Page images
PDF
EPUB

the same time passes on its action to Namen as its object, I heard a naming (of) my name, I heard my name mentioned. Hence the construction can be used in exx. like, Er hörte sich [von Imd.] rufen, &c.

23. so gewinnen wir ihn, cf. 9, 10, n.

24: Der Mann: der is here the demonstr. pron. (distinguished from the def. art. by being always accented, the more strongly the more emphatic it is; cf. 79, 30, where it is printed, as here, in leaded type, corresponding to our italics, to indicate the emphasis), =this or that. The use of der as a subst. pron. is noticed in 19, 4, n.; 36, 5, n.

26. Wildbann, 22, 4, n.-gesühnt, 13, 7, n.

27. Distinguish between sich erbieten with infin., to offer to do something, so again 42, 8, and etw. anbieten (28, 6), to offer a thing ; e.g. Ich erbot mich, bei ihm zu bleiben, I offered to stay with him, and Ich bot ihm an, bei mir zu bleiben, I offered to let him stay with me.

29. The use of the pres. for the fut. (cf. 9, 10, n.) is especially common to express a purpose, the execution of which is conceived as speedily and certainly following, -Ich gehe gleich hin..., I'll go directly; morgen komme ich wieter, &c.

It thus often conveys a de ed expression of will, especially with a negative, Rein, ich gehe nicht, No, I won't go; so here and in 26, 10, liefere ich... aus, =will ich... ausliefern; cf. 70, 13, n. -erstechen (er, cf. 11, 12, n., and erwürgen, 12, 13, n.), to kill by a stab or thrust, to stab to death. So erschießen, to shoot=kill by shooting, erschlagen, ermorden, &c.

PAGE 24.

7. indem ich d. H. zu erziehen glaubte: cf. 91, 6, glaubte er...

...diese gefunden zu haben, he thought he had found this, 92, 8, &c., and note that in this construction (infin. with zu, representing a substantival sentence, as object of verbs of thinking, hoping, fearing, &c., e.g. Ich hoffe, ihn zu sehen=taß ich ihn sehen werde) the logical but unexpressed subject of the infin. must be the same as that of the main verb—Sie erklärte das nicht zu wissen, She declared that she did not know that (cf. Eve, 218, 219), and that the acc. and infin. construction, 'I believe him to be...,' •She declared it to be...,'&c. (not uncommon in German writers of the last century), must in modern German be rendered by a subst. dep. sentence, Ich glaube, daß er...ist, Sie erklärte, daß es...sei, &c. But we still say, Ich glaubte ihn schuldig, Ich wähnte mich sicher, &c., cf. 82, 16; though modern usage confines this construction also to somewhat narrow limits, so that the student will do well to use it only where he has the authority of the best modern writers.

9. meine Hausfrau. Hausfrau, mistress or lady of the house; still sometimes archaically or poetically used=Frau, or Gattin, wife. Here it serves to express Richwin's respectful sense of his wife's practical wisdom and discernment.

18. Athemzug (ziehen, to draw), a single drawing of breath, a breath. Die Athemzüge, denoting the single inspirations, each distinctly heard, conveys more effectively the idea of dead silence than would the more abstract expression, das Athmen der Leute.

21. ahnten Schlimmes (5, 3, n.): ahnen, to have a presentiment or fore-feeling of (not only evil, but also what is favourable or indifferent) to forebode, suspect, have an inkling or idea of, cf. 55, 11; 60, 4; 71,31.

23. der Graf hatte..., doch bat er.... Subjunctives might here have been used, der Graf habe..., doch bitte er..., these statements forming a part of the Count's message; but the author has preferred to convey them to us in his own person, in the direct oration, using however the oblique oration in further reporting the essential contents of the message,—habe...mache...erkenne, cf. 5, 25, n., where this passage is noticed. See also 86, 10, n.; II1, 3, n.

27. er...mache... ja.... Ja, yea, yes, used with verbs as an asseverative or strengthening particle (pron, without accent, a short and sharp, as in the Fr. def. art. la), serves to mark what is said as something that is already known, or might have been supposed to be known, or of which but a reminder or hint will be needed, or the pertinence and conclusive. ness of which it is assumed will at once be recognised. It is thus similar in force to the Eng. 'why' (88, 2; 99, 9), 'don't you see,' 'you know,' 'you see,' 'as we know already,' &c., by which or some similar expression it may, when used in direct address, be sometimes rendered. It is however (especially in narrative and in the oratio obliqua) more generally untranslatable by any corresponding expletive; and its force is frequently, though quite distinct and appreciable in the German, too slight to bear a rendering by paraphrase. Cf. 39, 27; 51, 12, n.; 58, 20, n.; 61, 13, n.; 66, 29, n.; 69, 10; 71, 15; 78, 5; 81, 22; 108, 2, &c.

