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8 31. faeneramur: there is evidence for this spelling, and some evidence for fenerator, but none for foenerator. For the sense cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8, 6, 4 ή δε διά το χρήσιμον (φιλία) των αγοραίων (i.e. belongs to mercenary persons); Fin. 2, 117 nec enim si tuam ob causam cuipiam commodes beneficium illud habendum est, sed faeneratio ; N.D. 1, 122 nulla est caritas naturalis inter bonos ?... quam (amicitiam) si ad fructum referemus non erit ista amicitia, sed mercatura quaedam utilitatum ; Sen. ben. 1, 2, 3 turpis faeneratio est beneficium expensum ferre (to make kindness a matter of book-keeping); Sen. ep. 9, 10

negotiatio est non amicitia quae quid consecutura sit spectat. 13 in ipso amore: for the change here from amicitiam to amore cf. 100,

1. 15 sive amor sive amicitia ; for the general sense Fam. 3, 13, 2 mihi propono fructum amicitiae nostrae ipsam amicitiam. expetendam : n. on 22,



§ 32.

his: neuter; =his sententiis; cf. 13, 1. 19 ut in plerisque; also n. on 50, l. 7 similium. !4 pecudum ritu: n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 6; Parad. 1, 14 quae quidem mihi vox (voluptatem esse summum bonum) pecudum videtur esse, non hominum.

ad voluptatem omnia referunt: “judge all things by the standard of pleasure'; lit. "carry back all things to pleasure’-a form of expression exceedingly common in Cicero's philosophical works. Cf. also voluptate omnia metiri (Fin. 2, 56; De Or. 3, 62), dirigere omnia voluptate

(Fin. 2, 71). 15 nec mirum: est omitted, as often (n. on 14, 1. 31); e.g. Academ. 2, 63 ut etiam manus saepe tolleret: nec mirum, nam... In


l. 21 however, quid mirum est.

magnificum : Meyalompetés; n. on 21, l. 13.
ac: cf. n. on 54, l. II atque.

suspicere : 'look up to'; for the metaphorical sense cf. Off. 2, 36 eos viros suspiciunt; Orat. 97 eloquentia quam suspicerent omnes; Fam. 10, 9, 2 honores praemiaque vestra suspicio; De Or. 3, 22 si hoc quoque videtur altius quam ut id nos humi strati suspicere possimus.

abiecerunt : 'haye degraded'; cf. Leg. 1, 26 nam cum ceteras animantes (natura) abiecisset ad pastum solum hominem erexit ad caelique

conspectum excitavit. 17 contemptam : here, as often, not 'despised', but 'despicable’. 13 ab hoc sermone removeamus: ‘let us dismiss from our conversation'. 19 sensum diligendi : cf. 27, p. 36, 1. 32 sensu amandi.

benevolentiae : see 20, p. 34, 1. 2 benevolentia et caritate ; 28, l. 13 caritate aliqua benevola.

facta etc.: 'when intimation has been given of moral worth'. Cf. closely $ 27, last sentence; also $ 48, last sentence, also $ 100.





applicant: cf. 27, p. 36, 1. 32 applicatione animi; 48, 1. 28 se animus applicat.

usu: =consuetudine 'familiarity,' society'; cf. above, 1. 6; 76, p. 52, 1. 3.

pares et aequales: so 56, p. 46, 1. 2 pariter aequaliterque; Orat. 123 par et aequalis oratio ; De Or. 1, 83 virtutes esse inter se aequalis et paris. The word aequalis means properly 'even', or 'on the same level', par 'having the same quantity or size’; but in their secondary applications the two words become convertible; cf. Orat. 205 imparibus an aequalibus. For the expression in amore pares cf. Propert. 1, 1, 32

sitis et in tuto semper amore pares and for the sense 8 69 sq. with the nn. 23 bene merendum: 26, l. 22 meritis.

haec concertatio: huius rei or de hac re concertatio ; cf. n. on 2, l. 13


eum sermonem. 26

quam ab imbecillitate: quam si ab imbecillitate esset; for the brevity of the expression cf. n. on 27, p. 37, 1.6 similis sensus amoris. Quam not seldom in Cic. precedes the comparative; e.g. Off. 1, 75 quamvis sit eius nomen quam Solonis illustrius. V gravior: more dignified'. Cf. 26, 1. 24 antiquior et pulchrior et

magis a natura profecta causa. 27 conglutinaret : a metaphor of which Cic. is extremely fond; so con

glutinare voluntates (Fam. II, 27, 2); rem dissolutam (De Or. I, 188); hominem (Cat. m. 72), amicitias (as here in Att. 7, 8, 1); concordiam (Att. 1, 17, 10); also. Phil. 3, 28 totus ex vitiis conglutinatus ; Cic. too alone of Latin writers uses conglutinatio. The simple verb glutinare is found only in silver Latin.

