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comicos senes : 'old men in comedy.' For comicos stultos cf. n. on 30, p. 38, 1. 8 multae et magnae. Cf. Cato m. 36 quos ait Caecilius comicos stultos senes, hos significat credulos. The lines therefore are by Caecilius

Statius (about B.C. 219–166). 3 versaris : 'have turned round your finger'.

illusseris : in Latin down to Cicero's time ss was often written after a long vowel. Quint. 1, 7, 20 instances caussa, cassus, divissiones. lautissime: 'most richly'; cf. our expression 'a rich joke'.

$ 100. 4 in fabulis...senum: in nearly every Latin comedy there is a young

man who, by the aid of a clever slave, cheats his father out of a sum of money.

persona : n. on 4, l. 14. 6 perfectorum hominum : cf. perfecta amicitia in 22, 1. 32. See n. on

perfectus vir (not homo) in 72, 1. 3. 7 sapientia : cf. closely $$ 18, 38.

in hominem cadere: “to fall within a man's province'; cf. 48, 1. 13, also Tusc. 5, 28 quos dicam bonos perspicuum est; omnibus enim virtuti

bus instructos et ornatos tum sapientis tum viros bonos dicimus. 8 levis :=volgaris in 76, p. 51, l. 33; cf. also communibus in 77, l. 11.

defluxit : n. on 76, p. 51, 1. 33 delabitur. I conciliat...conservat: so 20, p. 34, 1. 10 virtus amicitiam et gignit et - continet,

convenientia rerum : 'harmony in all things'=consensio omnium rerum in 20, p. 34, 1. 2.

stabilitas...constantia : see 62, p. 47, 1. 31; 65, p. 48, 1. 26.

quae : virtus, not constantia. 13 lumen : so in 27, p. 37, 1. 8 lumen aliquod probitatis et virtutis.

agnovit in alio: see 48, 1. 28 sq. 14 admovet: so 32, l. 21 applicant sese et propius admovent; cf. 48,

1. 28. 15 amor...amicitia: cf. 26, 1. 25. Aristotle distinguishes ollnous and

pilia (Eth. Nic. 8, 5, 5 and elsewhere) but his odia includes both amicitia and amor, his plinois being that lower degree of affection which

may be felt for the brute creation or for things inanimate. 16 dictum est: Lahmeyer has ductum est, but Cicero in mentioning a

thing would say it was named from some circumstance, but in mentioning its name would say that the name is drawn or derived from some cir.

cumstance. 17 nulla indigentia: this is shewn in SS 26, 27, 29, 46. 18 quaesita : this goes only with utilitate : 'owing to no poverty, seeking no advantage'.

ipsa ecflorescit: this is stated repeatedly elsewhere in the dialogue; cf. SS 30-32, 51.

ecflorescit: 'blossoms forth'; a favourite metaphor with Cicero, as in De Or. 1, 20 ex rerum cognitione efflorescat et redundet oportet oratio; also ib. 2, 319; Fin. 1, 69. The form of the preposition ec for ex is well attested in compounds both by Mss and inscriptions. It was probably somewhat old-fashioned in Cicero's time.

§ 101. 20 Paulum: n. on 21, 1. 14; Catonem : the old censor; Gallum: n. on

21, 1. 15; P. Nasicam: surnamed Corculum, and father of Nasica Serapio mentioned in § 41. This Nasica was son-in-law of the elder

Africanus; was consul in 162 and 155, censor in 159. 21 Ti. Gracchum : father of the tribunes; also son-in-law of the elder

Africanus; father-in-law of the younger Africanus; as praetor won victories over the Celtiberi in 179; was consul in 177 and conquered Sardinia; censor in 169. Cicero often contrasts him with his sons,

greatly to the disadvantage of the latter. 22 Scipionem etc. : see Introd. pp. 17 sq. 24 in caritate acquiescimus: so 22, 1. 19 vita quae non in amici mutua

benevolentia conquiescit. Note adulescentium, Tuberonis but vestra not vestri, and cf. 57, 1. 6 n.

Q. Tuberonis : n. on 37, p. 40, 1. 1. 25 adulescentis : for the singular cf. below, l. 32 caritate benevolentiaque sublata ; also adesset in 14, l. 24.

