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5. wahrhaftig as adj. (with accent on the first syllable), truthful, truth loving, is now less usual than wahrhaft (73, 25); wahrhaftig, as adv., really, in very truth, is common.

6. ' bei alletem, 61, 15,'n.-Burchtrieben, perf. part. as adj., cunning, crafty, artful; here adv. qualifying the synonymous word schlau, sly.voller Mutterwiß : voller, orig. inflected masc. form, now used as an invariable = voll, but only as predicate, before an uninflected subst. of any gender, in the sing. or plur. Cf. Eve, 92, Obs. 1.-Politicus, 39, 19, n.

8. da is here of course not causal, but temporal (=als), as also in the next line (=wo), when’; cf. Eve, 250.—verungnaden fr. Ungnade (cf. Aue, $ 110, note), disfavour, disgrace.

14. an den Nagel hängen, to hang on the nail, 'put on the shelf.'

16. unter der Hand, secretly, privately, “underhand' in the neutral sense in which this word was still used by as recent a writer as Sir W. Scott, ‘Baillie Macwheeble provided Janet, underhand, with meal....' mit staatsrechtlichen und politischen Dingen. Staatswissenschaft may be briefly and generally defined as the science of state government, Staatsrecht as the object of that science, treated theoretically and historically. We may say, with the theory and practice of politics.'

17. wozu...nicht so viel gehörte (cf. gehörig, 77, 18, n.), for which, to do which, not so much was required, which was not a matter of so much difficulty.'—in selbiger Zeit : felbig is less commonly used than selb, and like this it is generally preceded by the def. art. in composition, ders selb[ig]e, &c., the same. Its use, as here and in 82, 20,= dieser or jener, is rare, possibly local.—für den Hausbedarf (Bedarf fr. bedürfen, what is needed, requisites), for the requirements of the household, and still more familiarly, für's Haus, are common phrases to express generally what is adequate to one's ordinary homely wants. The court and administration of many petty German princes of that time formed little more than a good-sized domestic establishment.

19. nach Jahresfrist, 18, 30, n.-entpuppte sich (cf. entlarven, 72, 23, n.): Puppe, a pupa, chrysalis, hence rich puppen, genly. sich ein- or verpuppen, to enter into the chrysalis state, change into a chrysalis, fig., assume a disguise, and in contrast with this, sich entpuppen (ent, 9, 19, n.), to emerge from the chrysalis state, burst the cocoon, fig., to reveal oneself, come to light, either in one's real, hitherto concealed character, or as here, simply in a new character.zum..., cf. 74, 1, n.

21. Rabinetsdirektor, head of the cabinet or privy.council of the

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prince, prime minister. Of course these terms are not to be taken in the sense they bear in a constitutional monarchy; cf. introductory note.

28. schriftlich beurkundet : beurkunden (Urkunde, 95, 18, a document) in itself means properly to attest by document, give written or documentary evidence of, but it is so generally used in the wider sense, to authenticate, give manifest proof of, that the qualification schriftlich cannot be regarded as tautology.

PAGE 76. 3. im nächsten Vertrauen...: cf. in naher Freundschaft mit Imd. stehen, in close friendship; Imds. nähere Befanntschaft machen, &c.

4. denn, 52, 11, n.-ihm...andichtete; 65; 2, n.

R. N.

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Der Zopf des

Herrn Guillemain'.

