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P. 45. nimirum : some editions wrongly place the comma after instead of before nimirum, which always comes at the beginning and not at the end of a clause. Trans. 'Í mean a life in which.... Ni-mirum=ne mirum, where either ne = not, in which case est is understood and the phrase is a parenthetic clause, or ne=lest, and sit is to be supplied, there being then an ellipse to be filled out thus : ne mirum sit, hoc dico.

nulla fides: Ennius quoted in Off. 1, 26 nulla sancta societas nec fides regni; Bacon, Essay on Friendship, 'Princes......cannot gather this fruit' (of friendship).

benevolentiae fiducia: in the best prose writers fides and fiducia nearly always take the objective genitive ('trust in '); the dative, however, is found in the poets, as Verg. Aen. 3, 69 fides pelago ; ib. 10, 152 fiducia rebus. Even with the phrases fidem facere, fiduciam facere, the construction in good prose is generally alicuius rei, not alicui rei.

§ 53. 3 quis enim etc.: cf. Off. 1, 97 si Aeacus aut Minos diceret oderint

dum metuant'; Phil. 1, 34 in fabulis ipsi illi qui 'oderint dum metuant'

dixerit. 5 dumtaxat ad tempus : but only for a season'. Dumtaxat in the best

writers is merely corrective, introducing an exception upon some word or words preceding, here on coluntur. Taxat is probably a subjunctive of the lost Latin aorist (here the weak aorist) from tangēre a form of tongēre (denken, think), on which word Festus p. 356 (ed. Müller) says * Aelius Stilo ait noscere esse, quod Praenestini tongitionem dicant pro notionem. Significat et latius dominari. Ennius alii rhetorica tongent'. Oscan forms tangino-m, tangino-d=scitum, scito (or iussu or decreto) are preserved. The formation of taxat will be then practically the same as that of λέξη. For the dropping of the nasal cf. σφίγγω, έσφιξα; θιγγάνω, OlĚw. The original meaning of dumtaxat would thus be provided one knows the matter'. The verb taxare is only used in late Latin.

ad tempus : cf. 27, p. 37, l. 2 ad quoddam tempus.

si...tum: n. on 25, 1. 6. 6 quam fuerint inopes : n. on 10, 1. 8 quam id recte. 7 quod : "and this’; the sentence from tum to the end is really explanatory of quod.

dixisse ferunt: n. on 46, 1. 26 dicere aiunt. 8 exsulantem : almost parenthetic; explanatory of tum.

habuisset : note particularly the tense. 9 neutris gratiam referre posset : 'could make neither a return'. Gra

tiam here includes the notion of disservice as well as that of service. Cf. Att. 2, 9, I ut sciat hic noster Hierosolymarius traductor ad plebem quam bonam meis putidissimis orationibus gratiam rettulerit ; Sull. 47 nunc tecum sic agam, tulisse ut potius iniuriam quam rettulisse gratiam videar.

§ 64.

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illa superbia : sc. wv, 'with his well-known pride'. For superbia see n. on 50, l. 12.

importunitate: 'wrongheadedness', 'perversity'; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 62 non vides unius importunitate et superbia Tarquini nomen huic populo in odium venisse regium ?

atque :=kal unu, kal or='now', or again'; so ac in 32, 1. 15.
veros amicos: so 23, 1. 6 and often.

multorum opes praepotentium: n. on 30, p. 38, 1. 8 multae et magnae. Note the position of praepotentium ; put there it introduces a limitation on multorum, the power of many, I mean of those who are very

powersut'. [Cf. Sen. ben. 4, 10, 5 pauperi viro bono.] 13 non solum ipsa: cf. Theocr. 10, 19 oủk aŭtos (not alone) ruolos

ο πλούτος αλλα......χώφρόντιστος έρως, where the Scholiast quotes Menander, ο πλούτος τυφλόν, τυφλούς δ' ες αυτόν εμβλέποντας δεικνύει. Ρacuvius 366 (Ribbeck) fortunam insanam esse et caecam et brutam perhibent

philosophi ; Plin. 2, § 22 fortuna...a plerisque vero et caeca existimata. 15 fere: n. on 2, 14.

fastidio et contumacia : the kópos and årn or öppus of the Greek dramatists. Trans. wantonness and stiffneckedness'. Seyffert quotes a curious passage of Plin. N. H. 16, § 134 (of plants) non omnia in omnibus locis nasci docuimus. Hoc alias fit fastidio, alias contumacia, alias

imbecillitate. 16 insipiente fortunato : Aristot. Rhet. 2, 16 talks of the dvóntos cúdai

