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sworn to the same constitution, and Bad as Louis Napoleon and his dissolved by military force. How sorry Prætorian Guards are, they are inwe ought to be that we failed to appre- comparably better than Louis Blanc ciate the modern doctrines of liberty, and his Red Republicans. The former and forbore to rival our neighbours in the facile art of reorganising society!

are subject at least to military dis6. We are afraid at the present moment

cipline, the latter to no authority fraternity fares little better in Paris than whatever. The case is the same liberty. The arms of the soldier are turned everywhere else as in France. Ausremorselessly on the citizen, and one of tria, Prussia, Italy, are all alike the twin children of universal suffrage prostrated under the yoke of milievinces a truly Romulean propensity to litary power. Compared with their strangle the other. Of course the people present state, the

condition of are still sovereigns; but their right of so

these countries, under the rule of vereignty in re-electing the PRESIDENT İS Hardenberg and Metternich, was abto be exercised at a week's notice, with solute felicity. With the usual unout the enlightenment of the public press happy tendency of civil conflicts

, the military coercion. Alas for universal reaction has been as violent as the suffrage, vote by ballot, quadrennial action; and Austria, in particular, Parliaments, and an elected President, appears to be now suffering under a when all they can do is to give the rigorous military government, which, people the opportunity of choosing a however unavoidable in a country master without alternative! It is a melancholy fact for the admirers of by the wounds which Austria has re

torn by the passions and lacerated modern constitutions that the voice poten- ceived since the commencement of tial in this matter is with the

army, and that the people are only called on to her convulsions, must ever be deeply confirm what they are powerless to deplored by every friend of real freereject. The Prætorian bands dispose dom. A country which has been so of the empire, and the trembling electors torn in pieces by internal convulsions must confirm their choice. What makes as to be compelled to call in a foreign the thing more agreeable is, that these enemy to appease them, and sacrifice very troops have been pointedly re- its independence to prolong its exisminded that they have the discomfitures tence, may find some apology for exhortation designed, we presume, to fan subsequent measures of severity? Let their zeal for liberty with a gentle those answer for them who rendered stimulant of fraternity. As for EQUAL- them unavoidable—who desolated a ITY,' we need not say much. The citizen noble people with the passions, not is sunk below the soldier; and the civil only of civilisation, but of race—who, magistrate, in order to enslave his con- while they proclaimed national sufstituents, has condescended to become frage at Vienna, instigated national the creature and dependent of his guards. separation at Buda, and let loose at He does not rule by, but under, the sword. Under such circumstances a good tomed to freedom, both the strongest

once upon a people wholly unaccusdeal of equality may naturally be expected, for nothing is so fatal to

passions which can agitate the human equality as freedom, and nothing so

heart, and either of which, in all past favourable to it as despotism.”—Times, time, has been found sufficient to let Dec. 6, 1851.

slip the dogs of war upon mankind.

The following extracts from two We make no apology for the journals, who will not be suspected length of these quotations; for, in- of favouring the last revolution in dependent of their ability in graphic France—the Daily News and the power, they are nothing more than Times—prove that this usurpation of à historical statement ex post facto Louis Napoleon, violent and bloody as of what we have constantly predicted it has been, has, from the horror at a would be the inevitable result of Republic, and Universal Suffrage, carsuccessful revolution among our Con- ried with it the assent of the most tinental neighbours. Terrible as this influential and respectable classes in military execution has been, it has France:obviously carried with it the con

“I am told to-day on all hands, by currence of the great majority of the persons conversant with the tone of opiFrench; and the reason is obvious. nion, that Louis Napoleon's triumph at

to some

the poll, fixed for the 20th, is considered being an advance of more than 2 per cent. as certain. Physical resistance, or ma- Many persons still assert that the moveterials for it, there may be said to exist ment is owing to Government operations; none in Paris at the present moment. The and probably the dealers, being aware of blow is struck, and it has perfectly suc- these operations, act