The scene of the narrative is laid chiefly in Mainz, before and during the French Revolution. Mainz was at this time still an ecclesiastical Electorate, ruled by an Archbishop-Elector who was Primate of Germany. Though but a small State with 320,000 inhabitants, it counted, besides a numerous nobility, no fewer than nearly 3000 ecclesiastics and 2200 salaried officials. In their train came a host of busy idlers and parasites, as ministers to their free and luxurious style of living. The Elector, Fr. K. J. von Ehrthal, a man of French manners and culture, was a weak ruler, guided by women and courtiers, who bestowed his favours almost exclusively on the old nobility, the priests and the monks. He was however inclined to the ideas of Voltaire and the other French free-thinkers, and showed his tolerance somewhat ostentatiously by drawing around him a number of learned and literary men of the Protestant faith. Prominent among these was Georg Forster, who as a youth had with his father accompanied Captain Cook in his second voyage round the world, and who is still noted as the author of the , Ansichten vom Niederrhein,“ a record of travel in the Netherlands, France and England. In their somewhat isolated position in the Roman Catholic community of Mainz, these men naturally drew closer together, united as they were by political dissatisfaction and sympathy with the revolutionary movement inaugurated in France; they were joined by a certain number of malcontents, political and religious free-thinkers, from among the better educated of the Elector's subjects. The accusation sometimes brought against the Liberals of Mainz, that they actually conspired to deliver the city into the hands of the French, seems not to be justified by facts; its speedy surrender, when in Oct. 1792 the French General Custine advanced against it, was a natural consequence of the previous neglect of its fortifications and means of defence, and of the utter demoralisation that prevailed among those who should have defended it. It is certain however that many of them welcomed the French as deliverers and champions of popular freedom, and that during the French occupation their influence was exerted both in Mainz and in other towns on the left bank of the Rhine, in the dissemination of the republican and cosmopolitan doctrines of the French Revolutionists. Immediately after Custine's entry into Mainz, from which the Elector and his court had ignominiously Aed upon the first alarm, a society of “Friends of Liberty and Equality" assembled in the electoral palace. They shortly resolved themselves into a political club, after the pattern and with the tendencies of the Jacobin club in Paris; hence they are often called tie Clubbisten von Mainz. The idea of a formal alliance with France was now openly entertained, though the French in Mainz, who conducted themselves as the lords of a conquered territory, did little to exemplify their own principles of liberty, universal brotherhood, and the sovereignty of the people. An attempt was made in the first instance to construct a free and independent State, but this project did not harmonize with the designs of the French, and was frustrated by the agitation of the party enthusiastic for union and identification with the great Republic, as the centre and stronghold of the new world-revolutionising movement. In March, 1793, a resolution was passed in an assembly of the “Rhenish-German National Convention," to convert the whole terri. tory from Landau to Bingen, on the left bank of the Rhine, into a free State, totally severed from the German Empire.

1 A considerable number of words and modes of expression occurring in the text have already been explained in the earlier notes, for which the student is referred to the index at the end of the book.

This was presently followed by a second, expressing the wish for the incorporation of this “Rhenish-German Republic” with France, and appointing a deputation to the French National Convention. Meanwhile, however, German troops appeared before Mainz, and enclosed it on all sides. The French had restored the fortifications, and defended the town with great bravery for several weeks, but were at last compelled by famine to surrender it to the Prussians, on condition of being allowed to depart with the honours of war on giving their parole for a year. Their republican allies among the Germans were for the most part severely, often brutally punished; many lay for years in prison, and suffered the loss of all their property.

As the general history of the French Revolution will be either familiar or easily accessible to the student, the historical explanations given in the following notes are brief, and confined chiefly to the less familiar allusions.

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der alte Friß, Frederick the Great (reigned 1740–86).

die Völferschlacht bei Leipzig, or die Leipziger Völkerschlacht (so called from the number of nations that took part in it), the great three days' battle of Leipzig, Oct. 18th, and 19th, 1813.

6. The present story was written in 1863, when Napoleon III. was the central figure in European politics.

7. hantieren (fr. Fr. hanter—Eng. haunt—to frequent, but changed in meaning through the influence of popular etymology, as though it came from Hard), to work with the hands; to be busily engaged; to pursue a trade or business; to deal in,' lit. and fig.—The great composer, Johann Sebastian Bach, died in 1750; Ludwig van Beethoven, also the greatest musician of his age, was born in 1770.

14. was ein Verstorbener wohl sagen würde: wohl (48, 18, n.), ‘probably.' wohl is often used in interrogative sentences to express rather an inquiring conjecture than a positive question—Wo führt der Weg wohl hin?-with much the same force as the Eng. 'I wonder.' In an indirect interrogative sentence it retains, though often not itself translatable, a similar force; cf. the common mode of expression (sc. Ich möchte wissen, or the like) Ob er wohl hingeht? 'I wonder whether he will go,' &c.

15. Ist (4, 20, n.) inzwischen gar.... gar is to be read in close connection with Ift inzwischen, in the sense explained in 8, 20, n.; so belongs, in its merely expletive use, to the following word, cf. below, 78, 10, n., and exx. quoted there. In reading, a slight pause should be made after gar.

16. Hantumkehrt, a provincial, and otherwise quite unusual form for the common phrase im Handumkehren (commoner still perhaps is im Bantumdrehen), lit., in the turning of a hand, ‘in a twinkling.' Note that in these compounds, while Hand receives according to rule the chief accent, the secondary accent lies on fehren or trehen (or perhaps we should rather say, equally on the prefix and the root), although umkehren (102, 7), -trehen, have as sep. verbs the accent on the prefix.

17. Lebzeit, lifetime, is most commonly used in the plur., bei [meinen, meines Vaters] Lebzeiten, in one's (my, my father's] lifetime.

:8. wird gehörig staunen: gehörig (fr. gehören, to belong; cf. 75, 17, n.), belonging or appertaining to; hence, suitable, proper, requisite,-Dieses Wasser hat nicht die gehörige Wärme; hence finally, in colloq. language, considerable, esp. as adv., - Ich werde gehörig arbeiten müssen, wenn...,

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