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§ 57. 1. 6. nostra: so M P rightly ; see my n. Halm's six mss give nostri.

§ 59. 1. 25. inducatque spem : so I have written with the MSS; see my n. HB L inducatque in spem ; N follows the Mss.

§ 63. 1. 3. temptatis: G M P agree in tempestatis, a striking testimony in favour of the spelling temptatis against tentatis.

amicitia ex: so I have emended the reading of G M P amicitias which has arisen from ex having been written es (so estra often for extra). H has amicitiis with D; B N amicitia only, with two inferior MSS; L amicitia ipsa. [C. F. W. M. amicitia ex independently.)

§ 65. 1. 27. quem: Mss quam, with which reading fides comes in at the end of the sentence in a lumping and altogether un-Ciceronian fashion.

§ 69. 1.7. posse esse : so MSS ; many edd. om. posse.

§ 70. 1. 11. imbecilliore: so mss; edd. mostly imbecilliores (not C. F. W. M.]

$ 72. p. 51, l. 1. opera : Mss and edd. opere ; but Cicero would say levare aliquem opera (nostra), not opere. Cf. 51, 11. 24, 25 si numquam opera nostra Scipio eguisset.

$ 74. 1. 14. aestimandi : this is Mommsen's emendation; the mss have merely est; edd. generally mark a lacuna. [Qy. read est amicus?]

§ 75. 1. 23. Lycomeden : Mss and edd. Lycomedem, which Cicero cannot have written, as he constantly uses en not em in the accusative singular of Greek proper names in es. See Neue I, pp. 56-58 ed, 2.

§ 77. 1. 17. graviter ac moderate : so I have corrected the mss graviter auctoritate ; L graviter ac temperate; H merely brackets auctoritate as a marginal gloss introduced into the text.

§ 91.

1. 26. voluptatem : so MSS; edd. voluntatem to correspond with voluntatem in 93, l. 3.

§ 94. 11. 6—8. I have placed a comma at similes and changed the MSS reading horum into quorum. See n. With the MSS readings the sentence is most awkwardly constructed.

§ 96 1. 24. cooptatio : it is remarkable that the mss here agree in the form coaptatio. Mommsen quotes coaptato from the lex Trilia municipalis (Corpus Inscr. I, p. 121, l. 86) which also has coptato (l. 106). Mommsen remarks 'cum o geminatam antiqui non admitterent fortasse pro ea substituerunt modo 7, modo oa, ut pro au scribitur modo ū, modo ou'.

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§ 97. 1. 31. scena : most curiously P D and E (codex Erfurtensis) agree in giving scamna which seems to point to the spelling scaena. The Latins often represented Greek by ae.

R. L.



p. 11. Greek sources of the dialogue. Since my work first appeared (1879) I have read two pamphlets bearing on the Greek sources of the Laelius. The first is by Braxator, entitled 'Quid in conscribendo Ciceronis Laelio valuerint Aristotelis Ethicon Nicomachorum (sic) de amicitia libri' (Halle 1871). Its object is to shew that Cicero directly imitated Eth. Nic. 8, 9 throughout the Laelius. Braxator points out a number of verbal resemblances between the two works, nearly all of which are quoted in my notes. But he neglects to notice the great divergence between the two treatises in subject-matter and arrangement. If Eth. Nic. 8, 9 had been the basis of the Laelius, we should have had striking correspondence in the treatment of the theme. Altogether Braxator does not much advance the problem towards a solution. His work is hasty, as a sign of which it may be stated that the pamphlet contains perhaps more misprints than were ever before crowded together in the same space.

The second essay, that of Heylbut 'De Theophrasti libris trepi pilias' (Bonn 1876), is a more careful production. "Heylbut seeks to prove that Theophrastus copied Aristotle in the main, and that Cicero and Plutarch in his writings on friendship) drew ultimately upon Theophrastus. The verbal resemblances between the Laelius and the Eth. Nic. would thus be explained. Heylbut believes that Cicero had before him only excerpts froin Theophrastus contained in a work by some other author, and he suspects the same may be the case with Plutarch.

My own investigations lead me to think that the statements about friendship in the Laelius and those in De Finibus 2, 4, 5 go back to a common source, and that possibly Plutarch also used this source. The matter however is too intricate for argument here. If Hirzel's views of the sources of the De Finibus be correct, we shall thus be led back to Antiochus of Ascalon, the philosopher from whom Cicero drew so much elsewhere. But while many of Hirzel's arguments carry me with them, there are difficulties which for the present prevent me from giving a confident opinion.

p. 61, n. on § 1, l. 2. nec dubitare: the construction of non dubitare with accusative and infinitive is regular in Livy; see Kühnast, Livian. Synt. p. 20. For the constructions with dubito in Cicero and other authors see my n. on Cato maior $ 16.

n. on § 1, 1. 4. ita eram deductus etc.: formerly I took ita...ut as with the result that...' Prof. Iwan Müller, in one of his well known able and courteous reviews in Bursian's Jahresbericht, objected that this interpretation would require poteram...licebat. Surely not so; dependent clauses in Iatin continually follow the syntax of the principal clause. My only ground for changing my view is that the interpretation now adopted seems to suit somewhat better the whole context.

P. 62, n. on g 1, 1. 5. a senis latere: cf. Catul. 21, 6 haerens ad latus with Ellis' n.

P. 63, n. on § 2, 1. 14. tum fere: Prof. Iwan Müller objects to my view (which agreed with that of C. F. W. Müller in his edition of Seyffert's Laelius) on the ground that the time is precisely indicated in the following sentence. I fail to see why Cic. should not say that certain talk prevailed “about a certain time, even though he is able to define the time exactly. Iwan Müller seems to favour omnibus for multis. C. F. W. Müller now reads (in his Teubner text) tum forte.

p. 64, n. on § 3, 1. 2. ne 'inquam' etc.: cf. also Tusc. 2, 9 and Diog. Laert. 9, 111, where he contrasts the avrodiMyntos Épunuela with that εν διαλόγου σχήματι.

p. 65, n. on & 4, 1. 7. feci ut prodessem: this is not quite the same as profui ; it rather lays stress on the exertion which it cost Cic. to write the book.

