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credo : merely parenthetic, and without influence on the construction. The verb to be supplied for this clause is quaerunt, not quaerere. 15 hoc: 'our friend here'; so 32, 1. 31.
quonam pacto: lit. 'on what conditions', pactum (paciscor) being properly something agreed on between two persons, The phrase came to be used in exactly the same sense as quonam modo; cf. 4, 1. 17 nescio quo pacto with 89, p. 55, 1. 32
modo. 16 eoque magis : sc. quaerunt. The sentence from quod onwards is really
explanatory of eo, which is the ablative of excess dependent on magis; lit. more by thus much, viz. that'.
proximis: 'the last'. Proximus is used both of the future and the past. Occasionally a word is inserted to define the meaning more nearly, as Fam. I, 9, 20 proximis superioribus diebus; Tac. A. 1, 77 proximo priore anno, and also when proximus is used of space, as Cic. Orat. 216 proximum superiorem pedem; N.D. 2, 53 proximum inferiorem orbem.
Bruti: D. Iunius Brutus, surnamed Gallaecus, from his conquest of the Gallaeci, consul in 138 B.C.; cf. my n. on Arch. 27. He appears as
augur only in our passage. Ini commentandi causa: 'with a view to practice', i.e. in the augural art.
Commentari is properly 'to con over a lesson', ueletav. For the custom cf. Cic. Div. I, 90 divinant Magi qui congregantur in fano commentandi causa atque inter se colloquendi, quod etiam idem vos quo•idam facere Nonis solebatis. As the augurs required for their practice an open space whence they could get an uninterrupted view of the sky they usually met in some gentleman's park (horti) outside the city: cf.
N. D. 2, 11; Rep. I, 14 in hortis esse. 18 qui ... solitus esses: though you had been accustomed'. For this
use of the subj. with qui, to express an idea contrasting with, or opposed to that of the preceding clause or sentence, cl. Brut. 127 hic, qui in collegio sacerdotum esset, iudicio publico est condemnatus.
diligentissime: ‘most carefully'. See my n. on Arch. 9, 1. 24. 19 obire: 'to attend to’; lit. 'to go to meet'.
$ 8. C. Laeli: the addition of the praenomen, not usual in familiar conversation, gives formality to the address : cf. 100, 1, 10.
id respondeo, quod etc.: 'I state in reply what I have observed, that' etc. For this use of respondere=to put something into a reply, cf. Acad. 2, 93 fateris neque ultimum te paucorum neque primum multorum respondere posse, and the common phrase ius respondere; also n. on 4, 1. 13.
animum adverti: animum advertere and animadvertere (cf. 27, p. 37, 11; 99, p. 58, 1. 26) differ not at all in sense, and very little in use. Animum advertere is said to be necessary when the construction ad aliquid (to turn the mind to something) follows. Bentley on Tusc. 5, 65 denied that it governs a siniple accusative as animadvertere does; but he
cum summi viri tum amicissimi: the natural order would have been viri cum summi tum amicissimi. A word however which (like viri here) stands in the same relation towards two other words or phrases, is often placed thus between the two. The old grammarians called this usage coniunctio; cf. Cornificius Ad Herennium 4, 38 coniunctio est cum interpositione verbi et superiores orationis partes comprehenduntur et inferiores, hoc modo: Formae dignitas aut morbo deflorescit aut vetustate ; also n. on 15, 1. 9 quocum ...communis; 32, l. 21; 52, 1. 30; 61, l. 17;
84, 1. 5; 95, 1. 10; 45, 1. 23. 23 moderate: the Stoics, whom Laelius followed, declared (in opposition
to the Peripatetics) all ordinary emotion vicious; see Tusc., book iv, particularly $ 42 nihil interest utrum moderatas perturbationes approbent an moderatam iniustitiam, moderatam ignaviam, moderatam intemperantiam. The Stoic wise man, however, experiences certain pure emotions (eúrabelai), which have their counterparts in other men; only among these there is nothing resembling pain (dolor).
nec potuisstrechamanitatis tuae: 'that you could not remain unmoved, and that to be so (id) did not accord with your cultured spirit'.
Humanitas almost exactly corresponds in sense with our culture, i.e. • education when accompanied by its best fruits, gentleness and refine
ment. 25 valetudinem: not to be translated by 'ill-health' or 'sickness', but
simply by health', the English word being just as undefined as the
Latin, which receives its definition from the context; cf. 22, l. 26. 26 maestitiam: this is the right spelling, not moestitiam; so maestus not
moestus, maereo not moereo. 27 recte...et vere: sc. respondeas. Cf. Academ. I, 33 nos vero volumus,
inquam, ut pro Attico respondeam.-Et recte, inquit, respondes; also
for the ellipse 1, 1. 10; 33, p. 38, 1. 33. 28 officio: corresponds to munus in l. 18 as usurpavi does to obire, 1. 19.
