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15. Etw. wird Em. sauer (lit., sour, bitter, hard, trying, &c.), is a common phrase for, costs one straining exertion, severe toil; Das Steigen wurde ihm recht fauer; &r läßt es sich fauer werden, takes great pains, works hard, &c.—Note that es ihm belongs here in construction also to fchwindelte. fchwindeln, to be dizzy or giddy, is sometimes used personally, but most commonly as impers., es schwindelt mir or mir schwindelt.—vor (9, 12, n.) der frischen Luft, 'in...,' or 'from...'; lit. 'before,' i.e., when he came to face or meet it.

trugen seine Beine...: tragen here in the literal sense, to carry, bear as a burden. Note that the pres. and imperf. are often used in Germ. where we should usually say “can...' and 'could...,' and cf. 41, 21, n.

22. Cf. Er wird bald vom Lachen ins Weinen kommen, his laughter will soon turn into weeping.

23. überselig: in compounds like überglüdlich, überlästig, &c. (accent on über), über, lit. 'over, too' (cf. gar zu, 5, 20, n.), often means simply, exceedingly, very.

27. Am Waldessaume (Saum, seam, border) stieß ein... Männlein zu ihm: ftoßen zu..., to push forward to join, is a specially military expression (cf. 36, 30, n.),—zum Heere stoßen; wieder zu seinem Regiment stoßen, to rejoin one's regiment, but it is often used generally for to join company with, to 'join.'

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4. wohl, not a mere particle here, but =very well, easily.

5. Strohmer, usually Stromer, an old expression in the Rothwelsch or thieves' slang, =landstreicher, vagrant, vagabond (from M.H. G. strômen, strömen, to stream, which also meant, to wander, rove about). -Schlag, type, kind, stamp.

8. Vor einem Jahre noch, see 12, 12, n., (f).

9. Bazen, a small coin, in value about itd., formerly current in South Germany and Switzerland.

12. vie Assignaten, the assignats, or paper currency issued by the National Assembly in 1790. They soon sank considerably in value, and after the death of Robespierre in 1794 they became entirely worthless.

16. Ohnehosen, a Germ. translation of the Fr. sansculottes (1. 25), as the extreme Republicans or Jacobins were called, because they ostentatiously neglected outward decency of appearance, in order to betoken their sympathy with the lowest classes of the people.




18. Etwas eine Krankheit, ein Mißbrauch, &c.,-greift um sich, lit., grasps, i.e., makes encroaches, around itself; spreads, gains ground.

was sind das (cf. 19, 4, n., and 4, 12, n.) für Leute? What kind of people are they?

25. auf deutsch: deutsch is here of course a subst., but is in this phrase regularly written with a small d, so auf englisch, auf französisch (111, 31), &c. The reason probably is that auf deutsch was felt as merely a briefer way of saying not only auf deutsche Sprache, but also auf deutsche Art, Weise, &c. (the older language has other similar phrases), this and similarly formed adverbials being used in a broader way than simply with reference to language, e.g. (see Grimm, sub auf), Weckherlin: auf gut philos sophisch leben; Gellert: Und fieng auf polnisch schön zu tanzen an.

26. Neufranken. Franken (Lat. Franci, Fr. Francs, Franks) was originally the common name of a wide-spread group of Teutonic tribes. In its unchanged form it became confined at a later time to the Franks who had settled about the Rhine and Main, while as applied to those who had penetrated into Gallia it underwent various changes, Franzois, Franzos, Franzose, partly corresponding to the modification in French itself, (Franciscus, Francois, François, Français). The word Franke however still continued to be used in German poetry for Franzose, and after the outbreak of the French Revolution it was again brought into vogue for a time, also in the form Neufranken (Neofrancs), although the Frankish element of the French nation is of as ancient origin as the Franks on the other side of the Rhine.

31. mit verdächtigem Seitenblid: verdächtig (see 38, 3, n.) is here used in the sense of argwöhnisch, mißtrauisch, 'suspicious' in the sense of distrustful. It is seldom found in this sense in books, and none of the dictionaries give any hint of it, but in conversational usage the natural transition from one to the other of the two meanings united in the Eng. “suspicious' seems to be taking place.

