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PAGE 72.

1. 4. feront justice de, etc., shall do justice on', etc.; i. e. shall punish the delinquent by seizing his property.

1. 9. tailles, Engl. tallage, Lat. tallagia, a kind of tax imposed by the feudal lord on the inhabitants of towns in his domain. The word is generally derived from a word meaning to cut or divide, either because the tax was divided or apportioned among the inhabitants, or from the 'tallies' or notched sticks which were given as receipts to those who paid. Others however derive it directly from a Low Latin word tacula, or tacus, which = 'tax'.

1. 13. a forfait, 'has offended', or committed a crime; Low Latin, foris facere. Forfaitures, acts of misdemeanour'.

1. 15. 1. 18. dont ils relèvent, on whom they depend': from Latin relevare, a phrase in feudal law. When a feudal tenant died, his successor was said to relever, or take up again, his fief, paying at the same time a fine to the lord of the land: hence the word was used of feudal dependence in general.

en feront justice, 'shall do justice on him'.

1. 19.

sans l'aveu, 'without the consent'. 1. 29. par mégarde, 'by an oversight'.

PAGE 73.

1. 1. infraction de commune, 'treason against the commune'.

la vieille haine, 'ancient feud': i.e. the carrying on of a quarrel from one generation to another.

1. II.

du cens, Lat. census, an annual tax or rent levied on lands held by feudal tenure.

For tailles, see above, note to p. 72, 1. 9.

1. 18. il y en avait qui, 'there were some who'.

1. 22. droit de péage ou d'entrepôt, etc.: péage is from the Low Lat. pedagium: it was a toll on passengers over a certain spot, hence a toll on things in general. Entrepôt is a tax levied on goods temporarily stored, or entreposés in any place.

1. 25. promenoir, called, in English monasteries, the 'ambulatory', a ccvered place for walking in in bad weather.

PAGE 74.

1.6. la teneur, 'the purport', 'the meaning'.

1. 20.

les religieux, Lat. religiosi, i.e. monks or other ecclesiastics belonging to a certain order, as opposed to the ordinary or 'secular' clergy.

1. 22. Eugène III, chassé de Rome: this pope was driven from Rome by a popular revolt, immediately after his election, in 1145, and though he forced his way back into the city, he again left it soon afterwards, for France, and never again returned.

1. 28. incontinent, 'immediately'.

PAGE 75.

1. 27. sauf notre fidélité = sauf la fidélité qui nous est due.

PAGE 76.

1. 6.

en réclamation auprès du roi, 'complaining to the king'. suspendre la célébration, etc.; i.e. to place the town under an 'interdict', as the Pope sometimes did to a whole country, e.g. England in the reign of John.

1.9. un prévenu arrêté, 'an accused person (arrested before trial)

seized'.

1. 12. malgré les franchises, 'in spite of the privileges'.

1. 18. le parlement de Paris: this was the supreme law-court of the kingdom, composed originally of the royal council, with the addition of clerks and lawyers; the latter eventually acted alone, and became a hereditary body. The 'Parlement' never had, like our Parliament, any legislative functions, except in so far as they were implied in the registering of royal edicts.

1. 19. eut gain de cause, 'won their suit'.

1. 28. régime prévôtal, 'the rule of a provost', or royal officer, who represented the king in most cities at this time subject to the crown.

1. 34. tendantes aux fins que, etc., 'requesting that, etc.', or, "to the intent that, etc.': tendantes agrees with supplications, not with

causes.

1. 37. la commune is the accusative after reçu: in old French, as in Latin, it often comes before the verb.

PAGE 77.

1. 4. de par nous, ' on our behalf', de parte nostra.

1. 8. en commune, 'as a commune'.

1. 23. corps de ville, 'a civic body, or corporation'.

PAGE 78.

1. 15.

au petit criminel, 'petty criminal cases'.

1. 28. les capitouls, 'the magistrates': a name apparently peculiar to Toulouse, derived from Lat. capitulum.

1. 29. haches consulaires, consular axes', i.e. the axes bound up with the rods (Lat. fasces), which were borne by the lictors before the consuls in republican Rome.

1. 30. échancré, turned, or bent like a crescent, scimitar-shaped : poignée, handle': garde, 'the cross-bar' which in ordinary swords pro

tects the handle.

1. 35.

arme de parade, 'a weapon for display' (not for use).

PAGE 79.

1. 1. cordon en saillie, a projecting ornament in the form of a rope, running along the back of the blade, which of course would hinder the sword from passing through any opposing body.

LETTRE XX.

1. 17. l'armée des Franks.

In the year 496, after the battle of

Tolbiac gained by Clovis on the Germans.

1. 19. quant au nombre, 'in respect of number'. 1. 28. empiétements, 'encroachments'.

PAGE 82.

1.16. des Rémois, 'of the city of Reims'.

PAGE 83.

