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ington with the view of civilizing these fierce sons of nature, have been ever since steadily pursued by all his successors. Indian wars are now only known from the records or recollection of past events; and it is probable that the day is not far distant when the United States will receive a considerable accession of citizens from the civilized red men of the forest.
Gen. Washington attends to the foreign relations of the United States.
Negotiates with Spain..... Difficulties in the way..... The free navigation of the Missisippi is granted by a treaty made with Major Pinckney..... Negotiations with Britain..... Difficulties in the way..... War probable.....Mr. Jay's mission.....His treaty with Great Britain ....Ops position thereto. ... Is ratified..... Washington refuses papers to House of Representatives.... British posts in United Statcs evacuated... Nego. tiations with France....Gepet's arrival..... Assumes illegal powers, in violation of the neutrality of the United States.....Is flattered by the people, but opposed by the executive.....Is recalled ....Gen. Pinckney sent as public minister to adjust disputes with France.....Is not received..... Washington declines a re-election, and addresses the people. His last address to the national legislature..... Recommends a navy, a military academy, and other public institutions.
Events which had taken place before the inaugutation of Washington, embarrassed his negotiations for the adjustment of the political relations between the United States and Spain.
In the year 1779, Mr. Jay had been appointed by the old Congress to make a treaty with his Catholic Majesty ; but his best endeavours for
more than two years were ineffectual. In a fit of despondence, while the revolutionary war was pressing, he had been authorized to agree “to re. linquish, and in future forbear to use the navi. gation of the river Missisippi, from the point where it leaves the United States, down to the ocean.” After the war was ended, a majority of Congress had agreed to barter away for twenty five years, their claim to this navigation. A long and intricate negotiation between Mr. Gardoqui, the minister of his Catholic Majesty, and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, had taken place at New York, in the interval between the establishment of peace and of the new constitution of the United States; but was rendered abortive from the inflexible adherence of Mr. Gardoqui to the exclusion of the citizens of the United States from navigating the Missisippi below their southern boundary. This umyielding disposition of Spain, the inability of the United States to assert their claims to the navigation of this river, and especially the facility which the old Congress had shown to recede from it for a term of years, had soured the minds of the western settlers. Their impatience transportech them so far beyond the bounds of policy, that they sometimes dropped hints of separating from the Atlantic States, and attaching themselves to the Spaniards. In this critical state of things, the president found abundant exercise for all his prudence. The western inhabitants were, in fact, thwarting his views in their favour, and encouraging Spain to persist in refusing that free navigation, which was so ardentiy desired both by the
scenes of which you had taken your leave for ev. er. But obedience was due to the occasion. It is already applauded by the universal joy which welcomes you to your station. And we cannot doubt that it will be rewarded with all the satisfaction with which an ardent love for your fellowcitizens must review successful efforts to promote their happiness.
“ This anticipation is not justified merely by the past experience of your signal services. It is particularly suggested by the pious impressions under which you commence your administration; and the enlightened maxims by which you mean to conduct it. We feel with you the strongest obligations to adore the invisible hand which has led the American people through so many difficulties; to cherish a conscious responsibility for the destiny of republican liberty ; and to seek the only sure means of preserving and recommending the precious deposit in a system of legislation founded on the principles of an honest policy, and directed by the spirit of a diffusive patriotism.
“In forming the pecuniary provisions for the executive department, we shall not lose sight of a wish resulting from mctives which give it a pecu. liar claim to our regard. Your resolution, in a moment critical to the liberties of your. country, to renounce all personal enolument, was among the many presages of your patriotic services, which have been amply fulfilled ; and your scrupulous adherence now to the law then imposed on yourself, cannot fail to demonstrate the purity, whilst it increases the lustre of a character which has so many titles to admiration.
“ Such are the sentiments with which we have thought fit to address you. They flow from our own hearts, and we verily believe that among the millions we represent, there is not a virtuous citi.. zen whose heart will disdwn them..
" All that remains is, that we join in your fer. . vent supplications for the blessing of Heaven on our country; and that we add our own for the choicest of these blessings on the most beloved of her citizens."
The president and Congress then attended on divine service.
In the evening a very ingenious and splendid show of fireworks was exhibited. Betwixt the fort and the Bowling Green stood conspicuous, a superb" and brilliant transparent painting, in the centre of which was the portrait of the president, represented under the emblem of Fortitude ; on his right hand was Justice, representing the Senate of the United States, and on his left Wisdom, representing the House of Representatives.
When Washington commenced his administration, the condition of the United States was so embarrassed as to excite many fears for the suc. cess of the new government. The treasury was empty. Large debts were due both by the old Congress and individuals to foreigners, and also from the United States to its own citizens, and from citizens to citizens. Every effort made by the former government to pay, or even to fund its debts, bad failed, from the imbecility of the feder
Great discontents prevailed in the United States, for the party opposed to the new constitution was strong and numerous.