Usurpare is to say or do something habitually or repeatedly, here 'to perform regularly'. Cf. 28, 1. 13, with n.
incommodo: note the slightness of the expression, as applied to the death of a very dear friend, and cf. n. on 10, l. 15.
fonstanti homini: 'a man of strong character'. Constans homo (Horace's iustus ac tenax propositi vir) is opposed to mobilis in Qu. Rosc. 49; cf. Lael. 64, l. 23 constantem et stabilem. Constantia (often coupled with gravitas fides and the like) formed an important part of the character of the ideal Roman. Cic. complains (Flacc. 36) nullam con
stantiam in Graecis hominibus esse. 30 contingere: here distinctly used of bad fortune, though the old
traditional distinction between contingere on the one hand and accidere, evenire on the other required the word to be used of good fortune only. Seyffert rightly compares contingere with a poońkelv and explains its meaning to be in the best Latin) the happening of something which is natural or to be expected under the circumstances. Cf. N.D. 1, 27 non vidit, cum miseri animi essent, quod plerisque contingeret (that being the natural lot of most) tum dei partem esse miseram; so Fam. 5, 16, 5 and Phil. 14, 24; also below, 72, 1. 32; 48, l. 29.
§ 9. 31 tribui: i.e. by people in general. 32 agnosco: sc. mihi tribui. Nägelsbach Stilistik § 114 supplies tanquam debitum mihi.
facis amice: a polite expression of thanks, like bene facis in Acad. I, 25.
ut videris: for the personal construction taking the place of the impersonal ut videtur cf. Att. 5, 18, 2 consiliis, ut videmur, bonis utimur.
The usage is somewhat uncommon. See also n. on 56, p. 45, 1. 30. 33 nemo: the Stoics attached such superhuman excellences to their
copos or sapiens, that doubts were often expressed whether such a person ever existed in the flesh. Cf. 18, 1. 7 and Tusc. 2, 51 in quo vero erit perfecta sapientia, quem adhuc nos quidem vidimus neminem.
P. 30. si quisquam: like the parenthesis commonly used in Greek, ei kai tis arlos. So in Latin sometimes si quisquam alius, as in Brut. 126.
fili: cf. Cat. m. 12 and 84. He was praetor designatus when he died and had served with distinction against Perseus, under L. Aemilius Paulus, whose daughter he had married (Cat. m. 15).
memineram Paulum, videram Gallum : sc. mortem filiorum ferre. Seyffert quotes Phil. 5, 17 Cinnam memini, vidi Sullam ; cf. also De Or. 3, 133 meminerant illi Sextum Aelium; M'. vero Manilium nos etiam vidimus. In all passages where memini is thus used with the accus. of a person there is an ellipse of an infinitive. Paulus (Macedonicus) lost two sons, one immediately before, the other immediately after, his great triumph in 168 B.C. Cf. Fam. 4, 6, 1 L. Paulus duos septem diebus (sc. filios amisit). C. Sulpicius Gallus served as tribunus militum under Paulus, and was consul 157 B.C. He was famous as an astronomer and
was the first Roman who predicted an eclipse (Liv. 44, 37). 3 sed hi: sc. mortem filiorum, or rather talem casum tulerunt.
in pueris: literally in the case of boys'. Trans. " but their sons were boys, while Cato's was, etc.'. For the use of in see my n. on Cic. pro Balbo, 86; also cf. 18, 1. 3; 41, l. 14; 63, 1. 4; 41, l. 19; 42, 1. 27; 24, 1. 23; 39, 1. 31.
perfecto : this seems here merely to mean 'adult' in opposition to pueris. I know no parallel to this use, but there are good reasons for not taking perfectus in the moral sense which our word 'perfect has. (1) Cic. though he has perfectus orator Stoicus etc., would not say perfectus vir in this sense. (2) The meaning 'perfect' would make perfecto et spectato a ύστερον πρότερον.
§ 10. cave...ne...quidem: Cic. here treats cave as a negative verb, and he frequently follows up negative words with negative, where in English we should use positive, expressions. Thus negare...nec...nec is regular;
cf. also 51, 1. 25. For the subjunctive immediately dependent on cave cf. Roby, Gram. SS 1584, 1608; Kennedy, Gram. § 197; also below, 47,
1.8; 17, 1. 32. 6 huius facta, illius dicta: for hic used to denote the one of two persor.s
who is nearer in time to the speaker, as compared with ille, the is more distant in time, see my n. on Arch. 16. In facta ...dicta we have the contrast between the life of action, the apaKTLKÒS Blos, which the Romans regarded as the only proper life for a man of rank, and the literary or contemplative life, the θεωρητικός βίος. The Romans looked on all departments of thought and literature as graceful adjuncts to a
life of activity, but nothing more. Cf. n. on 16, 1. 19; also on 88, l. 29. 7 habetote: on this form of the imperative, erroneously called the
future imperative, though it differs not a whit in sense from the other
form, see my n. on Cic. pro Balbo § 17; cf. quaeritote in 24, p. 36, l. 2. 8 quam id recte: Cic. loves to separate tam quam ita tantus quantus
by some small word, from the words they qualify. See my n. on Academ. 1, 26; also cf. 11, l. 27; 15, 1. 14; 17, p. 33, l. 1 ; 23, l. 9; 53,
1. 6; 63, 1. 5. 9
viderint sapientes: ‘how far I am right is for the wise men to consider'. The literal rendering of viderint would be 'shall by and by consider', viderint being not perfect subjunctive, but future perfect indicative. Phrases like this are carefully treated by Roby (Preface to Vol. II, P. Cvi and § 1593), who has a very full list of examples.
