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He rejects the view that the motive of contrition must be known by revelation through the lumen fidei. We quite agree with Father Noldin in this latter point though we would add that inasmuch as there is question of the validity of the Sacrament the view rejected by him must be upheld in practice since it is a probable opinion. We think, however, that Father Noldin's first statement is not sound as expressed by him. We do not see how a relation to God from a merely natural point of view can be called a supernatural motive. Father Noldin does not explain how faith is necessary in his view for an effective act of contrition. We presume that he does admit the necessity of faith in some


We do not wish to speak of other opinions of Father Noldin. Though we may differ from some of them none of them are rashly held by him. We recommend his book very strongly. It is very suitable as a class book for theological students. It is very useful for the missionary priest. We hope that other volumes will proceed from the pen of the learned author.

J. M. H.


THIS interesting little volume is an attempt to reconcile Aequiprobabilism with Probabilism. Some years ago the author wrote a Dissertation in favour of Aequiprobabilism. The conclusions put forward in that book lead logically, in the author's opinion, to the mode of reconciliation which he at present suggests. He is prepared to accept the principle of Probabilists: lex dubia non obligat. He gives his interpretation of this saying. When one opinion is certainly more probable than another opposing view then it is practically certain. Consequently if it be in favour of the law the law is no longer in practical doubt and must, therefore, be followed. If neither opinion be clearly the more probable, then the law is doubtful and consequently the opinion which favours liberty can be followed with a safe conscience. This is, a fortiori, true if the opinion which favours liberty be certainly the more probable. Father De Caigny thinks that all reasonable Aequiprobabilists and Probabilists will admit these conclusions.

We have always thought that there is very little difference, in practice, between Aequiprobabilism and Probabilism as explained by the moderate upholders of both systems. We think, however, that in theory it is not easy to reconcile both views. We fear that Father De Caigny leaves untouched a very important portion of the opinions of Probabilists. We fear that Probabilists will not admit that an opinion always ceases to be solidly probable when the opposing view is clearly more probable. As long as an opinion remains solidly probable the opposing opinion cannot be free from reasonable practical doubt though it may be favoured with a greater degree of probability. A Probabilist will in those circumstances apply his principle; lex dubia non obligat. Thus, theoretically, no common resting ground can be found for the two systems.

J. M. H.


Green. It is managed by a Board of Governors, created by an Order of the Lord Lieutenant in Council under the Educational Endowments (Ireland) Act of 1885. This Board of Governors is a Body Corporate, with perpetual succession and a common seal; and it has power to acquire and hold property, real and personal, for the purposes of the School. Thus the School has a legal position in the eyes of the State, comparable with that of the other Medical Schools in Ireland, governed by chartered bodies. I propose to tell the Commissioners very briefly how this has come about.

The School was founded by the Catholic Bishops of Ireland, in the year 1855. The buildings were purchased and equipped out of monies collected from the people, who were just then recc vering from the effects of the great famine. The teaching staff were paid, for many years, by means of an annual collection made for the purpose; and the cost of maintenance was met, partly out of the same annual collection, and partly out of capital. But, about twenty years ago, the capital fund of the University was exhausted, and it was found no longer possible to continue the annual collection. Since then, the Professors have received no salaries, and the cost of maintaining the buildings and equipments, has been a first charge on the fees paid by the students. What remains of the fees, after this charge is defrayed, is divided between the Professors and Lecturers, according to a Scheme arranged by the Faculty of the School.

In the year 1891, the Bishops gave their consent that the School, and its endowments, should be dealt with by the Educational Endowments Commission, constituted under the Act of 1885. A Scheme was accordingly prepared by the Commissioners, for the future government and management of the School; and this Scheme, after passing through the various stages provided by the Act, was finally approved by the Lord Lieutenant in Council, on the twenty-fourth of May, 1892. The endowments transferred to the new Governing Body were: (1) The buildings and equipment of the School; (2) A sum of £1,000, part of a bequest at the time

in the hands of the Bishops, for the purposes of the Catholic University; and (3) £500 Bank of Ireland Stock, another bequest, yielding about £55 a year. This was the sum total of the endowments with which the School was launched on its new career.

The sum of £1,000, just mentioned, together with a further sum of £3,000, which was soon afterwards acquired from another source, was spent almost immediately, by the new governors, in improving the buildings and equipment of the School; and the income of the Bank of Ireland Stock was allocated to Prizes for the students. Accordingly, the buildings and equipment, as they now stand, and the small income of £55 a year, constitute at present the whole endowment of the School.

It is provided by the Scheme of the Educational Endowments Commission that the Governing Body shall consist of four ex-officio members; three representatives of the Faculty of Medicine in the School; three representatives of medical science outside the School; and one representative of the Bishops. The following is a list of the Governors, at the present time.

Ex-Officio Members.

1. Most Rev. William J. Walsh, D.D., Archbishop of Dublin, Chairman.

2. Right Rev. Gerald Molloy, D.D., D.Sc., Rector of the Catholic University, Vice-Chairman.

3. Sir Christopher Nixon, LL.D., M.D., F.R.C.P.I., Dean of Faculty.

4. Very Rev. Robert Carbery, Dean of Residence.

Representatives of the Faculty.

5. Patrick J. Hayes, M.D., F.R.C.S. E., F.R.U.I.
6. Ambrose Birmingham, M.D., F.R.U.I., F.R.C.S.I.
7. D. J. Coffey, M.Ă., M.B., F.R.U.I.

Representatives of Medical Science.

8. Thomas More Madden, M.D., F.R.C.S.E. 9. Richard F. Tobin, F.R.C.S.I.

10. Joseph F. O'Carroll, M.D., F.R.C.P.I.

Representative of the Bishops.

11. Most Rev. John Healy, D.D., Bishop of Clonfert.


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