1. 7. vassaux ou serfs de corps, 'vassals (i.e. tenants holding their lands under the obligation of military service) or body-serfs' (i.e. tenants by servile tenure, bound to the soil, and cultivating land under the obligation of performing certain services of a degrading nature, like the "villeins" in England in the Middle Ages.

PAGE 84.

1. II. revenir sur ce qu'il avait accordé, cancel what he had granted'.

PAGE 85.

1. 1. roi des Français, etc.: observe that the royal title at this time was "king of the French", not "king of France"; he was king of the nation, not of the land, as the king of England was "rex Anglorum", not "rex Angliæ", at that time. France was then understood to mean a small district in the centre of the modern kingdom of France, and did not include Aquitaine, the south-western portion of that kingdom; hence the distinct title of "duke of the people of Aquitaine".

1. 17. contraint à rançon, ‘held to ransom', i.e. taken prisoners and kept till a ransom was paid for them. The single word rançonner is also used for the same thing, cf. below.

1. 31. le mot ban: cf. above, p. 163, note on banlieue.

1. 36. faubourg, from fors (Lat. foris), later hors, 'outside', and bourg, the 'city'; the area outside the city-walls, Angl. the suburb.

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PAGE $7.

1. g. dini de justice, 'refmal of justice', Le. refusal to hear a case bronje sudore him (the archbishop); only in this case were the municipal authorities to exercise any jurisdiction at all

1.7. son frere, ie. the king, Louis VIL

1. 26. son official, his representative'. The official was an ecclesiastic who tried cases instead of the archbishop or bishop. Clerks alone, as a rule, were amenable to his tribunal, but he could try laymen on charges of simony, heresy, non-payment of tithes, etc.

1. 32. tant que ce droit, etc., so long as, etc.': cf. above, 1. 5, note on déni de justice.

il reste en demeure, etc., he continues obstinate in this respect' Le. in his refusal to do justice.

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PAGE 89.

1. 11. le comte de Flandre, Thierry d'Alsace, count since 1128. 1. 13. sergents d'armes, gentlemen who acted as retainers to the

knights bannerets'.

PAGE 90.

1. 35. tout porte à croire, all the circumstances incline one to believe', etc.

1.30. qui eût complété; this is the conditional, 'which would have completed'.

PAGE 91.

1. 8. élevant...d'un degré, raising (the jurisdiction, etc.) one degree higher'.

1. 30. criardes, noisy': the Latin word is "murmurantia". This passage is a parody on Proverbs xxx.

PAGE 92.

1. 97. ses amis, old French for aimés, Lat. amati. Below (1. 30), amé et féal, "trusty and well-beloved': see note to p. 53, 1. 8.

PAGE 93.

1. 6. lui manquer, ‘fail in our duty towards him’.

1. 11. à moins qu'il, etc. 'unless he had issued them (the ordinances) in accordance with the advice, etc. of the municipality'.

1. 21. requérez-le, 'ask of him'; if the verb requérir is used by a superior addressing his inferior, it has the meaning of 'to summon', or 'require'.

1. 37. Henri de France, the brother of Louis VII, bishop of Beauvais, afterwards archbishop of Reims : see above, p. 86.

PAGE 94.

1. 4. pont-levis, a draw-bridge', i.e. a bridge fastened by a hinge at the end next the walls, the other end of which could be raised by chains from within, so as to cut off the passage across the moat (fossé).

1. 19. plaids, pleas', Lat. placita. The word originally means the judicial decision (quod placet judici), hence the trial itself, cf. the Court of Common Pleas in England.

1. 27. mandat de comparution, 'an order to appear (at the court)'.

PAGE 95.

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1. 7. cachot, a secret dungeon', generally under ground, from cacher, 'to hide'.

LETTRE XXI.

PAGE 96.

1. 11. gens de métier, 'craftsmen'; artisans employed in the lower trades.

1. 21. de leur chef, 'of their own initiative', i.e. without being requested or empowered to do so.

1. 34. faisaient la banque, 'acted as bankers'; money-lenders and money-changers. The latter trade was particularly important in the Middle Ages, owing to the great number and variety of coinages in the different countries and even in different parts of the same country. We know, for instance, that during the feudal period there were in circulation throughout France deniers parisis, tournois, mançois, angevins, poitevins, chartrains, bourdelais, rouennois or roumois, toulousains, differing from each other in weight and value, and which derived their names from the fact that they were struck respectively at Paris, Tours, Le Mans, Angers, Poitiers. Chartres, Bourdeaux, Rouen and Toulouse. See above, p. 161, note to p. 57, l. 22.

PAGE 97.

1. 2. les pairs, the (thirteen) magistrates called 'peers' (Lat. pares): see above, p. 30, 1. 21.

1. 11. fourrée d'hermine, 'lined with ermine'. 1. 24. par-dessus tout, above all things'.

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