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omnis est e vita sublata iucunditas. Mihi quidem Scipio, quamquam est subito ereptus, vivit tamen semperque vivet: virtutem enim amavi illius viri, quae exstincta non est. Nec mihi soli versatur ante oculos, qui illam semper in manibus habut, sed

etiam posteris erit clara et insignis. <Nemo umquam animo s p. aut spe maiora suscipiet qui sibi non illius memoriam atque 103 imaginem proponendam putet. Equidem ex omnibus rebus,

quas mihi aut fortuna aut natura tribuit, nihil habeo quod cum + amicitia Scipionis possim comparare. In hac mihi de re publica consensus, in hac rerum privatarum consilium, in 10' eadem requies plena oblectationis fuits Numquam illumyne minima quidem re offendi, quod quidem senserim, nihil

audivi ex eo ipse quod nollem; una domus erat idem victus qisque communis, neque solum militia, sed etiam peregrina104 tiones rusticationesque communes> Nam quid ego de studiis 15 ^ dicam cognoscendi semper aliquid atque discendi, in quibus

remoti ab oculis populisomne otiosum tempus contrivimus? Quarum rerum recordatio et memoria si una cum illo occidisset, desiderium coniunctissimi atque amantissimi viri ferre nullo modo possem. Sed nec illa exstincta sunt alunturque 20 potius et augentur cogitatione et memoria mea, et, si illis plane orbatus essem, magnum tamen affert mihi aetas ipsa solacium : diutius enim iam in hoc desiderio esse non possum; omnia autem brevia tolerabilia esse debent, etiam si magna sunt.

25 Haec habui de amicitia quae dicerem; vos autem hortor ut ita virtutem locetis, sine qua amicitia esse non potest, ut ea excepta nihil amicitia praestabilius putetis. 7.

NOTES.

N.B. In references to passages in the dialogue the first figure refers to the small section, not the chapter. In all quotations from Cicero sections not chapters are referred to, unless the contrary is stated.

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[ Q. Mucius.. C. Laelio : see Introd. p. 14. 2. memoriter: not by heart' or 'from memory' but 'with good memory,' like po nuoviks (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3, 46). Madvig is right in saying (on Fin. 1, 34) semper hoc vocabulum laudem habet bonae et copiosae memoriae.

nec dubitare: =et (solebat) non dubitare. When dubitare means to hesitate about doing something, it generally takes an infinitive after it if the sentence (as here) is negative, or is an interrogative sentence which implies a negative. Occasionally, in such sentences, dubitare takes another construction, viz. quin with subj. More examples of this usage occur, in Cic. than in any other author: e.g. Leg. agr. 2, 69 et vos non dubitatis quin vectigalia vestra vendatis. In a positive sentence the infin

itive is unusual: cf. Sall. Cat. 15, 2 ea illi nubere dubitat; Cic. N. D. 1, • 113 accusat fratrem suum quod dubitet omnia ventre metiri.

3 sapientem: see Introd. p. 15, n. 6. 4 ita eram deductus etc.: ‘had been introduced to Scaevola on the under

standing, that etc.' For this sense of deducere, to introduce a young man to a master or guardian, cf. Cael. 9 ut huic virilem togam dedit...hunc a patre continuo ad me esse deductum. It was a common practice to attach youths for a time to the society of distinguished jurists or orators; see Tac. dial. 34; Quint. 12, 11, 6.

Scaevolam: but above (line 1) Q. Mucius, the same person : Lahmeyer quotes similar changes from Cic. dom. 115; Sall. Iug. 27, 4; Nep. Hamilc. 1, 3 and 5.

virili toga: called also toga pura (as in Att. 7, 8, 5) to distinguish it from the toga praetexta (sometimes called merely praetexta) the purple bordered robe worn at Rome by magistrates and children. The toga of the ordinary adult citizen was not dyed. The toga virilis was generally assumed at the beginning of the seventeenth year. For virilis toga instead of toga virilis cf. Cael. 9 quoted above, and praetexta toga in 33, p. 39, l. 9.

quoad possem et liceret: cf. Lucr. 2, 850 quoad licet ac possis; Cic. Leg. agr. 2, 19 quoad posset, quoad fas esset, quoad liceret. 5 a senis...discederem: an exaggerated expression, as in Balb. 5 accu

sator fatetur hunc numquam à Memmio discessisse ; Liv. 37, 53, 18

numquam a consule abscessi. 6 ab eo...disputata : Cic. allows disputare to govern an accusative of a neuter pronoun only, in place of the usual constr., viz. de with abl.; so in 24, p. 36, 1. 2; 16, 1. 22. He is more free in his use of the passive; thus he says in De Or. I. 22 re quaesita et disputata, though he would hardly say rem disputare for de re disputare. Cf. 4, 1. 14. 8 prudentia: this word usually implies not wisdom in general but skill

in some special subject; here Roman Law; cf. prudens in iure in 6, p. 29, 1. 1.

