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32 solitaria: cf. SS 30, 87, 88. 33 ea quae summa sunt: 'the highest moral views'; cf. Arch. 14 illa

quae summa sunt... nihil esse in vita magno opere expetendum nisi laudem atque honestatem, in ea autem persequenda omnis cruciatus corporis, omnia pericula mortis atque exsili parvi esse ducenda.

P. 64. altera: as virtus above=homo virtute praeditus so altera here=alterius hominis virtute. Cf. virtutem in 48, l. 20.

quos inter: as a rule, only dissyllabic prepositions follow the cases to which they are attached, except when some attribute is attached to the noun or pronoun, e.g. multis in rebus below, 85, 1. 14. Seyffert makes the strange and unfounded statement (after Zumpt) that the preposition only follows its case when it governs a relative pronoun.

corum otca'theirs is to be regarded as the best and richest companionship on the path to nature's highest good'. For natura cf. 19 1. 20 naturam optimam bene vivendi ducem.

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§ 84. in qua omnia insunt: 'which brings with it everything'. 5 honestas...iucunditas : the enumeration consists of three branches,

the last of the three being subdivided (tranquillitas atque iucunditas). Had iucunditas and tranquillitas occupied in the enumeration the same place as the other two things mentioned, Cicero must have left out atque. See n. on 12, p. 31, 1. 7. For expetenda see n. on 22, 1. 24; for the collocation tranquillitas animi atque iucunditas n. on 8, I. 22 cum summi viri tum amicissimi. Seyffert seems to think that honestas is not used here in its ordinary Ciceronian sense of ‘morality', though

he does not say what meaning he gives it. 6 ut et...possit: this clause is one of the most difficult in the treatise,

though passed over by Nauck and Lahmeyer. It seems to contain a tacit protest against the Stoic ethics which made honestas (kalov =virtue) everything; Laelius asserts that perfect happiness (for beata vita cf. n. on 45, 1. 25 beate vivendum) contains other things as well, and that the perfection of friendship and the perfection of happiness are

inextricably connected. 7 quod: this refers back to the last sentence and not forwards to id.

gravis aliqui casus: aliquis, which is substantival, aliqui being adjectival, could scarcely have been used here, since the adjective gravis is in juxtaposition. · In 87, 1. 8 however aliquis deus; cf. n. on 22, 1. 21.

experiri : cf. 88 53, 64. Seyffert quotes from Plutarch a saying of Euripides το φίλων πειραν λαβείν ου σμικρον κακόν, and from Stobaeus one of Philemon εύχου μη λαβείν πείραν φίλων. .

$ 85. cum...iudicaris : these words can be shewn to be taken from Theophrastus περί φιλίας (see Introd. p. 1) for Plutarch περί φιλαδελφείας c. 8

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quotes as from Theophrastus the words τους γαρ αλλοτρίους ου φιλούντα sei kpivelv, allà kplvavta qileiv; so Seneca ep. 3 isti vero praepostere officia permiscent qui contra praecepta Theophrasti cum amaverint iudicant, et non amant, cum iudicaverint. Ammianus Marcellinus 26, 2, 9 puts Cicero's words, slightly altered, into the mouth of Valentinian, in a

speech made by him on being raised to the throne. 14 tum maxime etc.; cf. § 62. 16 acta agimus: an oxymoron (so 'to slay the slain ') for which Seyffert

compares Plut. Mil. 3, 1, 41 nota noscere; Poen. 4, 2, 48 doctum docere; Cic. Fam. 14, I, 12 puerum perditum perdere. As to the proverb, Donatus on Terent. Adelph. 2, 2, 24 (quoted by Seyffert) not improbably conjectures that it originated in the law courts, ubi quod semel iudicatum est frustra iterum agitur. Cf..

· 59, 1. 28 inimiciorem amicitiae; also n. on 23, 1. 7.

vetamur: sc. facere. 17 ultro et citro: here='mutually', as in the common phrase data ultro

citroque fide (Liv. 29, 23, 5). 18 cursu: cf. 63, l. 2.