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Man meint, one thinks, =man sollte (71, 3, n.) meinen, one would think.-nicht von gestern sein is a fam. phrase for, to be no novice, no greenhorn, to know the world. For its origin cf. Luther's Bible, Job viii. 9: Denn wir sind von gestern her, und wissen nichts; A. V., 'For we are but of yesterday, and know nothing.' In l. 6 below, von fünf Jahren, the particle her is necessary to make the meaning clear.

9. Der (19, 4, n.) ist ja (24, 27, n.) längst... gestellt: note that this is not a simple abbreviation by the omission of worden; ist gestellt worden would mean, 'was long ago placed...,' referring simply to the past action; ist...gestellt means, ‘has long been (cf, 10, 3, n.) placed,' i.e., in the condition of one placed....

24. so ein Jafobiner : so ein may here best be rendered by one of these' Jacobins. Colloquially so ein is often used=ein solcher, “such a,' meaning either, such a one as that before us or already described, or often simply, such a one as we already know of so well that a mere reference to it or hint at it is enough; e.g. in describing some one, &r trägt auch so einen großen, breitkrämpigen Hut, 'one of these large, broadbrimmed hats’ (sc., that are now in vogue, or that we know of as worn by certain people, &c.); in going into a shop, Ich möchte so ein Bilderbuch für ein kleines Kind haben, &c.

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1. ein feiner (cf. 7, 12, n.) Mann, a man of refined manners, of good breeding, a gentleman.

5. verhallen (ver, 3, 11, n.; Hallen fr. Žall, sound), of sound, to die away,' be lost, cease to be heard, cf, verflingen.

7. Er sollte..., he was to,' 'must,' i.e., so Guillemain said,

10. überhaupt, 15, 19, n, -ob der Papst noch in Rom size: sißen is very commonly used in the general sense of having one's seat (Siß, cf. landsiß, &c.) or post, or being located anywhere, cf. Schiller's Wilhelm Tell: Des Kaisers Burgvogt, der auf Roßberg faß; the phrase in einem Amt sißen, &c. It is esp. thus used absolụtely (with ellipse of im Gefängniß, or the like, cf. 1. 15, below) for, to be in prison, cf. 101, 16; 102, 10.

18. dadrüben=brüben (the simple adv. üben, formed on the analogy of unten, oben, &c., is little used), over there, yonder. In colloq. language the abbreviated forms of the advs. compounded with da[r), as drin, trauf, &c., are often used with a second da prefixed, dadrin, &c. The second da often serves to give fresh demonstrative force. These forms, common in the dialects of South Germany, were brought into more general use by Goethe. Most of them still retain a provincial or decidedly colloquial stamp.

19. lief was er laufen konnte; was, 'what,' is thus used only in familiar language, =as much as, here as hard as.'

es rappelt [bei] Em. [im Kopf, im Oberstübdjen), also with personal subject, er rappelt, is a colloq. phrase, =er ist verrüdt, nicht recht bei Verstand, he is crazy, crack-brained. This rappeln (unconnected with rappeën, to rattle) is M. H. G. rëben, akin with Dutch reven, fr. Fr. rêver, and this fr. Lat. rabere, to rave.



26. an etw. (dat.) Hangen or hängen bleiben, lit., to remain hanging (note in the Germ. the use of the infin., as in stehen bleiben, &c.), is the ordinary phrase for, to catch on anything,—Sie sind mit dem Rod an einem Dorne hängen geblieben, your coat has caught on a thorn.

31. nicht ausplündern will (5, 17, n.), don't want to, mean to, am not going to....


I 2.

3. ich will erzählt haben, 'I want to have told to me' (corresponding exactly to the Eng. idiom), is here somewhat unusual instead of ich will mir erzählen lassen, cf. 27, II, n.

6. solide Profession. solit[e] in Germ. never means solid as contrasted with fluid (which is fest), but ‘firm, secure,'-ein solid gebautes Haus, &c., hence, reliable, safe, of established credit; steady, respectable,-ein solides Geschäftshaus, ein solider Mensch, &c. A Profession is not a profession in the Eng. sense, but a trade or handicraft. The word is also used in the wider sense of calling' generally, but would never be specifically applied, except slightingly, to one of the 'professions' (höhere Berufe).