me...contuli: contrast this with a patre deductus eram above. 9 unum ... praestantissimum: this emphatic use of unus with the super

lative is common in Cic., e.g. Tusc. 2, 64; 4, 55; 5, 66; so Verg. Aen. 2, 426 cadit et Rhipeus iustissimus unus, and Homer, Il. 12, 243 eis oiwvos á plotos. For the gen. nostrae civitatis cf. Tusc. 3, 81 unum omnium maximum. The strengthening force of unus is also seen in the

common phrases quivis unus, quilibet unus, unus aliquis, unus quisque. 10 seil de hoc alias: nunc etc.: the ellipse of the verb (dicam) is common;

cf. Tusc. 3, 10 sed id alias, nunc quod instat; ib. 3, 25 sed cetera alias

nunc...; ib. 3, 73 sed de hoc alias, nunc...; Balb. I ego quantum ei debeam, , alio loco; also below, 13, 1. 18; 64, 1. 19; 32, 1. 30. Observe that in the

best writers alias is always equivalent to alio tempore, never to alio modo. For redeo cf. De Or. 2, 62 sed illuc redeo; below, 96, l. 22 ut ad me redeam ; also 75, 1. 22.

at mother

§ 2.

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cum saepe multa, tum etc.: there is a change of construction in this sentence which leaves the clause cum saepe multa incomplete. Something like eum dicere must be supplied. Trans. 'I remember much that he said on many occasions, but particularly that etc.' On the constr. of memini Roby $ 1372 says 'memini is used with the present (and sometimes the perfect) infinitive of events of which the subject himself was witness, with the perfect infinitive of events of which the subject was not witness'. The rule may be somewhat more precisely stated thus. If the person who recalls an event was a witness of it, he may either (a) vividly picture to himself the event and its attendant circumstances so that it becomes really present to his mind's eye for the moment, in which case he uses the present infinitive, or (b) he may simply recall the fact that the event did take place in past time, in which case the perfect infinitive is used. If he was not a witness, he evidently can conceive the event only in the latter of these two ways. As regards (a) cf. Verg. Ecl. 9, 52 longos cantando puerum memini me condere soles with Georg. 4, 125 memini me Corycium vidisse senem. Examples like the latter of these two are more numerous than is commonly supposed.

12 hemicyclio: a large semicircular bench, not a part of the household

furniture, but placed outside in the grounds, and used for conversations, or lessons, the shape enabling the company to see each other's faces. So, at the outset of the discussion in the Academica (1, 14), Cic. says

omnes in conspectu consedimus. 13 admodum: Lahmeyer is wrong in taking this with familiares; it

qualifies pauci, as in Tusc. 4, 6 nulla fere sunt aut pauca admodum Latina monumenta, though Cic. nearly always says admodum pauci rather than pauci admodum; cf. Tusc. 2, 11; Top. 3; N. D. 3, 69; Leg. 3, 32; Phil. 3, 36 and 14, 27. In 16, 1. 25 we have gratum admodum. In sense, admodum exactly corresponds with our phrase 'to a degree'.

eum sermonem qui:=sermonem de ea re quae..., like is timor=timor eius rei, common in Livy. So below, 3, 1. 19 eam mentionem=eius rei mentionen. Cf. also 55, 1. 26; 32, l. 24 haec concertatio; 88, 1. 18 illam

admirationem, and n. on 38, l. 22 ex hoc numero. 14

tum fere : 'just about that time”; cf. 14, p. 31, 1. 26 extremum fere almost the last part '; also 5, l. 21 nemo fere, 'hardly any one’; 72, 1. 32 non fere. Lahmeyer, Nauck, and others err by supposing fere to qualify the words erat in ore, and to mean 'generally', 'commonly', like volgo, for which sense cf. 54, l. 15. Fere nearly though not quite always modifies the word which immediately precedes, and is often joined with expressions relating to time, when the time is not fixed with absolute exactness. So Cic. Rep. 2, 56 decem fere annis; Pis. 13 quinta fere hora; Caes. B. G. 4, 23, i tertia fere vigilia. The Greek expressions us ČTTOS ειπείν, ως ειπείν (which have a verbal resemblance to the Latin phrase ut ita dicam, but do not resemble it in their sense) correspond very closely to fere.

