Lipid-Soluble Antioxidants: Biochemistry and Clinical Applications

Front Cover
Birkhäuser, Mar 9, 2013 - Science - 642 pages
Antioxidants inhibit the formation and spread of free radicals which can be damaging in biological systems. Free radicals form in biological systems through metabolism, but it is also realized that exogenous environmental sources, such as radiation, food, and drugs, contribute significantly to the generation of free radicals in biological systems. Being reactive species, free radicals are short-lived and do not travel far from cellular targets. Their concentration in biological systems is very low and is difficult to detect directly by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Indirect methods of reactions of radicals with specific biomolecules are also sufficiently sensitive to detect quantitatively their presence. Thus the response of antioxidant defenses which react with radical species, can serve as an indirect measure that free radicals have been formed. Redox-based antioxidants change their oxidation state and antioxidants become free radicals themselves. Often, however, the antioxidants give rise to more persistent free radicals, sometimes owing to delocalization of the lone electron around ring structures (in vitamin E, ubiquinones, and certain carotenes). Persistent free radicals react only rarely and the precursors often can be regenerated in biological systems. In recent years, it is becoming clearer from biochemical studies on how the major lipophilic antioxidants work. Particular attention has been given to vitamin E and quinones found in animal and plant membranes and in carotenoids, for the protection of membranes in lipoprotein systems. Flavonoids form another rich and varied source of natural antioxidants.
 

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Contents

The reactivity of tocotrienols and other lipidsoluble antioxidants towards
17
Synergistic effect of lipid hydroperoxyl radical scavenging and lipid
47
Vitamin E in protection of oxidative impairment in endothelial and platelet
65
Effect of vitamin E on metabolism of uremic low density lipoproteins
85
VI
92
Role
123
VIII
144
Antitumor and antioxidant activity of tocotrienols
152
Oxygen free radicals in malaria
355
The mechanism of antimalarial action of artemisinin Qinghaosu
363
Erythrocytic GSH level and stability in Plasmodium vivax malaria
373
Plasma lipid peroxidation in P falciparum malaria
397
Presence formation and function of ubiquinones Q6 and Qs in filarial
406
Catalase activity in red cell and liver of mice infected with Plasmodium
416
Epidemiological correlations between poor plasma levels of essential
442
K F
455

Nutrition of tocotrienols and lipid metabolism
166
J A Olson
188
Role of 3carotene in disease prevention with special reference to cancer
208
Antitumor and antitumor promoting activity of O and 3carotene
228
Production of palm oil carotenoid concentrate and its potential application
243
Carotenoids novel polyene polyketones and new capsorubin isomers
255
Modification of alloxan diabetes in rats by vitamin A status
265
Their significance for nutrition and health
274
Studies on flavonoids and related compounds as antioxidants in food
295
Autocoidimmunopharmacology of flavonoids
307
Anticarcinogenicity of flavonoids as studied by inhibition of lipid
320
Role of retinoids in modulating the molecular actions of environmental
330
PARASITIC AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
337
Lipidsoluble plant phenols as antioxidants and antimutagens
469
Anticancer effects of cisunsaturated fatty acids both in vitro
482
Clinical studies on polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in African
507
Effect of japanese herbal medicine Shosaikotogokeishikashakuyakuto
535
Lipoprotein oxidation
553
Hepatic lipid peroxidation in ethanol potentiated aflatoxin B1 hepatotoxicity
567
Fat soluble antioxidant vitamins in cancer patients
582
Butylated hydroxytoluene toxicity
590
Effects of tocotrienolsrich vitamin E on patients with peripheral vascular
606
Protection from air pollution injury by dietary vitamin E
622
Subject Index
632
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