7. was... nur, 73, 31, n.—bunt durcheinander : bunt (5, 31, n.), motley, mixed, confused; durcheinander expresses the same idea (cf. 25, 8, n., and 1. 15 below); 'in motley confusion.'

The Duke of Brunswick was the leader of the Prussian army which marched against France in 1792, and the author of the proclamation that so roused the indignation of the French, in which they were called upon to submit to their lawful king.

19. fchnitt ihm jede Abschweifung vom Grundtert... am Munde ab: Em. das Wort [im or am Munde] abschneiden is a common phrase for 'to cut one short.' abschweifen (ichweifen, to sweep, rove, stray), to ‘digress.' Grundtert (cf. 69, 26, n.) is usually the same with Urtert, the original text, as distinguished from a translation (cf. Goethe's Faust: Mich drängt's den Grundtert aufzuschlagen), but here it seems to mean rather, der zu Grunde liegende Tert, the text upon which a discourse or exposition is founded. "...cut short every digression from the main theme.'

23. außerdem (außer, outside of; dem demonstr., =biesem, 18, 4, n.), 'besides this,'.' besides,' is also sometimes used (49, 28) in the sense 'except for this,' 'in other respects,' otherwise,'=sonst (18, 11, n.). Here however, where the meaning is, 'except in this case, on this occasion,' außerdem is hardly correct, and sonst would certainly be more usual.

28. darauf Teßen (darauf referring to Wein, 1. 25, above), add to it, as it were 'cap it with....'

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31. er hätte... mögen, 26, 11, n.-a gerade fein anderer...war: gerade (3, 4, n.), 'just” at the time; 'as there happened to be no one else...'

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2. Hatten ihm Verschlossenheit...gelehrt. In modern usage the personal object of lehren is often put in the dat., when accompanied by an acc. obj. of the thing taught. The original construction with two accusatives however still remains the commoner.

7. wobei (on bei cf. 18, 21, n.): wo here (cf. da in dabei, 10, 9, n.) stands in place of a rel. pronoun (wobei=bei welchem) representing the verbal idea in nach M. zu gehen. Render 'in doing which.'-geradeaus wieder umkehren, a pregnant construction for umkehren und (in entgegenges Teßter Richtung) geradeaus gehen, just as in Eng. we might say “turn straight back.' Note the difference between umkehren (intr., with middle sense), “to turn back'(=turn round to retrace one's steps), and sich umkehren, to 'turn round.'

ein paar Stunden (33, 9, n.) Umweg (69, 23, n.): ein Paar, a pair, brace; ein paar, a few. Umweg, way round, roundabout way,—Sie haben einen Umweg von zwei Stunden gemacht, you have gone more than five miles out of your way.-nichts, 22, 27, n.

13. seiner or seine Straße ziehen or gehen, cf. 39, 25, n.

14. Handel, a transaction, affair, bargain, &c., is now used in the plur. only in the sense of hostile transactions, strife,—Händel suchen, to seek a quarrel. It usually retains more or less of this meaning in the compd. Welthändel, current events at home and abroad, esp. political events.

20. ging es doch (3, 5, n. f and 3) recht polnisch zu (78, 29, n.): polnisch, fig., =disorderly, tumultuous, riotous. From the disorder and turbulence that characterized the proceedings of the Polish Diet or Parliament, ein polnischer Reichstag became a by-word for lawless confusion. eine polnische Wirthschaft (47, 13, n.) is a proverbial phrase for a disorderly and slovenly style of management or living,

beim Alten (bei, 18, 21, n.), 'at' the old point or stage, in the old condition of things, 'just as before.'—Das Gericht der Völkerfreiheit, 94, 22, n.

27. besonderen Ausweises. sich als... ausweisen (113, 7), to show oneself to be, prove [oneself] to be. sich ausweisen used absolutely=sich legitimiren, to establish one's identity, rights, powers, &c., generally by documentary evidence. Hence Ausweis, either the production of such


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