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parallels in every language. Delere bellum for the more usual conficere or profligare is found also in Nepos, Alcib! 8, 6. [Mr Shilleto (in Ms note) appositely compares Thucyd. 6, 92 kal’Anvalw Thu te oùs av kal

την μέλλουσαν δύναμιν καθέλητε.] 25 facillimis: 'most affable'.

de pietate...liberalitate: it is impossible to give general rules for the insertion or omision of the preposition in the second and subsequent places. If, however, the preposition had been repeated here before liberalitate pietate and bonitate each of these qualities would have stood out with greater prominence and distinctness; would in fact have been

more emphasized; cf. n. on 95, l. 13. 27 nota sunt vobis : 'you are well acquainted with all this '.

quam...carus: for the separation of these words cf. 10 l. 8 quam id recte. 28 maerore: the three words dolor maeror and luctus occur in one

sentence of pro Balbo § 61. I repeat here my n. on that passage:

dolor is grief as felt at the heart, luctus as expressed by material signs, in the dress, for instance, maeror as expressed by the condition or action of the sufferer, for example by the gloom on his countenance. The fol. lowing is a striking passage-Att. 12, 28, 2 maerorem minui, dolorem nec potui nec si possem, vellem'.

memini...disserere: n. on 2, I. II. Laelius and Scipio are two of the interlocutors in the Cato maior, and Cic. strives artfully here to give an air of reality to the conversation he relates in that dialogue.

mecum et cum : cf. 3, p. 27, l. 21. 32

viriditatem : 'freshness'. For the metaphorical use of the word cf. Verg. Aen. 6, 304 cruda deo viridisque senectus; Tac. Agr. 29 iuventus et quibus cruda ac viridis senectus; Verg. Aen. 5, 295 viridis iuventa.

etiam nunc: even in the best writers nunc occasionally goes with a past tense, as Cic. Verr. 3, 47 quos ego campos antea nitidissimos vidissem, hos ita vastatos nunc videbam ut... In that passage tum would have been ambiguous after antea, so in ours tum might have been referred by the reader to the time of the conversation between Scipio, Cato and Laelius; so in Liv. 3, 19, 8. But often the motive is merely the desire to make the narrative vivid, as in Caes. B. G. 7, 62, 6 incerto nunc etiam exitu signa intulerunt; cf. ib. 6, 40, 6; Cic. Cat. 1, 9; Sallust, Iug. 109, 3. Etiamnum, which some editions have here, is a word probably not used by Cicero.



§ 12. 33

vita...gloria: ‘his life indeed was such, whether we speak of it as lucky, or as famous '; literally 'whether in respect of fortune or of fame'. [For the ablatives cí. Roby $1210, Kennedy $ 398.] Cic. means that some would look on Scipio's life as merely shewing the effect of luck or chance, while others would think of the renown attending it and assume that Scipio deserved it. Gloria here implies virtus. Fortuna and virtus are the two important attributes of the Roman general; cf. pro Balbo 9 (of Pompeius) in quo uno ita summa fortuna cum summa virtute certavit ut plus homini quam deae tribueretur; Fam. 10, 3, 2 virtute duce, comite fortuna.

P. 31.

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accedere: sc. vel ad fortunam vel ad gloriam.

moriendi sensum: moriendi is the act or process of dying; mortis would have a different meaning and could not be here substituted. Cf. Cat. m. 74 sensus moriendi aliquis esse potest, post mortem quidem sensus aut optandus aut nullus est; Phil. 9, 13 si quis est sensus in morte. On Scipio's death see Introd. p. 18.

quo de genere mortis: i.e. death so sudden as his; for the form of expression cf. n. on 4, 1. 15. 3 vere: there is a loose contrast with difficile dictu est, which implies nihil veri potest dici.

celeberrimos: not ‘most famous' but (literally) ‘most attended by crowds’, i.e. days on which Scipio was the centre of the popular interest.

Cf. my n. on Arch. $ 4. 5 clarissimum: for the application of clarus to things, as well as

persons, Nägelsbach quotes Div. 2, 85; Att. 6, 1, 22 clarissimi iuris iurandi. Notice the emphasis given by the repetition of diem from diebus.

reductus est: it was the custom at times of excitement for leading statesmen to be escorted to the senate-house from their homes and back again by their admirers. For the escort away from home deducere is generally used, for the escort homewards reducere. See Cat. m. 63,

where the two words occur together, as they do in Val. Max. 2, 1, 9. 6 ad vesperum: with the prepositions ad, sub, in, the accusative of vesper is generally used and not that of vespera.

populo Romano: simply=civibus, the burgesses, as opposed to the socii and Latini. 7 sociis et Latinis: these two words must be taken together as forming

one member of the enumeration, parallel with patribus conscriptis and populo Romano. When an enumeration consists only of two members Cicero, except in certain special cases, never omits the copula; when there are three or more members, he either puts et before each member after the first or leaves it out altogether. In our passage, if sociis and Latinis had each of them been entitled to rank separately in the enumeration, it would have been necessary to strike out et. Madvig has most thoroughly discussed this matter in a n. on Fin. 4, 56 and also in Opuscula 1, p. 333 sq.