28. von dem verlegten Wildbann=von der Verlegung des Wildbannes, cf. 11, 22, n.—ein Aufheben or viel Aufhebens von etw. machen (orig. from aufheben as a fencing expression, for the taking up' of the weapons, and the preliminary play with them), to make much ado or fuss about a thing, to make much of.—Note that mache, though we can hardly translate otherwise thanówould make,' is here quite appropriately put in the present tense, as expressing the present attitude and conduct of the Count.

[ocr errors]

29. wie freundlich er gesinnt (sc. sei, cf. 12, 9, n.): so oder so gesinnt sein, to be of such and such a Sinn or Gesinnung, so or so minded, disposed, to have such or such sentiments (113, 25). It should be distinguished from gesonnen (=gewillt, Willens) sein, to “be minded'='intend.'

30. dem hohen Rathe : hoch is regularly used as an epithet of honour, =worshipful, august, princely, royal, &c., cf. 48, 31; 53, 27, &c.—anbei, ‘along with the message, ‘herewith. So in a letter, on an invoice, &c., Anbei folgt..., Enclosed, or, Along with this, you receive...&c.

PAGE 25

2.

1. Bacharacher (sc. Wein). Bacharach on the Rhine, near Coblentz, was in the Middle Ages the central mart for the wines of the Rheingau, and was also celebrated for its own vintage. It is still chiefly a winegrowing place, though of less importance than in earlier times.

der Trunk zum Schmaus : zu=belonging to as its complement, appropriate to, cf. 37, 21, als Brod zum Fleisch.

8. den durcheinander wirbelnden Redeschwall (Schwall, swell, flood, torrent; Rede, say, of words): einanter, implying reciprocity among a plurality of objects, is sometimes used of a subst. sing. in form but plur. in idea (as, man schüttelte einander die Hände); durcheinander=in confusion. 9. bat, daß man...

...möge, 11, 7, n.vor ertheilter Antwort, 11, 22, n. 10. noch einmal, each word is to be taken separately (noch, 12, 12, n.; einmal, 5, 15, n.), as in 17, 29 (see n.). The whole expression is however hardly translatable here, and is too nearly expletive to need translation.

13. Em. etw. entbieten (now somewhat stiff or archaic), to send a command or message to some one; einen Gruß, &c., entbieten, to present, send, announce, &c.-ich würde..., cf. 4, 25, n.

16. der Braunfelser Otto, Count Otto of Solms-Braunfels (27, 8). Solms-Braunfels was a branch of the house of Solms, which took its name from the family castle of Braunfels.

19. und hat er uns erst...: for this use of erst, nur erst, (nur) erst einmal (5, 15, n.)=Eng. ‘once,' 'only,' 'fairly,' cf. 63, 1, bin ich nur erst einmal..., if I am but once...; 93, 8.

26. Uebermuth, an excessive giving of the rein to one's own Muth (cf. 21, 29, n.), in various directions; hence, overflow of animal spirits, wild delight; the overweening arrogance and boldness that spring from youthful spirit and inexperience, cf. 81, 27; haughtiness, overbearingness, insolence, cf. 57, 31.—fühnen, 13, 7, n.

28. und hielten ihm vor, er treibe... (=daß er...treibe, cf. 5, 25, n.): Gm.

[ocr errors]

etw. vorhalten, to hold up something to view before one, in the way of admonition or reproof (cf. 41, 26; 65, 24); hence often, to reproach one with a thing, remonstrate with him about it. A similar but stronger expression is Em. etw. vorwerfen, 58, 25, whence Vorwurf, a reproach, 62, 20, &c.

30. toch (3, 5, n., esp. d and g): i.e., though it might be to some extent justified, yet.... In colloquial English though is used with the same force, ‘That's going too far though. Here we might render by an unemphatic “really' or 'surely.' Cf. 28, 18, n.-aß er...,=indem er..., lit., in that he was not..., in not being...—nicht einmal (pron. as explained in 5, 15, n.)=not even; so 47, 21, &c.—zufrieden zu stellen (14, 18, n.): stellen (factitive of stehen), to put or place into a certain position or con. dition, indicated by the context; hence with adjs., fest stellen, to fix, sicher stellen, to make secure, zufrieden stellen, to satisfy, &c.