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§ 86. 19 rei incuria .=de re i.; cf. n. on 20, p. 34, 1. i rerum consensio. 20 una: by attraction for unum ('the one thing’; for this usage see n. on 50, 1. 10.

quamquam: elliptic, the full sense being 'most men agree about virtue yet etc.'; for the ellipse cf. 33, p. 39, 1. 2.

multis : chiefly the Epicureans. 25 quam multi etc.: not exactly in accord with 63 1. 8 ubi eos inveniemus

etc. Observe quam multi ; no good writers use quot as a substantive. So in 57, l. 6 quam multa. Cic. however often prefers to use quam multi, tam multi where quot, tot would be permissible; so 35, 1. 26

haec ita multa quasi fata. 29

ad unum : 'to a man'.

et ei...et ei : those who follow the tolltids Blos and those who follow the DewpntikÒs Blos. One of the main questions which divided the later Greek philosophers was that of the comparative value of these two

lives. Cf. n. on 10, 1. 6. 31 otiosi : here, as often, implies merely the freedom from public duties;

cf. 16, 1. 19. 32 vitam esse nullam : for the phrase see n. on 22, l. 18; for this

Epicurean opinion cf. n. on 56, 1. 32. 33

liberaliter:=libero digne ; cf. 89, 1. 10.

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ut: on the position of ut, second word in the clause, cf. n. on 46, 1. 17. 5 Timonem: the uloávo pwros who is the subject of Shakespeare's play, a contemporary of Socrates.

nescio quem : the editors all misinterpret this, making it an expression intended to indicate Timon's insignificance. But Cicero often inserts quidam, nescio quis and the like, when it is necessary, in mentioning some Greek, to avoid the appearance of too great a familiarity with Greek literature. The Roman statesmen of the dialogue could not be presumed to know Timon except by vague report. In telling a story of Xenocrates to a Roman jury (who objected to Greek learning in an advocate), Cicero calls him quidam (Balb. § 12); so of the Stoics non nulli litteris ac studiis doctrinae dediti (Balb. § 1). Nescio quem here has the same purpose as ut opinor below, 88 l. 14. Cf. also n. on 24, 1. 18 doctum quendam. 6 possit: not potuisset, because the statement is general, and is=talis homo, as in 59, 1. 23 and often.

evomat: the metaphorical use is common, as in eructare, è feuelv.

virus acerbitatis : 'gall of bitterness'. 8 contingere: n. on 8, 1. 30.

tam esset ferreus; for the arrangement n. on 1o, l. 8 quam id recte. For ferreus cf. 48, l. 20, and for the sense Aristotle Politics 1, 2, 14 ο δε μη δυνάμενος κοινωνείν ή μηθέν δεόμενος δι' αυτάρκειαν, ουθέν μέρος πόλεως, ώστε η θηρίον ή θεός.

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§ 88. 14 quod etc.: 'which I have heard it said that our old men tell as a

customary saying of the Tarentine Archytas, I believe, having received it from other aged men’: For audivi commemorare cf. n. on 76, p. 52, 1. 3. For a similar traditional saying of Archytas (a Pythagorean, lived about 400—365 B. C.) see Cato m. 39 and cf. ib. 43 saepe audivi a maioribus

natu qui se porro pueros a senibus audisse dicebant. 18

illam := eius rei; cf. n. on 2, l. 13 eum sermonem.

quae fuisset : Nauck takes these words as being those of Laelius, and not part of his report of Archytas; otherwise, he says, Cic. would have written quam fore : see however n. on 45, 1. 25.

si aliquem : see n. on 27, 1. 6.

semperque etc. : 'and always strives after some prop, so to speak, which prop is most acceptable when found in the best friend '.

tamquam : so in 45, l. 26. 23

obsurdescimus: 'we stop our ears against her'.

est enim ...amicitiae : 'now the intercourse in friendship is extensive and manifold'. 25 varius et multiplex: so Acad. I, 16 Platonis...qui varius et multi

plex fuit, and below, 92, 1. 33; also n. on 65, p. 48, 1. 31.

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27 una illa etc.: 'there is one grievance to which we are to submit

in order that we may maintain both usefulness and loyalty in friendship’. For the explanatory nam succeeding illa cf. N. D. 2, 138 illa potius explicetur incredibilis fabrica naturac: nam etc.; also Madvig on Fin. 3, 26. The mss reading sublevanda retained by Nauck gives no suitable sense. [Yet C. F. W. M. retains it.]

et monendi et obiurgandi: 'must be not only advised but even reproved'; so 44, l. 15 et adhibeatur auctoritas ad monendum non modo aperte sed etiam acriter si res postulabit ; below 89, p. 56, 1. 6 monitio—

obiurgatio. 29 accipienda: n. on 40, 1. 6.

§ 89. 31 familiaris meus : cf. Introd. pp. 14, 17. 32 obsequium etc.: Terent. Andr. I, I, 41 (1. 68). Obsequium here in

a bad sense=flattery; often however used in the good sense of deference', as below.

