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isto modo: 'on that principle'; so ista ratione commonly, and occasionally ista condicione, as in De Or. 1, 101.

nutrices et paedagogi : generally at Rome these were slaves. 13 vetustatis: n. on 68, 1. 26. 14 quidem: here concessive, 'I admit', as in 13, 1. 16.

alio quodam modo: so in 7, l. 6. For quodam see n. on 6, p. 29, 1. 1; for the constr. 68, ll. 25, 26. For the reading aestimandi see

Appendix. 15 disparis mores etc.: diversity of character is accompanied by diyer

sity of taste, and dissimilarity of taste severs friendships'. Mores is undoubtedly in the accusative, not, as Lahm. suggests, in the nominative =homines disparibus moribus; homines secuntur studia is certainly not Latin. For the morum similitudo as a necessary condition of friendship cf. SS 15, 27, 33 (mutari... mores), 50; also Aristotle Eth. Nic. 8, 1,6 ómosóτητά τινα τιθέασιν αυτήν (φιλίαν) και τους ομοίους φίλους; ib. 8, 3, 6 τελεία δ' έστιν ή των αγαθών φιλία και κατ' αρετήν ομοίων; ib. 8, 8, 5 ή δε ισότης και ομοιότης φιλότης και μάλιστα μεν ή των κατ' αρετήν ομοιότης;

ib. 9, 3, 3 το ομοίον το ομοίω φίλον. 17 boni...possunt : cf. 18, 1. 3.

distantia: a vox Ciceroniana. The word is in good Latin never used of distance in space. Aristotle several times discusses the question how great a difference in character or other circumstances is required to render friendships impossible. Cf. Eth. Nic. 8, 7, 4 dñlov. kâr πολύ διάστημα γίγνηται αρετής ή κακίας ή ευπορίας ή τινος άλλου ου γάρ έτι φίλοι εισίν, αλλ' ουδ' αξιoύσιν...ακριβής μεν ούν εν τούτοις ουκ έστιν ορισμός, έως τίνος οι φίλοι πολλών γάρ αφαιρουμένων έτι μένει, πολύ δε χωρισθέντος, οίον του θεού, ουκ έτι.

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§ 75. quaedam: n. on 6, p. 29, 1. 1.

nec enim: followed by et saepe instead of nec; for the slight anacoluthon cf. 79, 11. 32, 33; 104, 11. 20, 21.

fabulas: n. on 70, 1. 12 ; cf. Off. 3, 94 ut redeamus ad fabulas. 23

Neoptolemus: or Pyrrhus, son of Achilles by Deidamia, daughter of Lycomedes, king of Scyros. He appears in the Philoctetes as an ambassador to that hero, without whose bow it was fated Troy should not fall. Welcker thinks that Cicero here refers to a scene in a lost

play of Sophocles entitled αι Σκύριαι. . 25 magnae res : ' great tasks'. For incidunt cf. 33, 1. 5. 27 mollisque : the que merely connects infirmus with mollis and does

not correspond with the first et. [In Cicero and the best writers et and que do not correspond.] To shew this trans. 'is not only weak

and effeminate, but also ...'. 28 parum iustus : 'far from reasonable'; parum almost=non, as minus

in 23, l. 13.

$ 76. atque...impetruri: this is a little summary of SS 73–75. Such summaries are often introduced by atque ='now', as in Acad. I, 43.

in omni re: 'on every occasion'. 32 iam enim etc. : the verae amicitiae or perfectae are sempiternae ; see

32, 1. 28 and Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8, 3, ñ ñ tolaútn pula (sc. TW αγαθών) μόνιμος εστίν. The question of the dissolution of friendships was partially discussed in $S 32 sq. and is considered by Aristotle in Eth. Nic. 9, 3.

sapientium:=virorum bonorum as defined in § 21. 33 volgaris amicitias: these differ only in degree from the verae ami

citiae, being based on a less degree of virtus, since virtus a caritate volgi non abhorret (50, 1. 14), hence they must not be confounded with the φίλιαι based on το ηδύ and το ωφέλιμον which Aristotle so often discusses. These latter friendships Cicero refuses to deal with (8 58 and elsewhere).

oratio delabitur: so 100, 1. 8 oratio defluxit, and cf. Qu. Fr. I, I, 18 ad praecipiendi rationem delapsa est oratio mea. For the sense also § 100 is to be compared.

P. 52.

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erumpunt in: 'break out upon'.
tum...tum: here purely temporal, ‘at one time, at another'. So in

13, 1. 18.

