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17. den (6, 1, n.) ergrauenden (grau, grey) Thasso...: in verbs formed from adjectives the prefix er denotes becoming or causing to become, as erleichtern, to make light, relieve; ermüden, to grow or make weary, &c.dann sprach er wohl, 5, 13, n.

22., bei Heller und Pfennig=bis auf den legten Heller. Heller and Pfennig, both small copper coins, the former now disused, the latter=Too Mark, or about half a farthing.-þeimzahlen, Heimbezahlen, Heimgeben (43, 26), to pay home, back, give as good as one gets, &c.

25. für tausend richtig empfangene gesalzene Prügel, Prügel, a thick stick, cudgel; in plur., hard blows, a thrashing. 68—Eins—Prügel aus dem Salze (cf. Eng. 'a rod in pickle') friegen, to get a good trouncing; ...for many a duly received sound thrashing.'-gar, 8, 20, n.

27. vollgültig (gültig-etymologically more correct, though hardly as common, giltig-fr. gelten, cf. 5, 7, n.), adj., having full value, as eine voll. gültige Münze.' Here adv., 'fully,'

Der Dachs auf lichtmeß.

A story of the old days of chivalry (den alten Ritterzeiten, 34, 1), giving picture of the times when through the influence of the Faustrecht, or right of carrying on private feuds, the institution of chivalry had largely degenerated into a system of lawless brigandage. Numerous robber knights (Raubritter) scoured the country, attacking and plundering monasteries, and lying in wait for travellers, especially merchants, whose goods they seized as booty, and whose persons they carried off to their strong castles (Naubschlöffer), in order to extort large sums as

It was only by the repeated assertion of the imperial authority, and the combined efforts of the sovereign princes of the empire, that this system of knightly filibustering was brought to an end. Chivalry itself gradually fell into decay after the invention of gunpowder; the Emperor Maximilian I., who died in 1519, is often styled der legte Ritter (as in the title of a ,, Romanzenfranz." or series of ballads by Anastasius Grün).


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auf (18,6, n.) Lichtmeß, at Candlemas. 3. Wahrzeichen (cf. 11, 22, n.), remarkable objects peculiar to a place and characterising it, symbols or relics attesting its past history and giving it an identity, its curiosities and antiquities.

6. am Marktplaß. Note the difference between · auf dem Markte (31, 14), in, lit., on, the market-place, i.e. somewhere in the open space (cf. 12, 7, n.), and am Markte, in, lit., at, the market-place, i.e. situated close to or forming part of one of its bounding sides. Cf. 52, 22, Abgrund, an welchem..., abyss, at or on the edge of which...; 64, 5, n. ; 105, 17, an dem großen Strome, on=on the banks of, in contrast with auf dem Strome, on the water itself; 30, 6, die Mühle an der Lahn, &c.


7. Wer..., der fand.... Note that wer is not, as many grammars describe it, a relat. pron, with its ‘antecedent' der following instead of preceding it. wer=whoever, any one who, if any one; and the following der (which is frequently not required at all) is a resumptive demonstr. pron. with the functions of an accented pers. pron. (cf. 19, 4, n.), ‘he,' &c.; cf. 50, 26; 73, 31; 90, 6.

9. The German Stunde (Weg[e]stunde) as a measure of distance (that supposed to be traversed in an hour by an average pedestrian) is strictly three-fifths of a so-called deutsche or geographische Meile (15 geogr. Meilen=ro; 25 Wegestunden=1°),=Fr. licue, but is generally understood as equal to about half a German mile,=not quite 23 miles English. In practice it is naturally often vaguely and inexactly used.

14. an den Juden verkauft: the art. here gives to the sing. subst. a repre. sentative or general meaning, as when we say, “I must go to the dentist,' &c. The trade of 'general dealer' has always been largely pursued by Jews.-per es...ip das Raritätenfabinet eines Engländers verhandelte, lit., who (negotiated or bargained, i.e.) sold it, disposed of it into..., a pregnant construction for, 'disposed of it to an Englishman for (or, who bought it for, placed it in) his cabinet of curiosities.'

16. seit undentlicher (or unvordentlicher) Zeit, 'from time immemorial,' time out of mind.'

17. zerschlagen: zer denotes the falling, breaking or resolving into parts or pieces, often in the way of destruction, cf. zerfeßt, 45, 16, torn into Feßen, tatters; zerhauen, 60, 13, to hew to pieces; zerfließen, 91, 24, to melt away; zerflattern, 95, 19, &c.—Sodel, socle, plinth, base.

18. Sprißenhaus: Spriße, squirt, syringe, fire-engine (Feuerspriße). vermauern (mauern fr. Mauer, Lat. murus, a wall; ver, cf. 26, 23, n.), to use up in the building of a wall, in masonry-work; in den Sodel vermauert, built up into..., used as building material in....

19. Bezirk (M. H. G. zirc, fr. Lat, circus, circle), a tract or district within defined boundaries. Waldbezirk, tract of forest.-Flurfarten, charts or maps of the Flur or Feldmark, i.e. of the total extent of territory belonging to the village Gemeinde (26, 13, n.).

