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Northumbrians into Roman usage, had made several journeys to Rome, and when, in A.D. 674, he founded the church of Hexham, he dedicated it to Saint Andrew, towards whom he entertained a special devotion. Bishop Acca, who, in A.D. 709, succeeded St. Wilfrid in the See of Hexham, obtained certain relics of St. Andrew, with which he enriched the church that had been founded by his saintly predecessor. Acca was forced to retire from his diocese in A.D. 732, and during his exile spent some time in Fife. These events explain how a portion of the relics of St. Andrew were brought into Scotland.

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At the time when Bishop Acca took refuge in Fife, the Pictish monarchy was ruled by Angus MacFergus, who reigned from A.D. 731 to A.D. 761, and who was, perhaps, the most powerful king that ever sat upon the Pictish throne. In A.D. 736 he completely subdued the Scots of Dalriada. The crowning victory gained by the king's arms in this campaign against the Scots was attributed by him to the protection of St. Andrew, whose relics had lately been brought into his dominions, and whose patronage had been specially invoked in his behalf. Gratitude prompted the victorious monarch to erect and richly endow a church in honour of his patron at a place formerly known as Kilrymont, but which was destined ever after to be known by the name of St. Andrews. Some years later, in conjunction with the Anglic kingdom of Mercia, he inflicted severe losses on the kingdom of Northumbria, and these new successes seemed to have confirmed his devotion to his patron St. Andrew, and to have prompted him to make new endowments in honour of that Apostle.

In A.D. 756 Angus further extended his conquests. In alliance with his former enemy, Eadberct, king of Northumbria, he marched against the Strathclyde Britons and put an end to a contest which had lasted some twelve years, by subduing their capital Alclyde, or Dumbarton. Thus, before his death, in 761, the northern monarch had elevated the Pictish kingdom to a certain supremacy extending, more or less, over all the territory now comprised in Scotland, and the solid establishment of the veneration of St. Andrew in the Pictish dominions, and his adoption as the special patron of the Pictish monarchy, prepared the way for his ultimate reception as patron of the Scottish

nation.

In A.D. 844 the Pictish and Scottish kingdoms were finally united in the person of Kenneth MacAlpin, king of Dalriada; and Malcolm III. (A.D. 1005-1034) completed the unification of the territory of Scotland by the acquisition of Strathclyde and Bernicia. From this time forward the consolidation of the kingdom of Scotland was gradually completed, and St. Andrew, the chosen patron of the Pictish power, became ultimately recognized as the patron of the Scottish monarchy, of the Scottish people, and of the Scottish Church.'

We noticed only one printer's error, but that is a rather inconvenient one Sottish monarchy,' p. 25. On the whole the pamphlet is admirable, and well suited to excite the devotion of the people to their patron saint. That was the main object of the author in contributing so valuable a work to the Catholic Truth Society of Scotland.

J. B.

'BUT THY LOVE AND THY GRACE.' By Francis J. Finn, S.J., author of Percy Wynn, Tom Playfair, etc. New York: Benziger Brothers.

WE were, we believe, the very first, on this side of the Atlantic, to call attention to the remarkable stories of Father Finn, and to recommend them to all schools and colleges as elevating and, at the same time, stimulating reading for boys. Father Finn seems now to have turned his thoughts from the school, and to have given them to the active and busy life of the world. The heroine, as we may truly call her, of the present story, Regina O'Connell, is a poor girl who goes to confession every week, and who finds in her devotion to religion, not only the compensation for many trials and afflictions, but the strength to bear them with a joyful heart. The story is short; it is well told; and no one who begins to read it is likely to leave it down unfinished. There is just, perhaps, a little excess of melancholy, a superabundance of affliction, a tone of predominating grief, that we should like to see reduced to more common standards of experience; but, on the whole, the story promises well for Father Finn's new departure, and we wish him as great a measure of success with his new class of readers as he has won in the schools.

There is one word of criticism that we must be permitted to indulge in. Father Finn gives Irish names to nearly all the characters in this work, particularly to the lowly and the humble, and we are glad of it; but why give English names"Percy Wynn," "Tom Playfair," etc. to all his school heroes? Is there not a touch of snobbishness in all this? But it is scarcely fair to blame Father Finn for a fault which is just as characteristic of some of our own countrymen, who cry very loudly for the Irish language, and yet, when they wish to depict a respectable character, take care to give him an English name. All such people ought to be discountenanced.

J. B.

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH FROM WITHIN. With Preface by the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. 1901. Price, 6s. 6d. net. WE gather from Cardinal Vaughan's preface that the author of this sketch is a member of the laity, and we quite subscribe to the idea that it has many advantages over one drawn by a priest. It is freer, says the Cardinal, and perhaps more actual. It does not pretend to be professional. It is not authoritative :

The book is written by a member of the laity; by one who has lived for years-from childhood-among men and women of the world; who has mixed freely with Protestants; who has travelled much, and has also lived much at home, occupied with books as well as with the discharge of many and diverse duties.'