[ocr errors]

PAGE 26.

3. vorab (provincial, South Germ. and esp. Swiss), above all, in the first place, especially.

7. Burgfriede (Friede in its old, legal sense), the public security guaranteed within the limits of a Burg (cf. 17, 17, n., and Introduction), i.e. here, of the domain of the free imperial town of Wetzlar. Any infraction of the Burgfriede was regarded, if not intended as an open declaration of war, as a grave public offence, to be expiated by severe penalties.

10. vorhin, “just now,' 'a little while ago.' Whitney omits this current meaning of the word, while giving one now obsolete, ‘formerly,' =ehemals.

11. Hätte ich weinen mögen (cf. 39, 9, n.)...; ... und da möchte ich...weinen: mögen, thus used (cf. the common Ich möchte, I should like; 55, 18, hätte er...wissen mögen, he would have liked to know, &c.), means, to feel an inclination or tendency, feel as if one could..., &c. 'I could have wept....' Cf. 85, 30, hätte er in den Boden sinken mögen, he felt as though he must..., as though he would fain...; 63, 24, n.; 101, 30.

13. Gemeine or Gemeinde (13, 16), community or body politic of a town or village; church community, congregation (13, 16). Of the two parallel forms given, Gemeinde is the more current in modern usage; Gemeine is still sometimes used in the latter of the two meanings here given, but seldom, as in the present passage, in the former.

14. was fümmert mich der ? Cf. 19, 4, n.

21.

was er gewollt (sc. hatte, cf. 12, 9, n.): note that as the perf. part. of the 'verb of mood...' wollen (Eve, Acc. 114, 2nd ed., 174) here stands alone, the ordinary form is used; on the other hand, when connected with an infin., the perf. part. assumes the form in which it coincides with the infin., 46, 4-6, hatte ausliefern wollen ; 72, 29, &c.

23. verzehren : zehren, to consume (mostly intrans., to live by consuming, cf. 91, 28); ver='away' (cf. 3, 11, n.), 'up,' so in verbrauchen,

use up, cf. vermauern, 33, 18, n.
26. doch, cf. 19, 17, n.-ben Rathsherren in die Rüche, 8, 9, n.

[ocr errors]

Fünftes fapitel.

PAGE 27.

[ocr errors]

10.

3. vor dem Oberthor: vor, lit., “before,' in front of, is often in use equiv. to Eng. 'outside,' Er wohnt vor der Stadt; Stellen Sie meine Stiefel vor die Thüre, &c. ; cf. 13, 18, n. ; 35, 15; 38, 21.

9. theilten sich...in die Ehre. Two or more persons theilen sich in etw., divide it among them, share it. The case is of course different in 58, 13, theilte sich in zwei Parteien, divided into...

war mit (3, 3, n.) dabei (10, 9, n.), i.e. in the battle.
11. ließ Graf Otto die... Ritter... enthaupten (act. infin.), caused the knights
'to be beheaded' (pass. infin.); cf. 58, 31, den Aerger nicht merken zu lassen,
not to let his vexation ‘be noticed'; 72,5, Er ließ den Hofmarschall rufen,
caused or ordered...'to be called,' sent for; 99, 30, R. läßt sich... frisiren,
has his hairdressed,' &c. It is often said (cf. Whitney, 343, 5,
c, d) that in this German construction the act. inf. has virtually become
a pass. infinitive. This seems however to be a mere grammatical
fiction, of which, as Heyne (Grimm, s.v. lassen) remarks, das Sprach-
bewusstsein...absolut nichts fühlt.' Whether the construction (found
in O. and M. H. G.) really originated (cf. Heyne, 1.c.) in the ellipse of
an accus. of the person,-Ich lasse Iemand etwas thun—, or not, it seems
clear that the infin. in it is in function exactly analogous with that in
the construction remarked upon in 23, 19, n. (which see) ;-Ich lasse etw.
thun means, 'I allow or cause the doing (of) something,' without
referring the act of doing it to a definite subject. Hence the use of this
construction seen in exx. like, &r läßt sich [von seinem Bedienten]
frisiren; Lassen Sie sich rathen (= lassen Sie mich Ihnen rathen), &c.

14. ohne...Vorwissen, without the (lit. previous) knowledge.
23. nach wie vor (less commonly and less correctly vor wie nach,

[ocr errors]

1

« PreviousContinue »