he distinguished himself as a philologist, by publishing the twelve first books of " Homer's Iliad," in 4to. Of this the Latin translation is in great part new, and annotations of the editor accompany every page. Dr. Clarke's reputation as a scholar is principally founded on this performance, which is particularly rich in grammatical knowledge, and nice observation concerning the structure of the Greek tongue. The author's son published in 1732 the remaining twelve books of the Iliad, of which he informs us that his father had finished the annotations, and had revised the text and version, of the three first, and part of the fourth. This edition of Homer has been received into the great schools, and is in high esteem. Dr. Clarke enjoyed a very short time the applause which this learned work obtained. He was suddenly attacked, in May, 1729, as he was going to preach before the judges at Serjeant's-inn, with a pleuritie

complaint, which proved fatal within a few days; at a time of life (his fifty-fourth year) when his powers of mind were in their full vigour, and many more services to religion and literature might be expected from him. He left in MS., prepared for the press, an "Exposition of the Church Catechism," being the substance of weekly lectures read at St. James's church, which was published by his brother, the dean of Sarum, and, according to the usual fate of his theological works, immediately gave birth to a controversy. Ten posthumous volumes of his "Sermons" were likewise published by his brother. A report was spread, founded principally upon the assertion of the chevalier Ramsay, that Dr. Clarke, towards the close of his life, greatly repented of his attack upon the received opinions concerning the Trinity, and retracted his principles on that head. The falsity of this representation is, however, undoubtedly proved, as well by the positive testimony of his son, and some of his intimate friends, as by the circumstances of his having prepared for the press, a short time before his death, a new edition of his "Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity," and of his having left recent emendations in his CommonPrayer-book, founded upon similar sentiments of that doctrine.

The private character of Dr. Clarke was extremely amiable: upright, mild, unaffected, chearful, even sometimes to playful simplicity, he seems formed to have gone through the world without an enemy, had he not touched upon the "debateable land" of polemics. His intellectual character was that of pure reason, undisturbed by passion or enthusiasm, and closely pursuing its object with all the powers of methodical accuracy, and logical acuteness. His memory was remarkably strong, and his attention indefatigable. If not one of the brightest genuises, he is certainly one of the ablest men this island can boast. Biogr. Britan.-A. CLARKE, WILLIAM, a learned antiquary, was born in 1696 at Haghmon abbey, Shropshire. He was brought up to the church, and entered of St. John's college, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. For some time he was domestic chaplain to the duke of Newcastle, which situation he quitted on being presented, in 1724, by archbishop Wake, to the rectory of Buxted in Sussex. He married the daughter of the learned Dr. William Wotton; and he first appeared as a writer in a preface to that author's "Leges Walliæ." In 1738 he was made prebendary and residentiary of the church of Chichester. He was an intimate

and frequent correspondent of the learned printer, Bowyer; and it is conjectured, that a Discourse on the Commerce of the Romans," printed in his Miscellaneous Tracts, was written by Mr. Clarke. But his great work, on which his reputation is chiefly founded, was "The Connection of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins; deducing the antiquities, customs, and manners of each people to modern times; particularly the origin of feudal tenures and of parliaments: illustrated throughout with critical and historical remarks on various authors, both sacred and profane," 4to. 1767. This work was dedicated to the duke of Newcastle, and received some useful criticism in manuscript from the speaker Onslow; but it was peculiarly indebted for several notes and valuable additions to its printer, Mr. Bowyer. Its foundation was the discovery of the old Saxon pound by Martin Folkes, but it took a very wide range, and comprehended many important topics, historical and political. Some of the author's opinions, however, were very controvertible; as, that the Celts were originally Tyrian or Phoenician colonies; that the feudal system originated from the Romans; and that the Commons, as such, had no share in the Saxon legislature. His other literary labours were assisting Bowyer in his translation of Trappe's Lectures on Poetry, and writing notes to the version of La Bleterie's Life of Julian. From the testimony of his friend, Mr. Hayley, he had an elegant turn for English poetry; and an epigram which he has quoted from him displays considerable wit. He was a man of a mild and benevolent temper, pious, charitable, and friendly. He assiduously performed the duties of his station, and shewed his zeal for literature by procuring many valuable additions to the cathedral library of Chichester. In 1770 he was promoted to the chancellorship of his diocese, but he enjoyed his dignity a short time, dying in October, 1771. His son, the rev. Edward Clarke, resided in Spain for some time, as chaplain to the earl of Bristol, the English embassador, and published "Letters concerning the Spanish Nation," 4to. which were favourably received by the public. Biogr. Britan.-A.

