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might say, 'he failed to have...'; cf. 44, 23, n.—Der Spißname (nickname) des Leimsieders: we could also say, in apposition, der leimsieder.

18. Etwas soll sein, something 'is said to be (again, 101, 24), i.e., report will have it that it is; according to the conception or judgment of those who make the assertion, it is to' (cf. 11, 28, n., c) be so, i.e. so regarded, is to be accepted as a statement of the facts; cf. 79, 30, Und der Mann soll...sein? And you, they, people, mean to say that this man is...?

25. aufspüren (spüren fr. Spur, spoor, trace, &c.), to trace or spy out, discover.-wollen einige... behaupten: almost = behaupten einige...; wollen however marks rather the inclination or readiness to assert and defend the proposition in question. wollen itself often has the meaning of 'to maintain,' cf. 21, 28, n., in which, however, it is used chiefly of assertions which concern the person himself who makes them.

26, ff. The name Michel is popularly used (like Hans, Peter, &c.,— ein dummer Hans, ein langweiliger Peter, &c.) for an awkward, stupid, or churlish fellow, a simpleton, &c.,-Gr ist ein rechter Michel, ein grober Michel, &c. Der deutsche Michel is used humorously or ironically as a national sobriquet of the typical German or of the German people generally (analogous to the English ‘John Bull’ and the American * Brother Jonathan’), to express their supposed national characteristics, -on the one hand their unsophisticated honesty and fidelity, their tenacity and plodding patience, on the other, and chiefly, their rudeness of manners, slowness and awkwardness in practical life, &c. The origin of the expression is much disputed, but it seems to be explained with the greatest probability—if it needs any other explanation than the usage first mentioned above-as having been first applied to the Knights of the Teutonic Order (rer deutsche Orden, cf. 10, 26, n.), both as following in the steps of St Michael, and also (M. H.G. michel, O. H. G. mikil,Scotch mickle—,=groß, tall) as being for the most part tall fellows, and then extended to Germans generally (G. v. Loeper, Anmerkungen zu Goethe's Dichtung und Wahrheit, 1II. 257). H. Kurz says in his edition of the works of Grimmelshausen (1625—76), among which is a tractate entitled Der deutsche Michel, “The Spaniards gave this name in the Thirty Years' War to Lieutenant-general Johann Michael Obertraut, in the Danish service, who did them great damage,” but Loeper states that the expression is used by Sebastian Brandt (1458—1521), and quotes a recently discovered song, dating from the middle of the 16th century, in which the Teutonic Knights say, ,, Die teutschen Michel man uns nennt."



28. der verspottet (=wenn er verspottet wird) schweigt.

30. das Wort und den Hieb führt: einen Hieb führen (cf. 36, 31, n.), to 'deal' a blow; das Wort führen is a common phrase for, to speak, be the spokesman. The epigrammatic conciseness of the original is not easily attainable along with exactness in rendering ; perhaps we might say, takes the lead in counsel and fight.'—wenn Jenen ihr Latein ausgeht. Ienen, used in place of the pers. pron. ihnen, to point out more unmistakably and with rather more emphasis, the persons referred to, die weisen. Politiker. These being the persons last spoken of, Diesen might also have been used (8, 17, n.), but jener has rather more marked demonstrative force. ausgehen=to run out,' come to an end. mit seinem Latein zu Ende sein (Fr., au bout de son Latin) is a familiar phrase denoting that the resources of one's learning and wit are exhausted. Hier geht mein Latein aus, I'm at the end of my tether, out of my depth, nonplussed, &c.

Der Leihmedicus.

The scene of the story is the court and residence-town, or capital, of one of the petty German princes of the eighteenth century. No historical names are given, nor is the particular state mentioned, even under a feigned name. In whatever proportion fact and fiction may be mingled in the present narrative, it gives a faithful picture of the course of things at one of the better courts of that period. It must be remembered that even at the close of last century the so-called German Empire was still composed of some three hundred sovereign territories, ruled by princes possessed to all intents and purposes of absolute power. Most of them either ground down their subjects, or left them entirely to the oppressive or reckless rule of their officials and favourites, regarding them only as a means of raising the large sums of money they constantly required, to keep up the luxury and splendour in which they sought to vie with the French court. A few only, in the latter part of the century, influenced chiefly by the example of Frederick the Great of Prussia, and the Emperor Joseph 11., endeavoured in the exercise of a benevolent paternal absolutism to promote the real good of their people. Constitutional government in its reality was totally unknown; even its barest forms were in most cases wanting or in abeyance. When ministers are mentioned in the following story, it must be remembered that these were but the advisers, often but the executive officials of the monarch, appointed and dismissed by him at his sovereign will and pleasure.

Erstes Kapitel.

PAGE 47.



