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35, 16), just as before, still. Note that neither nach nor vor is used as an independent adverb, except in this standing phrase.

24. grundlos, without ground, reason. On the other hand, bodenlos used fig.=enormously, immensely, fearfully.—och, 19, 17, n. 29. sprach er ja ein Wort, 4, 28, n.-

-eine Warnung...; der lode..., cf. 10, 19, n., seinem Saß: er selber wolle....

12.

Page 23. II. dermaßen, generally regarded as an irregular combination of the genit. plur. of the demonstr. der and the dat. plur. of die Maße, older form of das Maß, which meant both measure, degree, and Art und Weise, manner. dermaßen thus meant both, in such degree, so,' and (=dergestalt in its primary meaning, cf. 9, 25, n.), in such manner, .so.' In this latter meaning however it is now rare (Grimm alone notes it and gives examples), except so far as the two meanings mentioned naturally tend to run into one another, cf. 56, 19. This meaning of -maßen, = Art und Weise, is clearer in folgendermaßen,=folgendergestalt, in the following manner, as follows; the other is seen in einigermaßen, to some extent, &c.

einer Sache verlustig (Berlust, loss, fr. verlieren) gehen, to lose, forfeit.

13. könne... nicht...sehen, could not see, =could not bear to see, a common idiom, so, Sie kann fein Blut sehen,-feine Musifübung hören, &c.

16. jedesmal...wann : present prevailing usage would here require wenn, so in 35,9; 80, 1; 82, 28; 84, 29. Of the parallel forms wann and wenn, the former is now generally used only in a temporal sense, as a direct or indirect interrogative, e.g. Wann kommt er? Ich weiß nicht, wann er kommt. Fragen Sie, wann er kommt, cf. 82, 26. wenn, on the other hand, is used as a relative conjunction of time,=zu der Zeit wo; Lat. quum ; and further as a conditional or hypothetical conjunction,='if.' Some few good writers still adhere to the use of wann in the former of these senses, on account of the ambiguity arising from assigning to one word the two meanings just given to wenn, which is illustrated by the fact that it may often be rendered equally well by when' or by 'if,' cf. 30, 10, n. But cf. 84, 29 (and note), where the use of wann is itself at first sight ambiguous to readers familiar only with the prevailing usage, while wenn would be free from all ambiguity.

18. denn doch (3, 5, n., d and e), cf. 25, 30, n., and note that here doch, following the proclitic denn, itself becomes more strongly accented. So 103, 2.

21.

die gemeinsamen Erlebnisse des...: Erlebniß, what one erlebt (103, 20, n.), an “event' or 'occurrence' in one's own experience, what happens in one's own life, cf. 61, 20, 21. Here we might render, 'the events in which...had figured together,' or 'the common adventures of....'

23. das Conterfei (M. H. G. conterfeit, kunterfeit, Eng. counterfeit, fr. Fr. contrefait, L. Lat. contrafactum, fr. contrafacere), orig., counterfeit or alloyed metal, now only=Abbild, portrait, likeness; abconterfeien, fam. used for abbilden, to portray.

26. anfechten (cf. anfallen, to fall upon, angreifen, &c.), lit., to attack in fight, now only fig.; eine Meinung, ein Testament, &c., anfechten; etw. ficht mich nicht an=kümmert mich nicht. sich etw. anfechten lassen, to let a thing trouble one, to be put out by it.-walten (16, 19, n.) with gen. is now chiefly confined to the higher style of composition; such expressions often serve in another style to give a gravely quaint or humorous tone.

28. war es doch..., cf. 6, 26, n.-verdienen, to gain by service, earn; thus also, to deserve (whether the thing deserved be received or not); hence—der Verdienst, what is earned, gain, profit; das Verdienst (60, 23), desert, merit, meritorious action.

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2.

um Sommer-Iohanni. Iohannis, or with the 8 dropped, Johanni, the genit. of Johannes, has become through the ellipse of the governing subst. (festum or dies) an indeclinable term for St John's day, the feast of St John the Baptist, the 24th of June. The Iohannisfest, falling so near to the summer solstice, blended with itself many elements attaching to the ancient observance of Midsummer-Day, the 21st of June, and is still sometimes called Sonnwendefest or Mittsommerfest; Johanni is often used as a general term for midsummer, cf. Michaelis or Michaeli, Michael. mas[-Day], autumn. The form Sommer-Johanni is not generally current, but it is probably used to distinguish the feast of St John the Baptist (which is also in French called la fête de la Saint-Jean d'été) from that of St John the Evangelist, which falls in winter, on the 27th of December.