$ 4, 1. 10. aptior quae : Draeger, hist. synt. 2, 534 ed. 2 says that this construction can only be paralleled from Ovid, Her. 3, 70. I have been unable to find any other example. The ordinary constructions of aptus are the dat., or acc. with ad (or in poets with in). Aptior is probably substituted here for the comparative of idoneus, which was not in use (cf. idonea in l. 13).

n. on § 4, 1. 10. loqueretur: Iwan Müller quotes for dicere, used with the abstract or personified subject, Fat. § 1; Cato, Orig. 5, 5 ed. Jordan; for inquit Cic. Leg. 2, 58; add Att. 2, 5, i quid historiae de nobis praedicarint ?

p. 69, n. on 7, 1. 13. omnia tua etc.; the younger Seneca has many expressions like this, as in Epist. 66, 22 hominem habentem in se omnia; he also mentions the saying of Stilbo, also attributed to Bias of Priene, omnia mea mecum porto' (Ep. 9, 19), or omnia mea mecum sunt' (Dial. 2, 5, 6). Cf. also Cic. Tusc. 5 88 30, 36, 42 ; ib. 4 SS 57, 61.

p. 70, n. on & 7, 1. 14. credo ex hoc item : cf. Madvig on Fin. 2, 16.

& 7, 1. 17. ut assolet: differs from ut solet, in being used only of some fixed and stated usage or ceremonial (Madv. on Fin. 5, 1).

p. 71, n. on 8 8, I. 29. incommodo: cf. Tusc. 5, 36, where it is said the sapiens will be unmoved, et nascentibus et cadentibus cum reliquis commodis, tum maxime liberis'.

p. 72, n. on & 9, 1. 3. sed hi in pueris: cf. Fin. 5, 62 sed haec in pueris ; Sen. dial. II, 3, 5 luget Polybius, in uno fratre quid de reliquis possit metuere, admonitus.

p. 80, n. on § 14, 1. 1. sensu enim amisso: the notion is Epicurean ; see Lucr. 3, 830–869; Fin. I, 49; ib. 2, 100; the words in Eur. Tro. 636, 7 are precisely similar.

p. 82, n. on § 16, 1. 19. pergratum etc. : for pergratum used as substantive, cf. Hor. Od. 3, 3, 17 gratum elocuta; Plaut. Most. 211 (ed. Lorenz).

p. 83, n. on § 17, 1. 32. censeo petatis : Iwan Müller objects to the assumption that ut is omitted, saying these usages come from the popular talk, where parataxis for syntaxis is beloved. But abbreviations and omissions are also beloved ; and there are many verbs which take the subjunctive, sometimes with and sometimes without ut, to which the assumption of parataxis will not apply. My view is unchanged, but the matter would take too much space to discuss here.

p. 86, n. on § 20, 1. 31. ex infinita etc.: so Aristotle says (Eth. N. 9, 10, 6) ai 'uvoúpeval pillal tv duol Néyovtal.

p. 94, n. on 26, 1. 15. vim...afferre: cf. Plaut. Mil. 454 vi me cogis, quisquis es; Captiv. 750 vis haec quidem hercle est; Cic. Fin. 2, 16 hoc est vim afferre sensibus.

p. 107, n. on § 39, 1. 2. minime...acerrimus: of course the superlative adverb cannot qualify the superlative adjective. The mss readings in Fam. 3, 10, 10 ornatissimum amplissime and Att. 12, 38, 3 maxime liberalissima are now rejected.

p. 111, n. on $ 44, 1. 10. verum: Iwan Müller quotes against me a futile remark of Gernhard, that every man's advice seems to him true. The assumption is in itself large: but if the argument were worth anything, it would logically prevent the use of any good epithet with consilium. Thus it might be said that every man considers his advice wise ; yet we have sapiens consilium in Ovid, Met. 13, 433 and elsewhere. Müller denies that verum consilium could mean sincere or faithful advice. Nothing seems to me more natural; cf. Cic. Att. 9, 7 A, (Balbus and Oppius) quod verissimum nobis videbitur, de eo quod ad nos scripsisti, tibi consilium dabimus, quod si non fuerit prudens, at certe ab optima fide proficiscetur; Hor. Sat. 2, 3, 16 di te, Damasippe, deaeque verum ob consilium donent tonsore; Curtius 6, 10, 26 fides amicitiae, veri consilii periculosa libertas. Similarly Verg. Aen. I, 409 veras audire et reddere voces. [Allen quotes Off. 1, 52 to illustrate, not to condemn the expression verum consilium, as Müller thinks.]

p. 114, n. on $ 46, 1. 30. haberet: cf. Madv. on Fin. 3, 67.

p. 117, n. on § 50, l. 9. bonis inter bonos: the reading here has been recently attacked; cf. however N. D. 1, 121 sapientes sapientibus amicos; Off. 1, 22 hominum inter homines societas.

p. 122, n. on § 56, 1. 30: other exx. of the attraction: Att. 7, 17, 4; ib. 8, 12, 4; De Or. 2, 132; De Leg. 1, 4; ib. 2, 48 (where quaeruntur has been wrongly altered by Madvig and others); Leg. agr. 2, 102; Cn. Pomp. 34; and in the MSS of Livy 6, 14, 2, where it

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