eadem dissolveret: cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8, 4, 2 oi dè dià no xpñolμον όντες φίλοι άμα το συμφέροντα διαλύονται ου γάρ αλλήλων ήσαν φίλοι, ,

αλλά του λυσιτελους. . 28

verae amicitiae : cf. 22, p. 34, 1. 32 with n. 30V nisi quid ad haec: sc. dicere 'unless you have anything to say on

this subject'. Laelius was about to proceed ‘now let us turn to another part of our subject' when Fannius interrupts. Cf. closely Tusc. 2, 42 de exercitatione et consuetudine et commentatione dixi. Age sis nunc de ratione videamus, nisi quid vis ad haec; ib. 4, 46 exspecto quid ad ista; ib. 3, 78 ad Epicuri consolationem satis est ante dictum ; Ñ.D. 1, 19 longum est ad omnia. See other exx. of ellipses of verba dicendi in n.

on 1, 1. 10. 31 tu vero perge : yes, do go on'. So Academ. I, 18 tu vero, inquit,

perge, Varro; De Or. 2, 124 tu vero, inquit, Antoni, perge ut instituisti.

pro hoc...respondeo : so Acad. I, 33 nos vero volumus, ut pro Attico respondeam...Et recte, inquit, respondes ; Brut. 122 nobis vero, inquit Atticus, et vehementer quidem (sc. placet) ut pro Bruto etiam respondeam.

qui minor est natu: cf. Acad. 2, 61 te, hominem amicissimum et aliquot annis minorem natu non dubitabo monere. 32 meo iure : as I have a right to do'; lit. by a right that is mine'.

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§ 33. 33 recle tu quidem: the same ellipse in 8, 1. 27; cf. also the passages quoted on l. 31.

P. 39.
audite vero: so De Or. 2, 28 et ille: audite vero, audite inquit.

optimi viri: a form of address which is commonly ironical, though not so here. In Cat. m. 39 Cato addresses Scipio and Laelius as optimi adulescentes.

quamquam ille quidem: kaltou èxelvós ye; cf. 97, p. 58, 1. 5. Quamquam seems to imply that Laelius did not altogether agree with Scipio on this subject. 5 expediret: sc. utrique: sentiretur: sc. ab utroque. 6 saepe: probably to be taken with mutari, not with dicebat (cf. 1. 9

saepe deponerentur), so that alias...alias is an expansion or explanation

of saepe. For alias see n. on 1, l. 10. 7 aetate ingravescente: 'as age grows burdensome.

earum rerum etc. : 'he obtained an instance in support of such changes by comparing the early days of life, since etc.'. In exemplum capiebat ex similitudine there is the same kind of pleonasm as above,

1. °8 sunt causae diligendi profectae. 9 praetexta toga: n. on 1, 1. 4. [Cf. Ar. Eth. 8, 3, 4 and 9, 3.]

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§ 34. perduxissent: sc. pueri amicitiam : cf. Cat. m. 60 nec aetas impedit quo minus agri colendi studia teneamus. M. quidem Valerium Corvinum accepimus ad centesimum annum produxisse (sc. studia agri colendi).

contentione condicionis: for the construction cf. n. on 37, l. 16. Condicio (conditio is a mistaken spelling of the word) often means a proposal or agreement to marry ('à match ') even without the addition

of uxoria; Nep. Att. 12, I nullius condicionis non habere potestatem. 13 quod si etc.: 'but if they had lived on in friendship to a later time'. 14 labefactari: sc. amicitiam, which is probably also the subject of

dirimi above, though Seyffert makes the subject of both infinitives to be the same as the subject of perduxissent. It would be possible to use dirimi of persons, but scarcely labefactari with the sense 'to be rendered

changeful. 15 amicitiis : a 'dativus commodi' like sibi in 11, l. 22.

consuetudo...honestatem ab utilitate secernens...qua nulla pernicies maior

hominum vitae potuit afferri. 16 optimis quibusque: so Arch. 26 optimus quisque gloria maxime

ducitur. The love of fame is the last infirmity of noble minds'. In optimis quibusque we have a very rare usage. The best writers use only the neuter plural of quisque, and that with a superlative adjective (cf. 67, 1. 20 veterrima quaeque), not the masc. or fem. plurals. In Cicero (putting aside Fam. 7, 33, 2 litteras longissimas quasque as exceptional

Cf. Off. 2, 9 quaeque duriores.

because litterae in the sense of an epistle has no singular) we have only one passage like the present, viz. Off. 2, 75 leges, et proximae

A glance at that passage will shew that the reading proximae quaeque makes poor sense; I propose to read proxima'laws, and harsher, each of them, than its predecessor'. In our passage quibusqire may be used as èxdotoLs is often in Greek, to mean each set of people'; or the plural may be due merely to assimilation with plerisque. It may further be mentioned that Cicero does not use expressions like bonus quisque, or melior quisque, except when the comparative is preceded by quo (quo quisque melior).