moveor enim: Seyffert is right in supplying desiderio from the preceding sentence.
confirmare: the sense is rather stronger than that of affirmare.
solacio: this, not solatio, is the right spelling. 13 errore: 'delusion'.
quo decessu: for the juxtaposition of ablatives in different constructions which seems to us an awkwardness, cf. my n. on pro Balbo § 26.
nihil mali etc. : the same opinion is expounded at length in Tusc. Disp., book 1. Cf. especially § 11 nostrum enim et nostra causa susceptum dolorem modice ferre debemus ne nosmet ipsos amare videamur. Illa suspicio intolerabili dolore cruciat, si opinamur eos quibus orbati sumus, esse cum aliquo sensu in eis malis quibus volgo opinantur. See also the reflexions on the death of Hortensius in Brut. & 5, and Fam. 5, 16, quoted on 45, l. 25.
incommodis: the word is here pointedly contrasted with mali. There is no doubt a slight reference to the Stoic theory of aponyméva and droTT ponyuéva. Although only virtue is bonum, only vice malum in the eyes of the Stoics, still there are such differences among other things as will incline the wise men to desire some of them (IT ponyuéva = sumenda) and reject others (droponyuéva=reicienda or incommoda), his real happiness, however, remaining absolutely unaffected. See Acad. 1, 36 and 37, with my nn.
§ 11. 16 cum illo...praeclare: 'who would say that his destiny has not been
glorious': lit. "that he has not been dealt with (ie. by the gods or fates) splendidly?' Cf. 15, 1. 3, also Academ. 2, 128 quaeret noster sapiens ut vereatur temere opinari praeclareque agi secum putet si veri simile quod sit invenerit ; Fam. 5, 18, i ea denique videtur condicio impendere legum iudiciorum temporum ut optime actum cum eo videatur esse, qui quam levissima poena ab hac re publica discesserit; ib. 4, 5, 3 non pessime cum eis actum quibus sine dolore licitum est mortem cum vita commutare; ib. 4, 5, 2 cogita quem ad modum adhuc fortuna nobiscum
egerit; also ib. 4, 14, 1; 9, 24, 4; Acad. 2, 80; Verr. 3, 70; Sest. 51. 17 quod ille minime putabat: 'a thought that he was far from enter
taining 18 optare : rightly used here of a desire for the impossible; sperare
would have implied that the fulfilment of the wish was possible. I have carefully drawn the distinction between the words in a n. on pro Balbo § 9, where see examples. Cf. also n. on 18, 1. 8.
quod...esset: an instance of the restrictive or limitative or defining subjunctive, on which see Kennedy, Gram. § 206, 3; Roby, § 1692. 19 iam : strictly belongs to habuerunt. The word is often displaced,
either, as here, to add emphasis to it (which it gains by being put close to puero) or to make the sentence or clause more euphonious.
puero : for this and other references to Scipio's life see Introd., p. 17 sq.
adulescens: this, not adolescens (which is the participle of adolesco), is the right spelling.
factus consul: some scholars wish, quite unnecessarily, to strike out the word consul, on the strength of passages like Mur. 18 quaesturam una petiit et sum ego factus prior; dom. 52 consulatum ei petere liceret, cum factus esset... Cf. however Cic. leg. agr. 2, 3 me esse unum...qui consulatum petierim, cum primum licitum sit, consul factus sim, cum primum petierim.
ante tempus: see Introd. p. 18. Tempus here=the proper or regular time = καιρόν.
sibi: a so-called dativus commodi ; 'as regards himself'; so 34, 1. 15 amicitiis; 18, 1. 15 sapienti.
suo tempore: a man is said to gain office suo tempore when he is elected to the office at the earliest age which the law allows. 23 sero: because the Numantine war had already continued eight years and had proved disastrous to the Romans. See Introd. p. 18.
duabus: Carthage and Numantia.
non modo...delevit: 'extinguished not only the wars then existing, but also those which were likely to happen' (i.e. from the action of the destroyed cities). It is of course strictly incorrect to speak of blotting out something in the future, but the incorrectness has a thousand