Leifmedicus (cf. Politicus, &c., 39, 19, n.): the now current term is leibarzt (49, 17). Leib originally meant Leben, life (so in the phrase Leib und Leben, cf. Hab' und Gut, 5, 1, n.); in M. H. G. it is often used


for person (mîn líp=ich). This meaning prevails in many compounds, in which Leib- is equivalent to 'personal,' attached to the person of an individual, so Leibfutscher (79, 14), coachman reserved for the personal service of a prince or princess (in distinction from Hoffutscher, serving the court), Leibjäger, Leibdiener, &c. In another series of compounds, traceable to the same origin, Leib- signifies 'favourite,'=lieblings-, as Leibessen (orig., dish prepared specially for one person), favourite dish; so Leiblied, &c.

3. The word Fürst (M. H. D. vürste, first) is both the general term for a sovereign ruler, and the specific title of certain minor sovereigns,– now very few in number—, under the rank of Herzog. It is also a conferred title of nobility, next above Graf. It should in all its applications be distinguished from Prinz, a title borne only by the non-regnant male members of a ruling family. The families however of many mediatisirte Fürsten (i.e. princes who through the annexation of their territories have ceased to be sovereign) still retain their titles, as nobles of the empire. ‘Prince' Bismarck is not Prinz, but Fürst, and there are certain differences between his rank and that of the mediatised Fürsten of the old empire. Like them he is styled Durchlaucht (55,6, n.), but his sons do not bear the title of Prinz, which is still retained by the sons of some mediatised Fürsten; his title descends to his eldest son, the younger bearing the title Graf.—Casimir III. : the figures are of course in each case to be read in accordance with the context; here Casimir der Dritte, in the next line dem Zweiten, in apposition to the preceding substantive in the dative. -seinem hochseligen Herrn Vater: selig, blessed (selig werden, to be saved') is the Germ. for deceased, late'; hochselig (see hoch, 24, 30, n.) is applied to princely personages. We say in Germ. Ihr Herr Vater, Ihre Frau Mutter, &c., as in Fr. monsieur votre père; used otherwise than with the poss. pron. Ihr, ‘your,' i.e., otherwise than in speaking to a son or daughter of the person mentioned, this form is now a mark of special respect, employed chiefly in speaking of persons of rank. In the last century its application was more general ; Herr Vater, meine Frau Mutter, sein Herr Bruder, &c., were often used in addressing or referring to the persons in question. In 1770 Lessing as a man of forty still addressed his father in his letters as Hochzuehrender Herr Vater.

6. Zuwachs (wachsen, to wax, grow), lit., a growing or growth to; i.e. increase, addition.

8. dafür (3, 11, n.) um To (4, 7, n.) größer.

9. Hatte...breit und glanzvoll Hof gehalten: cf. the colloq. phrase ficy [mit etw.) breit machen (as it were, in self-importance to monopolise the

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scene for display), to make a parade of something, be ostentatious, &c. Here we might paraphrase, 'in circumstantial pomp and splendour.'

viel gelebt: leben used pregnantly and euphemistically for, to lead a life of dissolute pleasure.

13. Wirthschaft (activity or sphere of activity of a Wirth or Wirthin, housekeeping, farm-management, management generally; formerly also =Bewirthung, entertainment, festivity) is used colloquially to express a disorderly and careless style of management, a wild and loose way of living, official or social corruption, &c. Thus wirthschaften often hausen (23, 1, n.) in the bad sense. -Etw. mit (3, 3, n.) ansehen or anschauen, to be a passive spectator of....

15. ein...vergnügtes Gesicht dazu machen, to show a pleasant (lit., pleased) face. dazu need not here be rendered; it has the same meaning as e.g. in Was sagte er dazu? What did he say [to it]? Er lächelte nur dazu, He only smiled (at what was passing or being said). Was meinen Sie dazu? What do you think (upon the matter in hand)?

16. the prefix um, about, round, is in many compounds expressive of change, cf. umformen, to re-shape, fich umfleiden, to change one's dress, &c. A very early meaning of schlagen, to 'strike,' is, to take a certain direction (with some energy or rapidity), as, tie Flamme schlägt in die Höhe, ‘rises' (cf. Eng., to 'strike to the left,' &c., and the phrase einen Weg einschlagen, to enter on a path, take a direction). Hence umschlagen, to turn round, change suddenly; Umschlag (67, 4), sudden change; so 85, 7; 105, 15.-Widerspiel or Gegenspiel = Gegentheil, opposite, contrary.

17. Der halbe Hofstaat. Staat, state, the grand style of living supposed appropriate to a high status or condition; costly display (thus, [mit etw.] Staat machen, to make a display [of something]), then all that contributes to this, as numerous retinue, splendid accoutrements, &c. Hofstaat means both the pomp and splendour of a court, and also the court or royal household itself, with all its officials and appurtenances, cf. 49, 16. Here of course the officials simply are meant.

PAGE 48. 1. persönlicher Einflüsse : this use of the plural of Einfluß (cf. 70, 24; 71,28, &c.) is somewhat unusual ; it is however meant to indicate the repeated exercise of influence in various ways, so l. 3 below; 74, 18.

4. Unerhörtes, 5, 3, n.-vorbedeuten, to pre-signify, foretoken, augur. -die alten Hofleute würden, =so würden die..., cf. 4, 25, n.

8. vermählen (cf. Gemahl, consort, husband), verheirathen (ver, 3, II,

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