Such a writer, having at the same time the deeply religious sense and an acute mind, is particularly well qualified to turn out a book that should prove a guide and a help to many persons concerned about their souls. The deep interest taken in the work by Cardinal Vaughan shows what importance he attaches to it, and he has touched off in the preface the features of the volume that are most likely to commend it to the public, whether Catholic or non-Catholic::

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There is something' [writes His Eminence] that certainly differentiates the intimacy of Catholic life from other forms of life that may be domestic, beautiful, tender and affectionate, but are not also Catholic. People hear of Catholic views, Catholic feelings and instincts of ways and practices that are peculiarly and distinctively Catholic. They come across them now and then; they get glimpses and touches of them in Catholic homes. But generally they get no systematic presentation of them, unless they live on very intimate terms with Catholic friends; and even then the presentations of them is often but fragmentary and disconnected. The author of this book sketches for the reader many and various phases of Catholic life so that at last he may get a very fair and complete picture of the whole. The outsider, therefore, may feel pretty confident, when he has gone through the book, that he has penetrated a Catholic home of the educated class, and this without the trouble of introductions, and subjection to the many inane formalities of society in a strange house.'

A work so highly praised by a member of the Sacred College needs no commendation from us. At the same time we are happy to call attention to some special merits of the work on which His Eminence does not dwell. There are towards the end

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of the book two or three chapters-those on Giving and Taking Scandal,' The Cultivation of Catholic Instincts,' Marriage and the Bringing up of Children,'' Vocations and Religious Orders that seem to us to present Catholic doctrines and ideas in a language so fresh and unconventional, that we think they ought of themselves ensure the success of the book.

J. B.

CORAM SANCTISSIMO. London: Sands & Co.

THIS is another work from the pen of Mother M. Loyola. It contains forty visits to the Blessed Sacrament. These show that Mother M. Loyola is as much at home when depicting the trials, the aspirations, and the consolations of adults as in leading little children along the road of true penance. Each visit seizes, generally with thrilling vivacity, one idea; the subject is weighed in the presence of our Lord, the conclusions are always practical. Take, for example, The Visit XL. Life.' It opens : Life is a school, neither more nor less. Not more. Therefore we must not expect to find satisfaction. Not less. Therefore we

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must beware of squandering the time given us for our final state. ... Let me be schooled by the tasks and trials, the little joys and sorrows and passing brightness of this life. . . . . And when my school days are over and my lessons here are learned dear Father, take me home.' In like manner we have Praise, 'Possumus,' Changes, Darkness, Responsibility, etc. All speak to the mind and heart.

J. M.

DE SACRAMENTIS. Auctore H. Noldin, S.J., S. Theologiae Professore in Universitate Oenipontana, Sumptibus Ranch. (Pustet). 1901.

THIS Volume of Moral Theology deals with the Sacraments in general, Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction and Holy Orders. Father Noldin does not profess to treat these subjects with all the fulness of the larger works which are useful principally for professors and priests who desire to study profoundly the many interesting and practical questions which abound in Moral Theology. He professes to write a work for the use of schools in which the varied course of theological

learning prevents a very deep examination of any particular branch of divinity.

Though Father Noldin's work is limited by the end in view it deserves the attention of all theologians. It serves admirably for the end primarily in view. Its clearness makes it a very welcome companion for the hard-worked student. Its comparative completeness renders it sufficiently ample in dimensions for all practical purposes. Its practical nature makes it a very useful book not only for the student in the seminary but also for the missionary priest who cannot always devote as much time to the study of theology as he may desire.

It would be too much to expect that we could agree with all Father Noldin's opinions. We find no opinion, however, in the book which has not eminent supporters. Some of his views, nevertheless, in our opinion border on laxity. We may mention specially in this connection the opinion which is put forward in page 287, n. 270. Father Noldin holds, in that place, that a mortal sin not yet directly remitted by the absolution of the priest is validly confessed even if it be confessed as a sin already directly remitted in the Sacrament of Penance. Though this view has some modern upholders we think it intrinsically improbable. The priest in the Sacrament of Penance is a necessary judge of every cause that demands reconciliation with God. He must then know, as far as possible, whether or not his penitent necessarily requires reconciliation with the Almighty. He cannot know this unless the penitent explains whether his mortal sins were committed before or after his last valid confession. No doubt the sin in itself is the same whether it be already remitted or not but it is not the same in its present relations to God. These are the relations of which the priest is appointed judge in the tribunal of Penance. Again, it is the duty of the priest to impose a suitable penance on his penitent. Now a mortal sin already remitted deserves only a light penance whilst a mortal sin not already remitted demands a grave penance. How can the priest then fulfil this duty of imposing a suitable penance unless he knows whether or not the mortal sin confessed has been already remitted in the Sacrament of Penance.

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On page 263, n. 245b., Father Noldin says that contrition must be supernatural ratione motivi.' He explains this to mean that the contrition must have some relation to God and must not be from a merely temporal motive such as health, fame, etc.

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