$ 35.


8 discidia: n. on 23, 1. 16.

iusta: i. e. with good reason on one side or the other. 2 cum...postularetur: for this subjunctive see Roby § 1722, Kennedy § 211.

libidinis ministri: Liv. 3, 44, 6 minister decemviri libidinis.

adiutores ad: the common construction of adiutor in Cic. is with a genitive of the thing wherein aid is given (but dative of the person to whom aid is given, as in 42, p. 42, 1. 2); cf. however Flacc. I adiutor ad rem perficiendam. Adiuvare ad, adiumentum ad often occur.

quod etc.: since those who declined, however honourable their action was, were by those whom they refused to obey charged with disregarding the claims of friendship’. Madvig, Em. Liv. p. 417 ed. 2, seems to misunderstand this passage, through taking quod as the neuter pronoun, instead of the conjunction; so others, Halm included.

deserere: for the infinitive dependent on the personal arguerentur instead of the impersonal construction argueretur eos deserere, cf. n. on 9, p. 29, 1. 32 ut videris; also Rosc. Am. 37 Roscius arguitur occidisse patrem; also quaeruntur in 16, 1. 21; constituendi sunt in 56, p. 45, 1. 30; perspiciuntur in 63, l. 5. 3 quidvis: 'anything and everything'.

omnia : not different in sense from quidvis above. Cf. Att. 9, 18, 3 ad omnia descensurum ('would stick at nothing '). 5 inveterata: 'undying'; often used with ira, odium etc. 6

sempiterna: in contrast to amicitiae sempiternae in 32, l. 29.

haec etc. : 'these almost destined ends threaten friendships, he said, in such numbers that etc.'. Quasi merely modifies the metaphor (n. on 3, p. 28, 1. 2); fatum is used very much in its poetical sense of mors or interitus. 8 diceret sibi videri: these words take the place of esset, which would

be used if the sentence were entirely logical. Cf. De Or. 2, 278 illud Siculi cui cum familiaris quidam quereretur quod diceret uxorem suam suspendisse se de ficu... Similar examples are exceedingly common in Cicero; see some in Roby § 1746. [Cf. Madv. on Fin. 4, 17.]


§ 36, 29 quatenus etc.: this paragraph is really inconsistent with § 18 where

Laelius says sentio nisi in bonis amicitiam esse non posse. Trans. here "how far affection should lead us to proceed in dealing with friendship’ Cf. 56, p. 45, 1. 30 qui sint in amicitia fines et quasi termini diligendi; and for progredi 34, 1. 13 in amicitia provecti: the limits of friendly service

are discussed also in Off. 3, 43. 30

a rare form, found in N. D. I, 88 quid ? deum ipsum numne vidisti? 32

Vecellinum...Maelium: nn. on § 28.


§ 37. P. 40.

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vexantem: Cicero uniformly speaks of the Gracchi as traitors and iure caesi.

Tuberone: son of a sister of Africanus minor; plebeian tribune in 133 ; a great opponent of Gracchus ; a strict Stoic.

aequalibus amicis: "those of his contemporaries who were his friends'. Carbo and Cato, mentioned at the end of $ 39, were only prope aequales (Brut. 96).

videbamus: the imperfect because referred to vexantem ; 'we saw him during the whole of his seditious action'; cf. 6, p. 28, 1. 32 tribue

batur. [Cf. my n. on Cato m. 49.] 3 Cumanus...hospes : Cumae did not receive the Roman franchise till

after the Social War. The Blosii or Blossii were a noble family at Cumae (Cic. leg. agr. 2, 93; Liv. 23, 7, 8; 27, 3, 5). This member of the family was a Stoic philosopher and pupil of Antipater of Tarsus. consilio : 'was present as one of the advisers to...' The consilium was a most important institution both in the public and private life of the Romans. There was deeply ingrained in the Roman mind a feeling that no person having serious business to transact, whether private or official, ought to proceed without taking the opinion of those best qualified to advise him. The body of advisers is the consilium. The senate was the consilium of the king, and then became the standing consilium of the consuls. Officials exercising judicial functions generally summoned to their aid leading lawyers; in the case here mentioned, as the trials were political, statesmen of experience were resorted to.

Laenati...Rupilio: consuls of the year 132 when the enquiry into the acts of Gracchus and his followers took place. For Rupilius cf. $ 73 and Introd. p. 19. Of Laelius Val. Max. 4, 7, 1 says consilio eius

consules (Rupilius and Laenas) praecipue utebantur. 6 fecisset...putaret: faceret could not have been written because Grac

chus was dead, but the mind having once been carried back to the past, it is permissible to use the imperfects vellet and putaret to denote that so long as Gracchus continued to live, the opinion of Blossius continued as here described.

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