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by sea, in Europe ; the Irish claims, and English disturbances, formed in the aggregate an opinion in my breast, which is not very susceptible of peaceful dreams, that the hour of deliverance was not far distant; for that, however unwilling Great Britain might be to yield the point, it would not be in her power to continue the contest. But, alas! these prospects, flattering as they were have proved delusory; and I see nothing before us but accumulating distress. We have been half of our time without provisions, and are likely to continue so. We have no magazines, nor money to form them. We have lived upon expedients until we can live no longer. In a word, the history of the war is a history of false hopes and temporary devices, instead of system and economy. It is in vain, however, to look back ; nor is it our business to do so. Our case is not desperate, if virtue exists in the people, and there is wisdom among our rulers. But, to suppose that this great revolution can be accomplished by a temporary army ; that this army will be subsisted by state supplies ; and that taxation alone is adequate to our wants, is, in my opinion, absurd.”

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of Count de Guichen, the superiority would be so much in favour of the allies, as to enable them to prosecute their original intention of attacking New York. When the expectations of the Americans were raised to the highest pitch, and when they were in great forwardness of preparation to act in concert with their allies, intelligence arrived that Count de Guichen had sailed for France. This disappointment was extremely mortifying.

Washington still adhered to his purpose of attacking New York at some future more favourable period. On this subject he corresponded with the French commanders, and had a personal interview with them on the twenty first of September, at Hartford. The arrival of Admiral Rodney on the American coast, a short time after, with eleven ships of the line, disconcerted for that season, all the plans of the allies. Washington felt with infinite regret, a succession of abortive projects throughout the campaign of 1780. In that year, and not before, he had indulged the hope of happily terminating the war. In a letter to a friend, he wrote as follows; " We are now drawing to a close an inactive campaign, the beginning of which appeared pregnant with events of a very favourable complexion. I hoped, but I hoped in vain, that a prospect was opening which would enable me to fix a period to my military pursuits, and restore me to domestic life. The favourable disposition of Spain ; the promised succour from France; the combined force in the West Indies; the declaration of Russia, acceded to by other powers of Europe, humiliating the naval pride and power of Great Britain ; the superiority of France and Spain

by sea, in Europe ; the Irish claims, and English disturbances, formed in the aggregate an opinion in my breast, which is not very susceptible of peaceful dreams, that the hour of deliverance was not far distant; for that, however unwilling Great Britain might be to yield the point, it would not be in her power to continue the contest. But, alas! these prospects, flattering as they were have proved delusory; and I see nothing before us but accumulating distress. We have been half of our time without provisions, and are likely to continue so. We have no magazines, nor money to form them. We have lived upon expedients until we can live no longer. In a word, the history of the war is a history of false hopes

of false hopes and temporary devices, instead of system and economy. It is in vain, however, to look back ; nor is it our business to do so. Our case is not desperate, if virtue exists in the people, and there is wisdom among our rulers. But, to

But, to suppose that this great revolution can be accomplished by a temporary army; that this army will be subsisted by state supplies; and that taxation alone is adequate to our wants, is, in my opinion, absurd.”

13

CHAPTER VIII.

CAMPAIGN OF 1781.

The Pennsylvania line mutinies..... The Jersey troops follow their exam.

ple, but are quelled by decisive measures..... Gen. Washington com. mences a military journal, detailing the wants and distresses o his army.... Is invited to the defence of his native state, Virginia, but declines..... Reprimands the manager of his private estate for furnishing the enemy with supplies, to prevent the destruction of his property. Extinguishes the incipient names of a civil war, respecting the inde. pendence of the state of Verniont..... Plans a combined operation against the British, and deputes Lieut. Col. John Laurens to solicit the co-operation of the French..... The combined forces of both nations rendezvous in the Chesapeak, and take lord Cornwallis and his army prisoners of war..... Washington returns to the vicinity of New York, and urges the necessity of preparing for a new campaign.

The year 1780 ended in the northern states with disappointment, and the year 1781 commenced with mutiny. In the night of the first of January about thirteen hundred of the Pennsylvania line pa. raded under arms in their encampment, near Morristown, avowing a determination to march to the seat of Congress, and obtain a redress of their grievances, without which they would serve no longer. The exertions of Gen. Wayne and the other officers to quell the mutiny, were in vain. The whole body marched off with six field pieces toward Princeton. They stated their demands in writing; which were, a discharge to all who had served three years, an immediate payment of all that was due to them, and that future pay should be made in real money to all who remained in the service. Their officers, a committee of Congress, and a deputation from the executive council of Pennsylvania, endeavoured to effect an accommodation ; but the mutineers resolutely refused all terms, of which a redress of their grievances was not the foundation.'

To their demands as founded in justice, the civil authority of Pennsylvania substantially yielded. Intelligence of this mutiny was communicated to Gen. Washington at New Windsor, before any accommodation had taken place. Though he had been long accustomed to decide in hazardous and difficult situations, yet it was no easy matter in this delicate crisis, to determine on the most proper course to be pursued. His personal influence had several times extinguished rising mutinies. The first scheme that presented itself was, to repair to the camp of the mutineers, and try to recall them to a sense of their duty ; but on mature reflection this was declined. He well knew that their claims were founded in justice, but he could not reconcile himself to wound the disci. pline of his army, by yielding to their demands while they were in open revolt with arms in their hands. He viewed the subject in all its relations

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