For the words cf. Q. fr. 1, 3, i quandam effigiem spirantis mortui ; Phil. II, 20 nihil agenti privato ; Att. 12, 21, 5 fortis aegroti. 17 videre licet : when used parenthetically these words passed into vide

licet, which very word Lucret. I, 210 uses with the ordinary construction of videre licet.

antea : proleptic ; cf. n. on 7, l. 9.

commodis: 'affable'; commodus here has very much the sense of communis in 65, p. 48, l. 28; cf. Mur. 66 quemquamne existimas Catone commodiorem, communiorem, moderatiorem fuisse ad omnem rationem humanitatis ? Cornif. ad Herenn. 4, 25 contrasts the commodus with the vir intolerabili superbia.

imperio potestate: originally potestas at Rome had a very wide meaning, denoting all power exercised by public authority and so including imperium. Then as certain officers (consul praetor dictator) had imperium, while others (censor, aedile, etc.) had not, the word potestas came to be particularly used in connexion with the latter class of officers Trans.

by power and office'. 19 sperni: the words from sperni to novis are explanatory of immutari;

in such cases the connecting et is often left out-an usage called by grammarians asyndeton explicativum. [Some edd. unjustly suspect the clause because it happens to be left out in the Paris Ms.]

μων.

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quid stultius: for omission of est cf. 22, 1. 20 n.

copiis...opibus: 51, 1. 20 opibus atque copiis. The three words differ hardly, if at all, in meaning, ‘riches, resources, prosperity'. Plurimum posse 'to be very influential'; the ablative as in 51, ll. 20, 21.

cetera : proleptic, as in 16, l. 21; cf. n. on 7, 1. 9.

equos...pretiosa : for the arrangement of these words see n. 57, 1. 7.

amicos: asyndeton adversativum again; see nn. on 5, l. 25; 13, 1. 16. 23 ut ita dicam : Cic. is apparently translating ktņqua in such passages as

Χen. Mem. 2, 4, Ι πάντων κτημάτων κράτιστον αν είη φίλος. For ut ita dicam in a translation cf. n. on 49, 1. 33; for the metaphor in supellex Orat. 80 oratoria quasi supellex; Seneca Ep. 58, 18 ideae, propria Pla

tonis supellex; Acad. 2, 31 and Sen. Ep. 2, 5, 8 vitae instrumentum. 24 nec cuius causa: sc. parent; laborant=solliciti sunt. For reading

see Appendix. 25

istorum:=istarum rerum: n. on 50, 1. 7.

vicit viribus: the alliteration is evidently intentional; cf. Mil. 30 vi victa vis, also Lael. 45, 1. 23. 26 sua.. possessio: put for suae by attraction; cf. 2, l. 13. 27 quasi: n. on 3, p. 28, 1. 2. 28 deserta ab: cf. Fam. 5, 2, 10 desertus ab officiis tuis. 29 sed haec hactenus: a common formula for winding up one subject and

passing on to another; ‘but enough of this'. So Div. 2, 50; Fam. 6, 2, 3.

§ 56. 30 constituendi sunt etc. : for constituendum est etc. by attraction to the

construction of the clause qui sint etc. Cf. 63, 1. 5 perspiciuntur quam sint leves; also n. on 35, 1. 22 and De Or. 2, 137 quaeruntur qualia sint; ib. 243; N. D. 2, 115. Madvig on Fin. 5, 58 says this kind of attraction

is used only by Cicero. 31 fines et quasi termini: finis was very commonly used in the meta

phorical sense, terminus less commonly; hence the quasi, for which cf. 3, p. 28, 1. 2. For fines diligendi cf. causae diligendi in 30, p. 38, 1.9.

video:=scriptum video; for the phrase see n. on 39, l. 24. 32 ferri: “are usually stated'.

1. unam : this was an opinion which the Epicureans managed to entertain. Though they based friendship on utility (Diog. Laert. 10, 120 και την φιλίαν διά τάς χρείας συνίστασθαι δε αυτήν κατά κοινωνίαν εν ταις ņšovais) still they said that the full benefit of friendship would not be reaped unless a man loved his friend just as himself. Cf. Fin. 1, 68 quocirca eodem modo sapiens erit affectus erga amicum, quo in se ipsum ; also the whole passage there from g 65 to $ 70.

Cf. 6, p. 29,

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alteram: this is the opinion of those who regard friendship as a barter of services; below, l. 14.

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P. 46. pariter aequaliterque: n. on 32,

1. 22.