3. auf (12, 7, n.) bas Rathhaus entboten. En. irgendwohin entbieten, to send a requisition to someone to come somewhere.—ungesäumt, properly perf. part. of fäumen, to delay, with neg. prefix un, but used adverbially = ohne zu säumen or ohne Säumen, without delay, promptly.-solle er (cf. II, 28, n., b and c), he was to,' i.e. according to the requisition made by those who sent the summons.-rich einstellen (=rich einfinden, cf. Fr. s'y

IO,

II.

rendre and Eng. to 'put in an appearance”), to present oneself, go or come somewhere, appear,

4. feine Ausrede gelte (5, 7, n.), was valid, here=fönne man gelten lassen (12, 11, n.), could be allowed to pass, be accepted, 9. To gescheidt er [auch] sei,... doch..., cf. 22, 29, n.

des Kaisers Wort (21, 31, n.), the emperor's words, message. des Grafen Vortrag: Vortrag, whatever is orally brought or laid before (vorgetragen, cf. the previous line, and 90, 31) or delivered to an audience, a speech, lecture, report, &c.

die kaiserliche Majestät: note the idiomatic use of the def, art. in place of the poss. pron., His Imperial Majesty.

12. gehe er=werde (9, 10, n.) or wolle (23, 29, n.) er...gehen.-nun einmal: the force of this expression can often be conveyed in English only by the tone; the idea is, 'it is so and there is no altering it,''and so it is of no use talking,' Ich habe es nun einmal versprochen, I have promised (and therefore so it must remain). The accent lies sometimes, but without special emphasis, on ein, sometimes almost equally upon the two syllables, often on mal, esp. when doch precedes; einmal is then often contracted into 'mal or mal, es ist doch nun 'mal so, it is so though, and so there's an end of it.

16, es gilt with an acc. object (cf, the same with an inf. clause as object, 5, 7, n.), e.g., es gilt das Leben, means, it concerns, is a matter of,—the thing expressed by the object 'is at stake.'

18. faßte Argwohn über... : cf. einen Plan fassen (63, 7), to conceive a plan, Muth f., to take courage, Abneigung f., to conceive an aversion, &c. 25.

es gehen seltsame Dinge vor, cf. II, 25, n. 26. (Sc. && ist) Ein Glück für euch, it is fortunate for you.

27. wohl über hundert: wohl (cf. 48, 18, n.)='probably,' 'I should think'; 'a hundred or more.'

29. fie fåhen etlichen (=einigen) Herren...auf's Haar (cf. 4, 8, n.) ähnlich. Em. ähnlich sehen (here=aussehen), to look like, be like; so 112, 12.

PAGE 30.

I.

als wollten sie (5, 17, n.) den Ausgang wehren : a dat. of the person is understood, als wollten sie Jebem den Ausgang [ver]wehren (35, 30, n.); den Ausgang=bas Ausgehen ;-as though they would forbid egress, would prevent any one from passing out.

3. rich fassen, to collect or compose oneself; hence gefaßt, perf. part. as adj., collected, self-possessed, calm. R. N.

12

5. den Kleinoden. The now more usual plur. of Kleinod is Kleinodien, which, formed fr. the L. Lat. form of the Germ. word, clenodium, plur. clenodia, has displaced the true Germ. plural. Kleinod orig. meant a little thing; then through an older meaning of klein (orig., bright, smooth; then pure, clear, cf. Eng. clean; then elegant, fine, artistically wrought), any object finely wrought from costly material; becoming finally narrowed down to its present use, jewel, costly ornament.

9. meidet nur... : meiden, to avoid, is now less common in colloquial language than the compound vermeiden (42, 18; 60, 2).

Jo. seid ihr... =wenn ihr...seid (4, 20, n.). Note how either of these two constructions here indefinitely combines the temporal and the conditional or hypothetical signification, 'when' and 'if,' cf. 28, 16, n.