CLAUDE LE LORRAIN, properlyCLAUDE GELEE, a painter of unrivalled excellence in landscape, was born in 1600, of obscure parentage, at the castle of Chamagne, in the diocese of Toul in Lorraine. When very young he was placed in the service of a pastry-cook, which, after the death of his parents, he deserted, and walked to Friburg, where his elder

brother John was an engraver in wood. From him he received some instructions in drawing, with which he accompanied a relation, a lacemerchant, to Rome. He was left in that capital destitute of friends or money, and was obliged to apply for reception in the lowest capacity, at the house of the painter Augustin Tassi. From him, Claude imbibed some of the principles of the art; and he was employed for a year in painting grotesques and arabes ques. The view of some landscapes and perspectives sent from Naples by Goffredi Wals, excited in him so much admiration, that he resolved to visit that city. He trusted entirely to his talents for the means of travelling and subsistence; and he passed two years with Goffredi, improving himself in architecture and perspective. He then returned to Tassi at Rome, who received him with pleasure, and often made him eat at his table. The real master of Claude was Nature. This he studied in all its variations, and no painter ever expressed its charms with greater fidelity. He frequently continued in the fields from dawn to sun-set, marking every play of light in the sky, or upon surrounding objects, studying the character of each period of the day, and storing a faithful memory with every authentic feature of rural nature. These he transferred to his pieces, touching and retouching with extreme diligence, till he had rendered his imitation as perfect as the art would admit. Claude, probably in consequence of an original want of instruction, did not excel in human figures, nor could all the after-pains he took, though considerable, remedy this deficiency whence he was accustomed to employ other artists, inferior to himself, to supply figures in his pieces. His own peculiar excellences, in which no painter has ever equalled him, are the warmth and lus tre of his lights, the admirable keeping of his distances, the delicacy and variety of his tints, and the sweetness and harmony diffused over the whole. He likewise represents particular objects with great truth and exactness, and in his larger pieces every species of tree may be distinguished by its appropriate character. At Rome he soon became celebrated, and obtained large employment; but wearied with a sedentary life, he made the tour of Italy, and improved his style of colouring from the Venetian masters. He next travelled through Germany in his way to his native province, and he remained a year at Nancy, with a relation who painted for the duke of Lorraine, assisting him in executing the architecture and perspective of the dome of the Carmelite church, and other

places. Out of humour with this employ, he joined some French painters who were going to Rome. At Marseilles he had a violent fever, which nearly brought him to his grave, and his convalescence consumed all his money, so that he was obliged to sell two of his pictures to an amateur, in order to complete his journey.

On his second return to Rome, at the age of thirty, he appeared as a consummate master of his art, and was enabled to supply all the demands upon his pencil, though his works now bore a high price. His reputation caused other painters to copy his style, and steal his thoughts; whence he adopted the excellent method of making drawings in a book of all the pictures he sent abroad, as well in order to identify them, as to avoid repeating his subjects. This book, which he entitled " Libro di Verita" (the book of truth), containing about two hundred designs, is now in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire. Claude was a man of simplicity, and of regular manners, a lover of peace, and ready to give lessons in his art to those who desired them. He lived in a state of celibacy, much tormented with the gout, which, however, did not prevent his arriving at his eightysecond year. He died at Rome in 1682. His works are numerous, and form the ornament of all the principal cabinets and collections. Such of them as have reached the present time undamaged bear excessive prices. He etched with his own hand a set of landscapes, in which the same chiaro-scuro is observed as in his paintings. Several of his pieces have been engraved by different masters. D'Argenville Vies des Peintres. Pilkington's Dictionary.-A..

CLAUDE, JOIN, one of the most eminent among the French protestant ministers, was born in 1619, at La Sauvetat in the Agenois, where his father was minister. He was educated with great care in classical learning by his father, and sent to finish his studies at Mont auban. After being admitted into the ministry, he served two country churches, and then that of Nismes. At this place, which possessed an academy for the protestants, he gave private lectures in divinity, which acquired him great reputation, and were much frequented by students. He had been eight years minister at Nismes, when the opposition he made to a person whom the court had gained over to attempt a re-union of the protestants with the establish ed church, caused a prohibition to be issued against his exercising the ministerial functions in Languedoc. He thereupon repaired to Paris, in order to have the interdiction removed; and there, at the solicitation of mad. de Turenne, he

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