P. Rutili: this P. Rutilius Rufus was a pupil of Panaetius (Off. 3, 10; Brut. 114, 116, 118) and studied law under P. Mucius Scaevola the consul of 133 B.C. He served as military tribune under Scipio before Numantia, and as legatus under Metellus Numidicus in the war against Iugurtha (Sall. Iug. 50). In 105 he was consul; in 100 was among the opponents of Saturninus; in the same year accompanied Q. Mucius Scaevola (pontifex) to Asia, which he governed himself for some time after Scaevola's departure. The severe integrity and purity of his government gave offence to the publicani, and on his return to Rome he was unjustly arraigned for extortion and condemned, whereupon he went into exile at Smyrna, from which he declined to return, though Sulla offered to reinstate him (pro Balbo § 28). Cicero De Or. 1, 229 calls him exemplum innocentiae quo nemo neque integrior fuerit in civitate neque sanctior; Vell. Pat. 2, 13, 2 vir non saeculi sui sed omnis aevi

optimus. 26 A. Vergini: mentioned by Pomponius Dig. 1, 2, 40 (along with

Rutilius), as being a good lawyer. Nothing else is known of him.

Jquoniamque etc.: "and since the plan of human life and the human constitution has been so ordained that a new generation is ever springing

into existence'. 29 carceribus...calcem : metaphors from the chariot-race are exceedingly

common. Carceres are properly the enclosures in which the chariots are kept while awaiting the start. Calx was a chalked line marking the goal (Seneca ep. 108, 32 hanc quam nunc in circo cretam vocamus, calcem antiqua dicebant); it is the linea of Horace in mors ultima linea rerum est' (Greek ypanuń). With our passage cf. Cat. m. 83 nec vero

velim quasi decurso spatio ad carceres a calce revocari. 30 ut dicitur : as above 97, p. 58, 1. 3 ; cf. n. on 19, l. 15.

§ 102. res humanae : 'human possessions'; cf. 17, p. 32, 1. 33 ut amicitiam omnibus rebus humanis anteponatis.

fragiles caducaeque : 20, p. 34, 1. 7 caduca et incerta. 32 sublata : for the singular cf. adulescentis in l. 25, also n. on 14, 1. 24.

P. 60. i omnis... iucunditas: cf. 47, p. 43, 1. I solem e mundo tollere videntur qui amicitiam e vita tollunt.

mihi: for me', 'in my view'; cf. sibi in 11, 1. 21. 2 vivit...vivet: cf. § 13. 4 in manibus habui : 'had at hand'. A somewhat different use from

that in 96, 1. 20. Cf. Caes. B. G. 2, 19, 7 incredibili celeritate ad flumen decucurrerunt ut paene uno tempore et ad silvas et in flumine et iam in manibus nostris hostes viderentur. 5 nemo etc.: 'no one will either purpose or hope to undertake (literally

no one will undertake in thought or in hope) tasks more than ordinarily great without thinking that he must ever keep before him a remembrance and a vivid impression of that illustrious man'.

§ 103. 8 fortuna aut natura: the distinction between good things given by

fortune and good things given by nature is involved in SS 20, 22. 9 de re publica : but in 20, p. 34, 1. 2 consensio is followed by the geni

tive instead of the ablative with de. So here rerum consilium=de

rebus. II plena : Cic. generally uses plenus with the genitive, not the ablative.

numquam...ne quidem: cf. n. on 48, 1. 25 non plus. 12 quod quidem senserim : an instance of the subjunctive used to express

a limitation or restriction. See Roby $ 1692; also cf. 11, 1. 18. 13 V idem victus: 'the same style of living, which indeed we had in com

mon’. For isque cf. n. on 7, 1. 11. 14 militia : with this whole passage cf. 15, 1. 7 Scipione quocum mihi coniuncta cura de re publica et de privata fuit et militia communis.

peregrinationes : we hear much of Scipio's travels (Rep. 3, 48; 6, Il; Acad. 2, 5) but it is only here mentioned that Laelius accompanied

him. 15 rusticationes : cf. De Or. 2, 22 Laelium semper fere cum Scipione soli

tum rusticari eosque incredibiliter repuerascere esse solitos cum rus ex urbe tamquam e vinclis evolavissent.