§ 57. 4 prorsus: goes with nulli, not with assentior; 'to none at all'. 6 nostra causa: many editions have nostri, and in the sixth edition of

Nägelsbach's Stilistik p. 506 the passage is still quoted with nostri. Cic. however never says mei tui sui nostri vestri causa, but always mea causa etc. The only passage in which the genitive is still retained by recent editors is Verr. 3, 121 sui causa, and many scholars, with whom í agree,

think that sua should be read there. Cf. Madvig on Fin. 2, 76. 7 faceremus etc. : for the sense cf. § 26.

causa amicorum: note the chiasmus in nostra causa...causa amicorum, and cf. 55, l. 21. The repetition of causa (which is often left out in the second place, as in 46, 1. 29) is no doubt due to the desire to complete the chiasmus (for which see n. on 23, 1. 10).

precari: note the omission of aliquid.
supplicare: sc. alicui.

acerbius invehi... insectari vehementius: chiasmus as above. 9 non satis: 'not very'.

multaeque res sunt etc.: not for multaeque aliae res sunt etc., but this clause repeats and gives more exactly the general statement contained in the words quam multa...amicorum.

viri boni etc.: it will be seen that in this section Cicero gives a peculiar turn to the meaning of the first opinion of the three above enumerated. He takes it to imply that a man must always act with regard to his friend just as he would in his own case, but the opinion itself probably had regard not to action but to feeling and implied that love between friends should be equal. It is in this sense that Cic. himself understands the opinion in Tusc. 3, 73 praeclarum illud est et, si quaeris, rectum quoque et verum ut eos qui nobis carissimi esse debeant aeque ac nosmet ipsos amemus. The opinion in fact was an answer to the question discussed by Aristotle in Eth. Nic. 9, c. 8 πότερον δει φιλεϊν εαυτόν μάλιστα ή άλλον τινά and in the words of the next clause it definiebat amicitiam paribus voluniatibus.

$ 58. 13 definit: 'restricts friendship to an equal interchange of services and

feelings'. 14 exigue et exiliter: 'with minuteness and exactness'. Exig-uus and

exilis (for exig-i-lis) have a common element and an almost common meaning. I cannot accept Seyffert's extraordinary derivation of exilis from ex and ilia, though now backed by Corssen's authority (Ausspr. ļi” 1003).

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calculos : properly the pebbles used in the abacus for counting ; here 'to an account'. Cf. faeneramur in 31, l. 11. 15 ratio acceptorum: cf. closely $$ 26, 31. For the neuter genitive plural as substantive see n. on 50, 1. 7.

datorum : the usual contrast to acceptorum in the language of Roman book-keeping is expensorum. The phrase accepti expensique ratio 'a

debtor and creditor account'is common. 16 divitior: Cic. uses this form, not ditior, and divitissimus, not ditissimus.

affluentior: cf. 52, p. 44, 1. 32 circumfluere.

vera amicitia : so in 22, p. 34, 1. 32, below, l. 26, and often. 17 observare etc.: Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 8, 7 and 8, 13, 1 lays down that

there is a class of friendships καθ' υπεροχήν where there cannot be an equal exchange of services.

restricte: Fin. 2, 42 nec tamen cur id tam parce tamque restricte faciant intellego. The simple stricte (which Halm has here) only occurs in the silver Latin ; strictim has quite another sense.

neque enim etc.: i.e. if the friendship be true all such fears fall to the ground. 18

excidat...defluat...congeratur: the metapho are all from measuring articles of commerce.

§ 59. ut quanti etc. : 'that each man should have the same value set on him by his friends that he sets upon himself’.

se ipse: n. on 5, 1. 28.

saepe enim etc. : 'for ofttimes in some persons either the spirit is more downcast than is meet, or the hopes of an increase in prosperity are too low'. The persons here meant are the 'small-souled men

(ulkpotruxol) described by Aristot. Eth. Nic. 4, 3, 35. 23 eum:=talem virum.

ille: referring to the same person to which eum refers. Had ille been left out the subject of est might have been taken to be amicus supplied from amici in the preceding clause. It was necessary therefore to insert a pronoun, and according to Latin usage, the change from eum to ille was needed ; to repeat is would have been unusual. The following examples are precisely similar : Sest. 7 et ad eum filiam eius adduxit, ut ille aliquam partem maeroris sui deponeret ; Prov. cons. I quonam me animo in eos esse oportet, cuius illi salutem pro pignore tradiderunt. So aútos and ékeivos often refer (in the same sentence) to the same person; e.g. Plato, Phaedo III B tas opas aút oês kpãouv

έχειν τοιαύτην ώστε εκείνους ανόσους είναι. . 24 eniti et efficere etc.: 'to strive so as to bring about an exaltation of

his friend's low spirits'. 25 inducat spem: inducere is a stage word, 'to bring on to the scene';

cf. n. on 4, 1. 9, and for the reading here see Appendix.

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