extent ceeded. The great proprietors, the mer- simply upon the strength of them. The chants, and the moneyed interests on all improvement, however, has been too hands, adhere to the new power. They well maintained to leave a doubt that it regard the revolution of February as com- is also supported by purchasers among pletely slain; they look forward to the the public. The conclusion, therefore, rising of rents, to the revival of commerce, strange as it may appear to the people of to the reanimation of industry. The per- Holland and England, must be that, on sons and classes who, since February 1848, the whole, the moneyed classes of Paris have been sunk in dejection and choked have arrived at the conviction that the with fear, begin to breathe with ease, army will henceforth permanently identiand to appear radiant with hope. I de- fy themselves with the cause of economy seribe what I see among the opulent and commerce, and insure the state of orders and the tradespeople, who have no external and internal repose that is essenpolitical creed whatever, but only look tial to restore the balance of income and io a strong central power to put down expenditure.Times, Dec. 15, 1851. with the strong hand all attempts at disturbance, and stop all sources of agita- Count Montalembert's letter of tion. You will find it of great impor. Dec. 12 is equally convulsive. tance to bear this in mind, that the government of Louis Napoleon is accepted “I begin by declaring that the act of already by all such. The new dictator the 20 December has put to flight the meets resistance only in the political whole of the revolutionists, the whole orders, which are at this moment in a of the Socialists, and the whole of the terrible minority. So true is this, that M. bandits of France and Europe ; and that Thiers has been set at liberty, together alone is, in my opinion, a more than suffiwith the greater part of the representa- cient reason for all honest men to rejoice, tives who remained still in confinement. and for those who have been most mortiIt is the opinion of those with whom I fied to console themselves. I do not have conversed—men quite disinterested enter into the question as to whether the in their views, who stand aloof from poli- coup d'état (which has been foreseen by ties—that the achievement of Louis Na- every one) could be executed at another poleon has taken, that he will obtain a moment, and in another manner; to do large majority of suffrages, and that no so I should have to go back to the serious resistance will be offered to him causes which produced it, and to give my in the departments. We may gather, opinion on persons who cannot now reply from various signs, that gradually all to me. I do not pretend to guarantee traces of the revolution of February will the future any more than to judge of the disappear, whether in the shape of exter- past; I only look at the present—that is nal symbols or political institutions.”- to say, the vote to be delivered on Sunday Daily News, Dec. 7, 1851.


“ There are three courses open-the “The letters from the Parisian capi- negative vote, neutrality, and the affirtalists and speculators continue for the

mative vote. most part to express unbounded satisfac

“ To vote against Louis Napoleon tion at the prospect of military rule being would be to justify the Socialist revoluthoroughly established. No desire seems tion, which, for the present at least, is to be entertained, either now or for the the only one that can take the place of future, of any intermediate state be- the actual government. It would be to tween that and anarchy. An uncompro. invite the dictatorship of the Reds in mising system of repression is described place of the dictatorship of a prince who as the only true reliance; and the convic- has rendered for three years imcomparation that it will now be carried out ble services to the cause of order and without compunction to the utmost extre- Catholicism.”—Times, Dec. 16, 1851. mity imparts a degree of confidence to the frequenters of the Exchange which with any degree of certainty, what

It is impossible to predict as yet, overrides all other considerations. Under these circumstances, the funds continue may be the issue of the present to rise rapidly; and according to a tele- struggle in France; or, rather, which graphic report received at a late hour section of the army will prove victoat the Stock Exchange, the Five per

rious. We say advisedly of “the Cents this morning were at 99f. 50c., army,” because it is evident that

