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nated. This is especially the case in the contracted forms im, zum, &c., in translating which into Eng. we generally use the indef. art., or none at all; cf. 7, 19, zum Geschenk, as a present; 23, 3, zum offenen Kampfe, for [an] open fight; 43, 9, im Bogen, in a curve; 95, 19, im Rittel, in a blouse; 105,5; 110, 3, &c. So here we might say “in a splendid coat, &c.'; but it would better suit the present passage to render the def. arts. by the poss. pron, 'his.'

31. buntgestreift : bunt, many.coloured, variegated, gay; also simply 'coloured,' in contrast with black or white. Streif, stripe. The Hosen are here of course not the modern trousers or pantaloons, but 'breeches,' 'small-clothes,' hose in the older sense.

Page 6.



1. Schnabelschuhe (Schnabel, beak, bill, point), peaked shoes.-auf dem (8, 9, n., end of note) Ropfe die Kugelmüße. Kugelmüße (Müße, a cap; Kugel or Gugel, now obs. or provincial,-unconnected with Kugel, a bullet-, fr. Lat. cucullus, a cowl or hood), a close-fitting cap, turned up (aufgeschlagen) in front and behind, fashionable in the 14th century. Note that die Kugelmäße is absolute accus. (Eve, 57), as also the following, das Haar; cf. 9, I, den Schwanz zwischen den Beinen, 'with his tail...'; 13, 2; 32, 16, &c.; so in Eng. 'He stood there, hat in hand.'

dann konnte man glauben. In three of the 'verbs of mood,' können, müffen and dürfen, the imperf. indic. is often used where the pluperf. subj. (39, 9, n.) might also be used, and where in Eng. the form corresponding to the latter would generally be used ; so here we might say, tann hätte man glauben können, one 'might have supposed.' The difference between the two constructions is seen from a literal interpretation: Das fonnten Sie thun, you were (at the time spoken of) able to do it, it was possible for you, in your power; Das hätten Sie thun können, you might have done it (sc. but did not). Cf. 7, 14; 13, 31, n.; and on the other hand the exx. quoted in 39, 9, n.

The indic. construction here noted is seldom used with the other verbs of mood, sollen, wollen, mögen, because of the ambiguity that would often be caused.

6. ein Herr, a nobleman. In the Middle Ages the title Herr belonged properly to noblemen who, without possessing sovereign power, like the Fürsten and Grafen, were yet 'lords' of subjects. In common usage, however, it was applied to all the higher and ultimately also the lower nobility (with the addition of the name of their estates, as der Herr von Neidec), finally becoming the ordinary prefix to a man's name, = Mr.

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8. Etwas übe? nehmen, to take something amiss, be offended at it.

9. verleßbar or verleßlich (verlegen, to injure, wound), liable to injury, vulnerable, hencerempfindlich (7, 5), sensitive, touchy.

II. fürchtete er sich doch grausam. grausam as adv., cruelly, is sometimes used in familiar language to express exaggeratingly a high degree, grausam häßlich, .frightfully ugly,' grausam reich, “awfully rich,' &c.— gegen Etw. (e.g. die Wahrheit, das Gefeß, &c.) verstoßen (ver marking wrong or untoward direction of the action, cf. 4, 23, n.; stoßen gegen, to knock or push against), only fig., to offend against.–Das äußerlich Schidliche: the neut. adj. as subst. (5, 3, n.) may here, as often (106, 9; 106, 31, n.), be rendered by an abstract subst., 'outward propriety.'

12. Zug (fr. ziehen, to draw), 'trait.'-eben nicht=gerade nicht, 3, 4, n.

13. Imd. in Verdacht haben (im V., when the art. in im is further defined by a following genit. or a dep. clause, e.g. im V. der Untreue, im V., daß...), to suspect, a phrase representing the (in this sense) obsolete verbenfen, fr. which Verdacht (l. 17 below), suspicion, is derived.

14. auf zwei (or beiden) Achseln tragen, lit., to carry on both shoulders, is a common expression for false and double dealing, cf. the Eng. 'ambidextrous.'

15. Höffa[h]rt is the now current form of the older Hochfa[5]rt (cf. Hochfahrend, high-flown, haughty), arrogance, haughty pride. Popular etymology has associated the word with Hof, a court, with which it has no connection.- zu Em. ftehen, to stand on the side of, adhere to anyone.

17. bitterböse, colloq.=sehr böse (cf. bitterfalt, &c.); böse here=schlimm, cf. 74, 7, n.; ...was a dreadful thing.'