multis erat in ore: Cic. uses both constructions, esse in ore alicui and esse in ore alicuius. Cf. Appendix on tum fere multis. 15 P. Sulpicio: see Intrud. p. 20.

utebare multum: 'were much in the society of...' 16 cum ... vixerat: in translating, these words should be taken after the words from quanta to querella.

is tribunus plebis: not that tribune', but 'he, being tribune', or 'he, as tribune

capitali odio: "deadly hatred'. The same phrase occurs in a fragm. of Cic. (Baiter, XIII I, 2); cf. also Hor. Sat. 1, 7, 13 ira capitalis. 17 quocum: so 15, 1. 8 and 77, p. 52, 1. 13, but in 22, p. 34, 1. 20 quicum.

Quocum is commonly used when some particular and specified person is meant, as here and 15, 11. 8, 9, quicum when the statement is general and the person undefined, as in § 22. The mss, however, vary so much be

tween the two forms that it is often difficult to decide concerning them. 19 querella: "complaint'. The spelling querella seems better attested than querela.

§ 3. cum...incidisset: 'having chanced to talk of that particular fact, i.e. the fact that Sulpicius had turned against his former friend; this led

Scaevola to the general subject of friendship. For eam mentionem see

n. on 2, l. 13 eum sermonem. 21 secum et cum: so 11, 1. 31 mecum et cum, and often.

C. Fannio: see Introd. p. 16. The young student should clearly realise the fact that C. is an abbreviation for Gaius, not CAIUS, the latter form of the name having been absolutely unknown to the Romans of the Republic and early Empire. It appears in an inscription (Vol. III no. 1178 of Mommsen's Corpus) of the time of Caracalla. On the other hand, it is not uncommon to find in modern books the abbreviation written G. instead of C. (e.g. in Gerlach's edition of Sallust throughout, and occasionally in R. -Ellis' Catullus; so Kühner, Gram. I, ed. 2, p. 708 *C. oder G. Gaius'). But the Romans always wrote C. not G. In very early times the Latin alphabet contained no letter G, and the letter C represented two distinct sounds, the guttural tenuis and the guttural media. After the introduction of G the Romans still kept up the old fashion of

writing C. for Gaius and Cn. for Gnaeus; so they wrote K. for Caeso. 22 Africani: see Introd. p. 17 sq.

P. 28. I sententias: 'the opinions expressed in the discussion', i.e. their purport, not the actual words.

exposui arbitratu meo : ‘have rendered at my own discretion'. Like very many other nouns whose stems end in -u, arbitratus scarcely appears except in the ablative singular. [The nom. sing. and accus. sing. are also found, but only in Plautus.] The other cases of the sing. are supplied by the corresponding cases of arbitrium, and even in the ablative arbitrio is commoner than arbitratu (41, 1. 21). Rogatu in

4, 1. 7 is an isolated ablative. 2 quasi...loquentis: 'I have exhibited them as speaking in person, if I may say so'. Quasi modifies the too strong expression ipsos; cf. 27, p. 37, 1. 8; 55, l. 27; 6, p. 29, 1. 5; 48, 1. 20; 50, 1. 6; 56, 1. 31; 35, 1. 26. A modern writer would hardly have thought it necessary to indicate that the interlocutors cannot actually appear in person.

ne 'inquam' etc. : this is directly and closely imitated from the introduction to Plato's Theaetetus, p. 142 (a dialogue Cic. imitates elsewhere, as in De Or. 3, 47; Tusc. 1, 8), where Euclides says with regard to the subject-matter of that dialogue éypayáunu od on oŮtwo! τον λόγον, ουκ έμοι Σωκράτη διηγούμενον ως διηγείτο, αλλά διαλεγόμενον οίς έφη διαλεχθήναι... ίνα ούν εν τη γραφή μη παρέχοιεν πράγματα αι METAŠù (cf. interponerentur) TWv Xbyw dinyhoels tepi aŭtoŮ TE Ómbre Néyou • Ewkpárns, olov, Káyu fonu (inquam) Ř Kai dyw eirov, j nepi Toll αποκρινομένου, ότι Συνέφη (inquit) ή Ουχ ώμολόγει, τούτων ένεκα αυτόν aútoês diareyouevov ypaya (quasi ipsos induxi loquentis), ételwv

TOlallta. 4 coram : adverb here, as it is almost throughout the Republican and

Augustan Latin. The prepositional use occurs in two passages of Cicero, Pis. 12 mihi vero ipsi coram genero meo quae dicere ausus es (where I would insert et before genero and take coram adverbially) and Fam. 13,

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