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alienos : n. on 19, 1. 25.

quorum :=talium ut, hence redundet not redundat. 3 usus :=consuetudinis, kolvuvias, as in 32, l. 21; 2, 1. 15 utebare multum.

eluendae : the word eluere, lit. 'to wipe out', is particularly used of disgrace or crime; e. g. eluere maculam in Sest. 63; Verr. 5, 121; scelus in Verg. Aen. 6, 742.

ut Catonem dicere audivi: 'as I have been told Cato used to say', not ‘as I have heard Cato say' which would require dicentem or cum diceret; cf. 88, 1. 14.

dissuendae etc.; cf. Off. 1, 120 amicitias magis decere censent sapientes sensim diluere quam repente praecidere ; below, 78, 1. 19 exstinctae potius quam oppressae. Observe magis in the one place and potius in the other, for which cf. n. on 27, 1. 31. 5 exarserit: from exardescere, the verb exardere occurring only in

very late Latin, as in the Vulgate. The metaphorical use is exceedingly

common in Cicero; cf. 29, 1. 26. 6 rectum...honestum : there is no appreciable difference in meaning between these words.

statim: cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 3, 2 åp oủv eủa ùs dialutéov ý oủ πάσιν αλλά τους ανιάτoις διά την μοχθηρίαν. .

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§ 77. 7 aut morum aut studiorum : the first aut corresponds to aut before in

rei publicae. It is exceedingly likely that the second aut should be

changed into et ; cf. 74, 1. 19 morum studiorumque. 8 commutatio ut fieri solet: 33, l. 6 mutari etiam mores hominum

saepe. 9 in rei publicae partibus. 'in connexion with political parties'; lit. ‘in the divisions of the commonwealth'.

communibus :=volgaribus in 76, p. 25, 1. 33. 14 Q. Pompei etc.: the grandfather of the Pompeius mentioned in § 2;

he raised himself to the consulship as a novus homo in 141 B.C. (Brut. 96; Verr. 5, 181).. Laelius was a candidate and Pompeius was said to have promised Scipio that he would not stand himself but support

Laelius. 16 Metello: i.e. Macedonico, the praetor of 148, who commanded in

Greece till 146, when he returned and was the leader of the anti-Scipionic party. The quarrel, which was very famous, began with the despatch of Mummius, who was connected with the Scipios, to command in Achaia. Metellus became consul in 143 after two failures, and commanded against Viriathus. In 131 he was censor and lived till 115.

He was an augur; hence collega of Laelius. 17 et: this does not correspond with ac, but graviter ac moderate go

together and form one expression. Et and ac do not correspond in Cic.; cf. n. on 75, 1. 27.

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$ 78. 18 quam ob rem...iniuriam: these sentences summarise and emphati

cally repeat the sense of the two preceding sections. 19 ut exstinctae etc. : 'that the friendships may seem to have burnt out

rather than to have been extinguished'. Cf. Cat. m. 71 adulescentes mihi mori sic videntur ut cum aquae multitudine flammae vis opprimitur; senes autem sic, ut sua sponte, nulla adhibita vi, consumptus ignis exstinguitur. cavendum vero: for the omission of est cf. n. on 14, 1.

31. 23 tolerabiles : agreeing with the last only of the three words iurgia maledicta contumeliae.

honos tribuendus: so Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 3, 5 åp oův núdèv åklocóτερον προς αυτόν εκτέον η ει μή εγεγόνει φίλος μηδέποτε, ή δει μνείαν έχειν της γενομένης συνηθείας και και καθάπερ φίλοις μάλλον ή οθνείοις οιόμεθα δεϊν χαρίζεσθαι ούτω και τους γενομένοις απονεμητέον τι διά την προγεγενη- . μένην φιλίαν, όταν μή δι' υπερβολήν μοχθηρίας ή διάλυσις γέ

νηται. 26 omnino : here = 'to sum up'; 'looking at the matter as a whole'. 27 una cautio est : for the form of expression cf. Acad. 2, 51 omnium

inanium visorum una depulsio est; Att. 12, 32, i una est vitatio ; ib. 15, I A, I ad haec omnia una consolatio est. In all these passages the verbal noun in -tio conveys the notion of possibility.

ut ne: n. on 42, 1. 26. 28 non dignos : put for indignos, apparently because of digni autem following

§ 79. 29 quibus in ipsis: probably not put for in quibus ipsis, but rather quibus

is a dative (dativus commodi); "who possess (lit. 'for whom there is ') in themselves some reason for securing affection'.

rarum genus: cf. n. on 67, l. 10 indigna homine dubitatio. Aristotle Eth. Nic. 8, 3, 8 σπανίας δε είκός τάς τοιαύτας (φιλίας) είναι ολίγοι γάρ