18. Gemüth is a word that has no exact equivalent in English. Speaking generally, Geist denotes 'mind' on the side of reason, intelligence, Gemüth on that of the feelings and affections. It must be variously rendered according to context-mind, heart, soul, feeling, disposition, &c.; cf. 51, 23, n.; 63, 21, n.; 71, 31.

19. gährte es gewaltig (gähren, to ferment: gewaltig, powerfully, mightily, violently), there was a mighty ferment or commotion going

In such “impersonal' verbs the action expressed by the verb is indicated as going on, without being referred to any definite subject; cf. 7,6, es... bergab ging, lit., there was a going downward; 41, 31, es... fehle, there was a lack; 103, 8, es wogte und tobte, there was a heaving and raging ; &c. The context will often furnish a definite subject for the verb used in translating; here we might say, 'the minds...were in violent commotion’; in 7, 6, 'whose fortune was on the decline'; cf. 40, 13, n. Sometimes the purport of the subject ex is to indicate vaguely

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an undefined or indescribable something, see 40, 15, n.; 96, 3, n. On the similar use of es as general or undefined object, cf. 4, 25, n.—Die edeln Geschlechter (see Introd.): edel here=adelig, of noble birth or rank (its primary meaning).—tagen, to hold a Tag, diet, assembly, session; to meet for deliberation; here, to 'sit.'

21. Sädel, commoner form Sedel (diminutive of Sad, sack, bag), somewhat old-fashioned or provincial word for purse, treasury (Raffe). Note that Sädel, though a diminutive, is masc. (not neut., as Whitney, Dict., s. v.). But Sädchen is neut.

22. verstriden (ver, 4, 23, n.; striden, to knit, net; to twine about with a Strid, cord, string, snare), to get into one's net, to entangle,

Cf. umstriden, 59, 2, n. 24. voll zum Ueberlaufen : zu=‘up to the point of. Note that übers laufen is a separable verb, with the accent on the prefix.

25. wucherte auf: wuchern, to grow luxuriantly; auf as in aufwachsen, &c., to grow up.—weitverzweigt (Zweig, a twig, branch), lit., far-branching, with wide-spreading branches, 'wide-spread.'

26. Hatte doch so manche...: doch thus used, along with the inversion of subj. and finite verb, is nearly equivalent in force to ja (24, 27, n.) in the direct construction (so here, Es hatte ja so manche...), though it still retains even here its distinctively adversative character (cf. 3, 5, n.). It often serves to put forward a statement or reminder that is regarded as needing no proof, but as proper under present circumstances to be brought into special notice and recognition. Like ja it may sometimes be rendered by the Eng. 'why' (107, 3); oftener however it is hardly translatable except by the tone of utterance, cf. 28, 28; 72, 21.-so manche andere... : so has here a strengthening force, cf. 16, 7; 109, 2, and the Eng. 'so many a...' Cf. on the other hand 78, 10, n., and 116, 14, n.

27. Em. den (8, 9, n.) Stuhl vor die (13, 18, n.) Thüre seßen, to turn out of doors, eject, dismiss.

30. diesem...gegenüber, lit., over against, fronting, in presence of, this; fig., with respect to, towards.-Wühlen, to dig with a boring movement, like an animal rooting in the ground, to rummage or toss about; fig., to stir up disturbing and revolutionary ideas and feelings, to agitate,' cf. 78, 12.-Pläne schmieden (schmieden, to forge, Schmied, a smith), to devise, contrive plans.

31. sich so oder so rerhalten, to hold or comport oneself thus or thus, remain'....—zweideutig (deuten, to point out, to interpret), capable of two interpretations, ambiguous, equivocal. ...preserved a cold and equivocal bearing.'


1. doch (3, 5, n., d): although his behaviour was so unsatisfactory, and it might therefore seem proper to let him alone, yet, still, he was the first man...—noch immer, strengthened nochy (12, 12, n., a), still.

3. Ansehen : ansehen, to look at (cf. anbellen, 13, 16, to bark at, &c.), to regard; hence angesehen (57, 11), perf. part. as adj., held in regard, respected, and the subst. infin. Ansehen, esteem or respect enjoyed, influence, authority, Lat. auctoritas.--wenn... auc, cf. 3, 6, n.

4. Geschäftsfreunde, 5, 19, n. Zechfreunde (zechen, to drink, carouse), boon companions. The play on the word Freund can hardly be preserved.