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neither the people nor the National ships of the line and disbanding the Guard are of any weight in the con- soldiers, and trusting ourselves to the flict. If the army is unanimous, and tender mercies of English Chartists, remains faithful to its chief, the con- Russian bayonets, or French cuirastest will speedily be terminated; and siers. It is amusing to see menbefore these cets issue from the whose theories when reduced to prac. press, Louis Napoleon will be the real tice have armed every nation against Emperor of France. But that is a con- the other, and converted Europe into test of persons only; it is whether Na- one vast camp — still continuing, poleon or Changarnier is to be the dic- amidst the universal desolation these tator. The contest in which mankind theories have occasioned, an unshaken are really interested—the contest of adherence to their ruinous dogmas, things and principles, of property with and gravely proposing the disarming Red Republicanism—is already over. of one nation, amidst the arming of The strife between monarchy and de- all the adjoining states. We should mocracy is at an end. The republic of like to see what these gentlemen would 1848 is numbered amongst the things do when real danger approaches : we that have been. It is dead and buried; have not forgot what they did in the it only remains for history to pro- bull-ring at Birmingham in 1842, nounce its funeral oration; and if it or during the pillage of Glasgow be founded on truth, that oration will in 1848. We should like to see be anything rather than an eloge. how earnestly they would invoke the The only question that remains is, protection of the red-coats, if their who is to be the military despot ? and beloved allies, the Chartists, were before that question is finally settled, to begin to reduce their principles to it is not improbable that many days practice; or some of the myriads of of mourning are in store for France. armed men whom they have “called Possibly we may see, as in the days into existence” on the Continent of of the Roman Empire, the legions Europe were to approach the British arrayed under opposite banners; and shores. When will mankind learn a second battle of Lyons, between that soldiers are a necessity, not a 150,000 men on each side, determine luxury, and that nothing calls that who is to be the master of the Gallic necessity so speedily into action as world. But, in any event, the great the letting loose the passions of men civil question is fixed. Democracy by the triumph of democracy? When has found its natural and inevitable France was governed by its lawful master in a military chief. And the monarch in the days of Charles year 1851 has added another “to X., its military establishment was the many lessons which history,” in not quite 109,000 men; when a Hume's words, “has taught, that throne surrounded with republican civil dissensions, from whatever cause institutions was established, it was beginning, end only in the empire of at once raised to 320,000; but with the sword."*

the establishment of a Republic and The democratic orators at Man- Universa Suffrage, it was increased chester, conscious of the commentary to 180,000. Charles X. was overwhich the passing events on the Con- turned because he had only 11,000 tinent was reading on their projects troops in Paris when the revolution of Reform and Universal Suffrage, broke out, of whom only one-half are the first to discuss the subject. would fight; Louis Philippe, because They say that as 400,000 bayonets neither he nor his sons had the courand sabres in France have ex- age to put themselves at the head of tinguished the Republic and Uni- their soldiers; but Louis Napoleon versal Suffrage, the conclusion to be has succeeded because he brought up drawn is not that we should abolish 150,000 men, all of whom were faiththe Republic, but the bayonets; and ful. If the dreams of the Manchester that the catastrophe at Paris affords reformers were realised, Great Britain an additional argument in favour of would speedily fin : its military estheir favourite project of selling the tablishment increased to 300,000

* Hume's England, c. 60, ad finem.

men, and its direct taxes of every the nation a vast increase of popular description doubled; and Lord Pal- power, when it is notorious that merston would have no grounds for nobody was asking it, and it is exultation at the influence of the alleged that everybody is entirely constible's staff amongst us.

satisfied with the measures which the The Reform with which we are Reformed Parliament have adopted ? threatened in the next session of It cannot be disputed that this step is Parliament is, in many respects, the attended with hazard. Every popular most remarkable recorded in history. concession, especially in excited times, The most ardent reformers have never is so, in greater or less degree. Lord ventured to assert that either any John Russell has told us that we real grievances existed which re- cannot afford to have a revolution quired redress, or any public demon- every year. Where, then, is the nestration whatever had been made of cessity—in the absence certainly of a general desire for further popular any demand for it in the country, and concessions. In fact, the public the alleged non-existence of any disapathy on the subject was the theme tress which can justify it—for a new of constant lament and no small sur and uncalled for concession of power prise among the democratic party, to the democratic part of the constiand was the subject of loud complaint tution? Where is the wisdom of in their journals. Without doubt, volunteering to give it, at the very when the Manchester leaders saw the moment when every state on the ConGovernment voluntarily coming for- tinent, without one single exception, ward to offer them a large measure affords proof of the inevitable tenof reform, they were not such fools deney of any approach towards unias to decline the proposal. But till versal suffrage to lead the nation, by the intentions of Government were a rapid and certain process, to the declared, there was nothing heard of destruction of industry, the ruin of reforın, or any necessity or desire freedom, and the triumph of military for it. Not even