P. 56. molesta veritas: for the omission of est cf. n. on 14, 1. 31 sin illa veriora.

siquidem: 'inasmuch as '.

in fraudem impellitur: “is driven on to destruction'. Fraus often means, as here, 'harm’, ‘injary'. 5 habenda etc. : Cicero says both habere rationem and adhibere ra

tionem (Leg. Agr. 2, 2) but only adhibere diligentiam, so that there is here a slight zeugma (unless adhibenda is to be substituted for habenda). 6 monitio: said to occur here only in Cicero, who commonly uses admonitio.

ut...careat: 'that reproof may be unaccompanied by insult ’. 7 in obsequio: 'in the payment of deference'. 9

adiutrix: n. on 37, 1. 16.

non modo...sed ne quidem: Cic. also uses non modo non...sed ne quidem, the difference between the two phrases merely lying in this, that when non is expressed it is more emphatic than when it has to be supplied from the negative in the succeeding clause. Observe that non modo cannot stand for non modo non except when a negative follows.

libero : adjective for substantive. The edd. say that the use is rendered permissible by the proximity of amico, but the phrase libero dignus is commonly used without any such restraint ; e.g. De Or. 1, $S 17, 72; cf. also ib. 137 id quod est homine ingenuo liberaliterque educato dignum. tyranno : cf. 52, p. 44, 1. 33 tyrannorum vita.

§ 90. cuius autem etc. : Cicero was very likely thinking of Hesiod's wellknown lines (Works and Days 293) ούτος μεν πανάριστος δε αυτώ πάντα

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νοήση" | εσθλός δ' αυ κακείνος δε ευ ειπόντι πίθηται. | δε δέ κε μήτ' αυτός

νοέη μήτ' άλλου ακούων | εν θυμώ βάλληται, ο δ' αύτ' αχρήϊος ανήρ. 13

scitum: 'a neat saying'.
illud Catonis : like to toll IIXátwvos etc. in Greek.

ut multa: cf. Fin. 1,7 facete is quidem sicut alia (so Madvig rightly reads). 16 atque illud absurdum : sc. est ; n. on 14, 1. 31. 17 non capiunt...capiunt: n. on 19, 1. 28. 18 obiurgari: for the asyndeton cf. n. on 5, 1. 25. 19 quod contra : Seyffert, and after him Lahmeyer, takes quod as though it were governed by contra, the preposition thus being put after its

I believe the quod to be merely a connecting link between the clauses, like the "which'in vulgar English and sometimes ő in Thucydides and Plato at the beginning of sentences or clauses ; in fact the use is the same as that in quod si at the beginning of a clause or sentence.

case.

§ 91.

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et monere et moneri est : for the singular verb cf. 14, 1. 23 cum et Philus et Manilius adesset.

proprium est amicitiae : n. on 26, 1. 24.

libere: metà mappnolas; n. on 44, l. 13. 23 sic habendum est: the edd. after Seyffert all take sic not as cor

responding to ut, but as going closely with habendum est (cf. 10, l. 7 sic habetote) and as referring to what comes after, the words from nullam to assentationem being thus an explanation of sic. The sic which should correspond with ut is supposed to have fallen out. I prefer to take ut and sic as corresponding : "as...so we must consider that etc.'. Cicero certainly uses habendum est alone followed by an infinitive clause. Cf. Off. 2, 51 nec tamen, ut hoc fugiendum est, item est habendum religioni nocentem aliquando modo ne nefarium impiumque defendere,

where Cic. might have written item sic est habendum, religioni esse etc. 24 pestem : cf. 34, 1. 14 pestem...amicitiis (dative).

adulationem blanditiam assentationem : 'fawning, wheedling and flattery'. Adulatio is the worst fault, and corresponds to the Greek kolakela: cf. Tac. Hist. I, 1, 4 adulationi foedum crimen servitutis inest ; Cic. uses it of dogs in N. D. 2, 158 canum tam amans dominorum adulatio. Blanditia is more like the Greek ápéo kela, an excessive desire to please. [This is one of many words commonly used only in the plural, but by Cic. also in the singular; in 61, l. 22 blanditiis.] Assentatio is the fault of those qui omnia ad voluntatem locuntur (98,

1. 14). 25 multis nominibus: cf. Fin. 3, 14 erit enim notius quale sit pluribus

notatum vocabulis idem declarantibus. 26 levium: the opposite would be constantium.

voluptatem : for the reading see Appendix. Cf. Orator 38 ad volueptatem aurium scribere ; De Or. 3, 177; also apòs ndovriv léyelv.

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