8. lohnen, to reward, takes the gen. when used impersonally, es lohnt [sic] der Mühe, it is worth while.—wohl might here be taken either as an ordinary adverb (with the accent upon it), 'well,' or (unaccented) as a particle (48, 18, n.).—Sache, thing, affair; 'cause;' cf. Lat. res.

9. winkte...ihm zu. Winken means to make any motion as a sign; so mit der Hand, dem Taschentuch, dem Auge, &c. winken; to beckon, sign, wave, wink, &c. Hence Wink, a sign, a hint (40, 27). Note the difference between a separable compound verb (e.g. nachrufen, zuwinfen, &c.), with its case (Er rief mir nach, he called after me), and the simple verb, fol. lowed by the preposition which in the compound verb appears as prefix, and the case governed by the preposition (&r rief nach mir, he called for me; Ich winfte ihn zu mir, I beckoned him to me).

Es verfing alles nicht: verfangen, to have the natural or desired effect (18, 22), to avail, be of use.

12. ihr hoffärtiges (6, 15, n.)...Wesen. Wesen (old infin. of verb to be, from which come war —orig. was—, wäre, gewesen, cf. Eng. was, were), mode of being, essential character; behaviour, bearing, manners; cf. 58, 30; 59, 14; 61, 15; 74, 25.-edel, becoming an Edelmann, noble, aristocratic, distinguished. — fein, refined, well-bred, gentlemanly.Ueberdies (5, 27, n.), over and above this, beyond this, 'besides.'

13. jede Zucht: jede, every,=every sort of, hence 'all.' 14. gewinnen konnte, cf. 6, 4, n.

15. wie sollte er...: sollte is here imperf. indic. (not subjunct. as in 16, II, see note there; in that case it would refer to the time of speaking, and mean, how or why should he, now, at the present time), lit., how was he to..., i.e., how was it to be expected that he should..., 'why should he...?"

16. zu gewinnen stand. We say, etw. (or impers., es) fteht zu erwarten, zu ändern, zu erweisen, &c., =ist zu erwarten or läßt sich erwarten, &c.


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Zweites Rapitel.


19. zum Geschenk, (sor, i.e.) as a present. For zu thusexpressive of purpose or destination, cf. 9, 14, zum Spotte, (for, i.e.) in mockery (so zum Spaß, for a joke, in joke); 13, 29, zum Zeitvertreib, for amusement; 15, 15, n.; 17; 10; 32, 23, &c. Note that in such expressions the art. always coalesces with the prep., zum, zur.

Race, pronounced and often written as a Germanised word, Rasse, race, breed.

23. noch ganz ungezogen. ungezogen here in the literal sense, nicht gezogen (cf. 20, 14, fertig gezogen), untrained (cf. 10, 19, n.), without training. The most familiar use of the word is as an adj., meaning ill-bred, ill-behaved, naughty.-Muthwille, the indulgence of the will according to one's Muth or mood (cf. 21, 29, n.), wantonness, waywardness (cf. muthwillig, 85, 26); sportive or mischievous wantonness, mischief.

24. Note that Ehre machen means to 'do' honour only in the sense, bring or be an honour to, redound to the honour of, Er macht seiner Schule alle Ehre, &c. To do=show or render honour is (Em.) Ehre erweisen, anthun, &c.

26. Raufen (4, 12, n.).-luft (5, 8, n.).—gutartig (4, 16, n.).

28. nicht Jedermanns Vergnügen: cf. the common phrase, etw. (es) ift nicht Jedermanns Sache..., it is not everybody that cares for..., not everybody's taste....-Ging ein..., 4, 20, n.

PAGE 8. 1. auffallend, adv. qualifying raschen. etw. fällt Gm. auf, something strikes one, catches his notice, surprises him; hence auffallend, striking, remarkable, unusual.-raschen Schrittes, with quick step[s]. For this. absolute use of the genit. to form adverbial expressions of time or manner, cf. below, l. 14, n.; 17, 30; 52, 6; 71, 31; 88, 29, &c.

2. hinterbrein (cf. 21, 17, hinter dem Thier drein, and on the adv. brein, 8, 12, n.; 9, 30, n.), adv. (lit. 'in,' i.e.) 'on' behind or after; in Eng. perhaps the prep. with its case is to be preferred, “after him.'

3. riß aber auch herunter: gleich (10, 1, n.), expressing immediate connection or coincidence in time (gleich anfangs, at the very beginning; gleich bei meiner Ankunft, &c., is sometimes, as here, almost equivalent to zugleich, ‘at the same time' (cf., e.g., to some one going out to do business, Bitte, bringen Sie mir doch gleich das und das mit). The

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