& solitary peti- despotism ? tion was presented on the subject. The thing will admit only of one In other cases, and in former times, solution. Government are prepared Government made popular conces- to hazard the freedom, the constitusions from their declared inability to tion, it may be, in the end, the resist them, and from the weight of crown of England, solely because the pressure from without, which could they are afraid of being thrown into a no longer be withstood. But on this minority at the next election. Amidst occasion, the case was just the reverse: their ceaseless boasts of the universal the pressure from without, if it shall satisfaction which the policy of the ever be felt, will have arisen entirely Reformed Parliament has given, their from the measures of Government. acts evince a secret sense of their un

What, then, is it which has induced popularity. They do not renture to the Government to adventure upon appeal to the constituency which they the measure, at all times perilous, themselves have created, on the vital and more especially in the present question of Free Trade. They feel it excited state of Europe, of a large to be indispensable to drown the cries concession of power to the popular of suffering in the shouts of passion ; portion of the constitution? We are to convulse the nation with demotold the people are perfectly satisfied cratic ambition, in the hopes of stifling with Reform, and the Free Trade the prayers for employment, or the policy which it has engendered ; that demand for a readjustment of direct wellbeing is universal, provisions ta xation ; to run any hazard to their cheap, and our labouring classes con- sovereign, their country and themtented; that our exports and imports selves, rather than let their own meawere never so large, nor public pro- sures be canrassed on the hustings sperity established on so wide and before their own constituencies. They secure a basis. Be it so. Where, are acting as they did in Ireland then, is the necessity for a new reform three years ago, where, amidst ceasebill? What can excuse the unpre- less protestations of the admirable cedented step of voluntarily offering working of free trade in provisions


in the Emerald Isle, they were quietly of a party to retain power, and their taking measures to fill up the hideous dread of meeting their own constitugaps in the rural constituency which encies on their own measures. their own measures had made, and It is no wonder that, amidst their actually brought in a bill the object boasting and high-sounding profesof which was to lower the franchise sions, the acts of government should of tenants to a £5 interest, which was betray a secret distrust of their own only raised to £8 by the Conservatives measures, and an agony of terror at in the House of Lords. They had the open discussion of them; for never destroyed their own voters so com- did the policy of a party, within so pletely that, according to their own short a time, inflict such general and statement, they were reduced from wide-spread ruin on a country. This 250,000 to 72,000. In like manner, is proved, in the most decisive way, at present, while they are constantly by public documents, published under boasting of the immense blessings parliamentary authority, about which which their

have con- there can be no dispute, and by the ferred upon the country, and the un- admission of the ablest and best inbounded popularity which they have formed of their advocates themselves. acquired, particularly in the urban We desire no other testimony; we constituencies, for whom they were know the value of an adverse and all intended, they are quietly taking unwilling witness; we shall rest the measures to swamp those very consti- case against them on these two tuencies, and drown the cry for an grounds, and on them alone. alteration of policy in that for organic And first, as to emigration, the change, and an extension of the elec- best and surest test of the wellbeing toral suffrage. Other nations have or suffering of the working classes been revolutionised by general suffer- for no one need be told that men will ing, experienced evils, or the undue never leave their country, their homes, retention of old institutions; but Eng- the land of their fathers, the cradle of land is the first country recorded in their childhood, unless driven to it by history in which great and serious stern necessity. Now it appears, from organic changes are threatened from the Parliamentary Reports, that the no experienced evils, from no popular total and average of emigration from outcry, from no antiquated privileges, Great Britain and Ireland for twentybut simply and solely from the anxiety one years, from

1825 to 1845, inclusive, was
For five years, from 1846 to 1850, inclusive, was



64,260 243,311

Thus it appears that the average carries everything before it, and emigration has been nearly QUADRU- threatens to drain away at PLED since Free Trade was introduced, the strength, the resources, and the and that in the short space of five future population of the empire. The years. What was formerly merely a details of the last thirteen years, trifling rill, draining off in a health- year by year, are perhaps still more ful and beneficial stream the surplus instructive. They have been often numbers of our people, has all at once given, but can never be sufficiently swollen into a huge torrent, which studied.


1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845,

Before Free Trade.



After Free Trade.

129,851 258,271 248,089 299,498 286,584

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