20. hat sich noch...erhalten, (has been, i.e.) is still preserved. Cf. for this frequent use in Germ. of a reflexive verb where in English the passive is generally used, 41, 31; 42, 11; 56, 18; 73, 16. The use of the passive in Germ. in such a case as the present (or in 8, 20; 41, 31; 73, 16, &c.), would represent the action as taking place through definite individual agency, while the reflexive fulfils the part of a middle voice (cf. Eve, 180), expressing the taking place of an action which affects the

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subject of the verb, without referring that action to any definite agent, or rather, referring it by a figure of speech to the subject of the verb itself. Thus the Eng. equivalent of such refl. verbs is perhaps quite as often an intrans. as a passive verb, cf. 8, 20, verwandelte sich in..., changed or turned into....

21. Sage (fr. sagen, to say, tell, recite; used along with singen of the recitations of the old bards and story-tellers), a story sprung up through oral tradition, legend, myth, &c.

23. Geschlecht, here of course not as in the previous story, but in the sense of generation.'

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3. kurzmég, without further ado, curtly, briefly.-heißen, trans., to call, and intr. (45, 11), to be called, bear a name.

:-&m. auflauern (lauern, 49, 13, to lurk, lie in wait), to lie in wait or be on the watch for.

4. Hab' und Gut, 5, 1, n. -Am liebsten..., 14, 7, n.-einsteden, 10,

15, n.

7. kurzweilig, adj. fr. the subst. Kurzweil[e], what makes the time (Weile, while) short, 'pastime,' amusement.--auf scharfem Roß: we say ein scharfer Ritt, a quick ride, im scharfen Trab, at a smart trot, &c., but ein scharfes Pferd or Roß for a swift-going horse is unusual.—in's Weite zu schweifen: das Weite (adj. as subst., cf. 5, 3, n.), the open country, stretching out far and wide, the far unbounded distance, cf. das Weite suchen, to be off and away, make one's escape; Etw. in's Weite spielen, to prolong a matter indefinitely, &c. schweifen, to sweep, roam, wander.

8. berennen (rennen, to run; be, cf. 36, 8, n.), to overrun or surround with troops; here used as an archaic expression from the times of chivalry,=bestürmen, belagern, to storm, besiege. In modern warfare it is used, strictly, of the enclosure or investment (Einschließung) of a place, which precedes a regular siege; then also more generally, of the whole siege, including both blockade and assault.

10. auch nur... : auch, "also,' often has the force of even' (cf. Lat. etiam), cf. l. 12, below; 65, I; esp. combined with nur,-auch [nur] fer geringste Fehler ; so 62, 16 ; 70, 24, &c. Cf. also the concessive wenn auch (3, 6, n.), even if, although.—über Feld, 'across country.'

II. Etw. fteht auf dem Spiel (cf. 70, 29), lit., stands or rests, i.e., is staked, upon the game, 'is at stake.'

12. Stadtarrest (cf. in Arrest bringen, 72, 26, = arretiren, 73, 21, to arrest), enforced confinement within the town. Arrest, chiefly a military term, is often used also in a wider application, so Haus. or Zimmerarrest


is a familiar expression for confinement to the house or one's own room, whether as a punishment or for whatever reason.-auf die Dauer (Dauer, duration, permanence, a long time), if it exist permanently or for a long time; the phrase may often be rendered, 'at length,' or in course of time.'

14. Em. zu Leibe rüden (or gehen, 42, 9), as it were, to march boldly up to, come to close quarters with; to attack, tackle.'

15. ein Schuß- und Trugbündniß (Schuß, protection, Truß, 22, 2, n.), an offensive and defensive alliance. (Note that in Germ. the order is reversed.)

16. Em. auf die Schliche kommen, or hinter Imds. S. formen (Schlich fr. schleichen, to slink, creep softly“, a secret way, by-way; a trick, artifice), to detect some one's manquvres or tricks.

18. Wegelagerei=Wegelagerung (fr. weg[e]lagern, to way-lay), brigandage, highway robbery.

da webte und wimmelte (13, 1, n.) es (6, 19, n.). weben, to move to and fro, be in activity. “And now...there was a bustling and thronging...'-Note that auf einmal means 'at once' in contradistinction to gradually, at twice or more, &c., and also all at once,' suddenly, but

at once'=immediately, which is sofort, sogleich. 23. was es Heiße...zu... : from the meaning, “to be called, bear a name' (45, 11) is developed that of 'to mean, signify,' and thus 'to be,' in expressions such as, das hieße lügen, that would be telling a lie; er weiß was es heißt, arm (zu) sein, &c.

26. Zeughaus (Zeug in a former signification=Kriegsgeräth, the implements and materials of war), arsenal, armoury.

27. Rathskeller, public wine cellar or beer-house underneath the Rathhaus, town-hall wine-vaults. A Rathsfeller is still to be found in many German towns.


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galt es als das Zeichen..., cf. 5, 7, n. gelten als (with nom.), or für (with acc.), to be regarded as, pass for; so 36, 18; 58, 27; 93, 25.

3. ein ander (=anderes) Ding, cf. 38, 19, gewonnen Spiel; 41, 1; 43, 20; 80, 4, &c. This use of the attributive adj. without inflection, in the nom. and acc. sing. neut., is chiefly confined to poetry or a poetical style, and to certain colloquial expressions, beyond which the student will do well in his own practice not to extend it.

5. Spießgesell (Spieß, spear, javelin), here in its original meaning, = Waffengenosse, companion in arms. The word is now used almost

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