οι τοιουτοι. . 30 omnia praeclara rara: the omission of the predicate is particularly

common in proverbs, where also assonance (praecl-ara r-ara) is much sought after. For the ellipse cf. Acad. I, 14 sus Minervam (docet);

Pis. 69 claudus pilam (iacit). So in Greek xalend ta kalá. 31 in suo genere perfectum : so Tusc. 5, 37 natura quidquid genuit in

suo quidque genere perfectum esse voluit. 32 neque...et: n. on 75, 1. 22. 33

amicos tamquam pecudes : the same comparison is used by Plato in the Theaetetus 174 D τύραννόν τε γαρ ή βασιλέα εγκωμιαζόμενον ένα των νομέων ηγείται (ο φιλόσοφος) ακούειν ευδαιμονιζόμενον πολύ βδάλλοντα. Cf. the trite line of Ovid, Pont. 2, 3, 8 volgus amicitias utilitate probat.

$ 80. P. 53. naturali : cf. SS 31, 32. 3 per se et propter se: “in and for itself'.

expetita : n. on 22, l. 24.

nec ipsi sibi etc. : 'nor do they take themselves as examples to shew what and how great the power of this friendship is'.

haec vis: i.e. vis huius naturalis amicitiae.

et...et: after the negative (nec) aut...aut would have been more usual. Cf. que for sed in 30, p. 38, 1. i n.

ipse se: n. on 5, l. 28. 6 quod idem : these words go together, as in 13, 1. 22. 8 alter idem : cf. 23, 1. 6 verum amicum qui intuetur tamquam exem

plar aliquod intuetur sui ; Arist. Eth. Nic. 9, 4, 5 čoti yap ó piros ällos aúrós; Fam. 2, 15, 4 alterum me.

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§ 81. 9 bestiis etc. : for the arrangement of the epithets in two groups, one of

three and another of two, Nauck well compares Tusc. I, 64 omnia, supera infera; prima media ultima. Nägelsbach quotes Fam. 13, 29, 5 rogo ut hanc rem | suscipias, meum putes esse | enitare contendas eficias.

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ut : for this following on apparet cf. n. on 50, l. 5 veriora esse ut.

se ipsae : above, l. 4; below, l. 14. The principle that self-preservation is the first instinct of animals formed the starting-point of the Stoic Ethics. Cf. Fin. 3, 16 sq.

pariter...nascitur: ‘is born with every creature in an equal degree'. ad quas se applicent: n. on 49, p. 43, 1. 32.

quanto id magis : n. on quam id recte in 10, 1. 8. 16 unum ex duobus : cf. 92, l. 31 ut unus quasi animus fiat ex pluribus.

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§ 82. 17 ne dicam: the phrase is elliptic=hoc dico ne dicam, and impudenter, which may be regarded as in inverted commas, stands as object of di

Cf. n. on 48, 1. 18 non dico. 18

habere talem amicum etc.; the theory that friendship is based on want of resemblance and not on resemblance enters into the Platonic Lysis 215 C sq. Cf. especially 215 D málota td óuocórara apòs alληλα φθόνου τε και φιλονεικίας και έχθρας εμπίπλασθαι τα δε ανομοιόtata pixlas. Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 8, 8, 6 sq. decides that it is almost entirely the lower kind of friendship ( dià id xpňoquor) which is based on lack of resemblance.

par est...quaerere : cf. SS 32, 51.

ipsum: in agreement with aliquem (Tuvd) unexpressed. Cf. 59, 29 ut si (quis) esset osurus; where Cobet needlessly alters esset into esses.

quam iam dudum tractamus: cf. 65, p. 49, 1. 2 eam quam iam dudum tracto constantiam.

confirmari potest : 'may be strengthened'. 23 cupiditatibus: those mentioned in SS 61, 62 as frequently bringing destruction to friendships.

aequitate iustitiaque : aequitas is the view of justice taken by a man of high principle and honour, iustitia the legal or technical view. 25 neque quicquam etc.: cf. SS 36—40. 27 inter se : =alter alterum; cf. Roby $ 2306.

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libidinum etc.: 'that in friendship the gate is open to unrestrained passion and sin’. 31

virtutum...comes: Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8, I, I φιλία εστιν αρετή τις ή μετ' αρετής; Ρlato Lysis 214 Do αγαθος των αγαθώ μόνος μόνο φίλος, ο δε κακός ούτ' αγαθώ ούτε κακό ουδέποτε εις αληθή φιλίαν έρχεται. Beier quotes Pythagoras' saying συνδεσμον πασών των αρετών είναι την φιλίαν. Cf. 8 19. a natura data est: in Cic. a natura and natura dari both frequently

In the former phrase natura is personified, in the latter natura is used adverbially=púoel.

occur.

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