§ 104. nam: n. on 45, 1, 17.

de studiis etc.: about our devotion to the constant acquisition of knowledge and instruction'. For cognoscendi aliquid cf. n. on 5, l. 21. In 86, 1. 30 cognitio and doctrina come together as cognoscendi and

discendi do here. 18 recordatio et memoria : these two words thus frequently come toge

ther, as in Tusc. 5, 88; Brut. 9; De Or. 1, 228; Tac. dial. I and in De Or. I, 4 even memoriae recordatio. Memoria indicates the fact that a past event is present to the mind; recordatio properly means the process of summoning back past impressions; cogitatio is substituted for it below, l. 21 cogitatione et memoria.

occidisset : the singular verb as in 14, 1. 24 adesset. 20 possem : the imperfect gives the sense “I should not now be able'.

, nec...et: see n. on 75, 1. 22.

alunturque potius : the que is corrective as in the common phrase potiusque, or rather'. For aluntur, . are strengthened', cf. De Or. 2, 123 si hunc oratorem quem nunc fingo, ut institui, crearo, aluero, confirmaro; Tusc. I, 4 honos alit artis : Vell. Pat. 1, 18, 6 alit aemulatio

ingenia. 22 essem...affert : for the indicative in the apodosis, though the subjunctive is in the protasis, cf. n. on 29, 1. 21.

aetas ipsa: the mere lapse of time'; cf. 19, 1. 25 natura ipsa. 24 brevia tolerabilia : cf. the maxim of Epicurus, Fin. 1, 40 dolor in

longinquitate levis, in gravitate brevis ; ib. 2, 94 magnum dolorem brevem,

longinquum levem. 26 haec habui etc.: so Cicero makes Cato conclude in the Cato m. 85 haec habui de senectute quae dicerem.

hortor: cf. 17, p. 32, 1. 33 ego vos hortari tantum possum, ut amici. tiam omnibus rebus humanis anteponatis. 27 ita locetis : cf. 40, 1. 8 eo loco locati.

APPENDIX ON THE TEXT.

[Remarks relating to readings, punctuation or orthography will be found in the explanatory notes on the following passages :

2, 1. 19 querella; 2, 1. 21 Gaio; 6, 1. 33 L. Acilium; 9, 1. 26 maestitia; jo, 1. 12 solacio; 11, 1. 20 adulescens; 11, l. 21 factus consul; 11, 1. 32 etiam nunc; 14, 1. 24 adesset; 20, 1. 6 beluarum; 24, 1. 31 iudicarent; 26, 1. 13 iustitia; 31, l. 11 faeneramur; 34, 1. II condicio; 35, 1. 20 quod; 41, l. 18 deinde; 42, 1. 26 alligatos; 42, l. 27 in magna re publica; 44, 1. 10 verum; 48, 1. 27 si quasi; 52, 1. 30 pro; 52, p. 45, 1. I nimirum; 54, 1. 19 sperni; 57, 1. 6 nostra causa; 59, l. 29 esset; 64, l. 22 aut si...aut; 65, 1. 29 isdem; 70, l. 13 ignorationem ; 73, 1. 5 perducere; 74, 1. 11 habere; 88, 1. 27 subeunda; 89, p. 56, 1. 5 habenda; 97, 1. 31 contione; 99, p. 59, l. 3 illusseris; 100, 1. 16 dictum est; 100, 1. 18 ecflorescit.]

In 1861 Halm published in Vol. IV of the revision of Orelli's edition of Cicero's works, continued by Baiter and. Halm) a text of the Laelius based on a collation of the readings of six mss. Much the best of these is the codex Gudianus, now at Wolfenbüttel, written in the xth century. This Halm marks G. Since his edition appeared two other MSS of equal—some would say of superior-authority have come to light, both of which were used by Baiter in revising the Laelius for the edition of Cicero's works brought out by himself and Kayser in 1863 and 1864. One of these two mss is in a private library at Paris, and was first described by Th. Mommsen in the Rheinisches Museum, 1863, p. 594 sq. It belongs to the end of the ixth or beginning of the xth century, and is commonly known as Codex Parisinus, and denoted by P. There are two lacunae, one after the word magnas in 8 75 to the word etiam in $ 78; the other from peccasse in § 90 to de Scipione in $ 96. The other ms is at Munich. It also belongs to the xth century, and is known as codex Monacensis, being denoted by M. It has lost the part containing the first ten chapters.

Unfortunately, the information at hand concerning P and M is far from sufficient to enable us to determine their real value. We possess only an incomplete collation of P by Mommsen, which leaves the readings of many important passages in doubt. An overwhelming authority

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