20. umzingeln (zingeln, from M. H. G. zingel, an encircling entrenchment, from Lat. cingulus, a girdle), as mil. term, to surround, hem in, beset.-von... Reisigen: reisig, adj. (fr. Neise in its old meaning, Kriegszug, military expedition), =mounted and ready for a war expedition; ein Reisiger, a horseman, trooper.

25. Reichspanier (absol. acc., cf, 6, 1, n.) in der Hand. Panier (in which p has displaced the 6 of the earlier form Banier) and Banner (45, 18) are collateral forms fr. Fr. bannière.

27. weiland (M. H. G. wîlent, dat. plur. with inorganic t from wile Weile, while, time; O.H.G. wilóm, Eng. whilom, fr. A. S. hwilum, dat. pl. of hwîl. The original meaning is thus ‘at times'), adv., formerly, at one time, cf. 79, 13; 108, 11. It is now used chiefly in the Kanzleistyl or official style, or as designedly archaic.

28. Keinem werde ein Leide'geschehen (19, 6, n.). In the expressions Em. viel Leid[e]s, fein Leids, ein Leids thun or zufügen, to do one an injury, &c., leides is originally a partitive genit. of the subst. Leid, pain, harm, trouble. In modern usage this origin has been for the most part lost sight of, and Leides is looked upon as nom. or acc. neut. of the adj. leid; even Sanders treats it as such.

30. The context shows that Sühne (13, 7, n.) does not here mean expiation, material satisfaction to be rendered, but a coming to terms again, reconciliation,

PAGE 31.

4. voreilig, hurrying forward; hence over-hast[illy, precipitate[ly]. So vorschnell, 104, 28.-Obrigkeit, a collective subst. (cf. die Geistlichkeit, the clergy, &c.), those who are above or set 'over' us, the civil authorities, magistrates, municipal body.—ergriffen, 11, 12, n.

5. zur Stunde...in der folgenden Stunde, cf. 12, 16, n.
18. folchergestalt (cf. dergestalt, 9, 25, n.), in such wise, thus.

19. machte er sich... davon, cf. 8, 12, n.-noch (12, 12, n., d) zur rechten Frist (18, 30, n.) might here be rendered 'just in time.'

26. wegen der eigenmächtig begnadigten Gefangenen, cf. 11, 22, n.

27. Mähr, Mähre or Märe, now only archaic, news, report. Its further meaning, story, tradition, legend, is partly preserved in the diminutive Märchen.

30. Thurm (M. H. G. turn, O. H. G. turri, turra, fr. Lat. turris), tower; tower used as a prison; hence prison generally.

31. einziehen, lit., to draw in; as a legal term, to confiscate.

PAGE 32.

3. kurzer Hand, genit. adverbial phrase, Lat. brevi manu, without delay or ceremony, summarily.-Scharfrichter (scharf, sharp) orig. =mu dem Schwert Richtender. richten, to judge (cognate with Recht, right, law, justice), in its widest meaning includes the whole judicial process, trial, sentence, and execution; hence Nachrichter or Scharfrichter, he who 'after' the trial and sentence completes the judicial act by carrying the latter into execution, the executioner.

4. Umstände, lit., circumstances; formal detail, ceremony, trouble, &c.; so, ohne Umstände verfahren, feine Umstände machen, &c., to dispense with ceremony, make short work, &c.

5. zur (7, 19, n.) Abwechslung (abwechseln, to alternate, relieve one another, vary), for a change, for variety's sake.--es war dies, 20, 18, n.

7. Die Nürnberger hängen Reinen, sie hätten ihn denn (= wenn sie ihn nicht haben), is an old and still current proverb. It is often quoted ironically in much the same way as the beginning of Mrs Glasse's famous (reputed) recipe, ‘First catch your hare.'

9. mit Imd. unter einer (or Einer, with capital & to mark the word not as an art., but an emphatic numeral) Dede steden or spielen is a familiar phrase to express secret confederacy, generally in something discreditable. It might here be rendered by “to play the same game.'

14. sich einkaufen, to 'buy oneself in’anywhere, obtain admission by payment (e.g. ins Krankenhaus, in eine Gesellschaft, &c.). sich als Bürger einfaufen, to acquire the rights of burgher by the payment of certain dues. Under the guild laws prevailing at this time, Master Richwin would on establishing a business in a new place have to procure association with a local guild or corporation, and would probably acquire certain civic rights by the purchase of house-property.

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