The practice of most other writers of the best period agrees on the whole with that of Cicero in this respect. Cf. n. on 84, 1. 5. 8

superos...deos...inferos: the word deos is purposely not placed immediately after superos, in order to prevent the reader from understanding inferos to mean inferos deos. With this arrangement superos... deos means, as Seyffert explains it, superi, qui dei sunt.

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$ 13. nuper: not quite accurate (cf. n. on 24, 1. 26, also on modo in 6, p. 28, 1. 32), inasmuch as the knowledge of the Greek speculations which denied the soul's existence after death had begun to spread among the educated classes at Rome long before Scipio's death. The Epicureans are chiefly, but not solely, hinted at. Some of the Peripatetics and also some of the New Academics held or at least some

times advocated the same views. 13 mortuis... iura: the principal 'reverent rites' paid to the dead are

mentioned in Cic. Leg. 2, 55 sq.; cf. especially 57 multa religiosa iura.

Our passage has also much resemblance to Tusc. I, 26 sq. 14 si...arbitrarentur: cf. Tusc. I, 27 caerimonias quas maximis ingeniis

praediti nec tanta cura coluissent... nisi haereret in eorum mentibus mortem non interitum esse omnia tollentem atque delentem sed quandam quasi migrationem. Observe the tense of arbitrarentur and haereret, for which modern feeling would require the pluperfect. Cic. realises the past (for the moment) as present, and so looks on the condition as not wholly past but still continuing. The usage is in fact similar to the substitution of the present for the past (for the sake of vividness) in historical narratives. Often both protasis and apodosis contain a verb in the imperfect where we should expect the pluperfect (e.g. Verr. 5, 89; Sest. 63); but it does not often happen that the apodosis has a verb in the pluperfect, while the verb in the protasis stands in the imperfect, as in Cat. m. 19 consilium ratio sententia nisi essent in senibus, non summum consilium maiores nostri appellassent senatum. Irregularities of the same sort are common in Greek conditional sentences.

ad eos pertinere: cf. Aristotle, Eth. Nic. I, 10, 3 dokei ydp elval Tl τεθνεώτι και κακόν και αγαθόν. 15 fuerunt: 'lived'. The followers of Pythagoras are meant. 16 nunc quidem: ‘now, I admit'; for the concessive use of quidem cf. 74, 1. 14.

tum : some adversative particle (corresponding to sed autem vero or the like) would be inserted in any modern language. This so-called adversative asyndeton is especially common in Caesar, as in B. G. I, 18, 1 celeriter consilium dimittit, Liscum retinet; cf. also n. on 5, I. 25; 55,

l. 22; 59, 1. 32; 62, 1. 58. 17 institutis et praeceptis : 'principles and maxims'; cf. Mady. Fin. 5, 7.

vel cius : in Cat. m. 78 Cic. appeals just as he does here to the Pythagoreans and to Socrates as authorities for the immortality of the

soul. 18 qui: sc. dicebat ; cf. for the ellipse 1, 1. 10 sed de hoc alias.

non : supply quotiens de hac re diceret.

tum hoc tum illud: the later Academics, particularly Arcesilas and Carneades, professing to follow Socrates, made a practice of arguing on both sides of every question, and declared that certainty was unattainable, though probable conclusions might be formed. They prided themselves on not being obliged to support dogmatically any set of views; while others were in bondage to doctrines, they only were free to put forward ‘now this now that’. Cf. Cicero's Academica passim, but particularly 2, 134 tum hoc mihi probabilius, tum illud videtur; 2, 121 modo hoc modo illud probabilius videtur; also N. D. 1, 47 Cotta

meus modo hoc modo illud. 19 ut in plerisque: the oblique case of the neuter adj. used as substantive

is unusual where there is not some word in the context to clearly indicate the gender. To avoid ambiguity Cic. generally writes in plerisque rebus and the like, but occasionally lets the neuter stand. Cf. n. on 50, l. 7 similium sui.

idem semper, animos etc. : Cic. is thinking of Socrates as he appears in the dialogues of Plato, particularly in the Phaedo, Apology, Phaedrus, and Timaeus. The principal arguments in favour of the soul's immortality which are put into Socrates' mouth in the Phaedo are many times reproduced by Cicero, and especially in Tusc. I, Somn. Scip. and Cato maior. In the words esse divinos and reditum in caelum patere Cic. recalls those arguments in favour of the soul's pre-natal existence which the Platonic Socrates usually joins with his arguments for the soul's life after the death of the body.

ex corpore: used for corporibus, since (both in Greek and Latin) when a umber of persons are mentioned and then some one thing common to them all, that thing is often put into the singular, where our idiom would require the plural. Seyffert is, I think, mistaken in understanding corpore in the abstract sense of the body'. Cf. Tusc. 1, 40 animos, cum e corpore excesserint; ib. 1, 72 animorum e corpore excedentium ; Cat. m. 81; on the other hand Cat. m. 80 animos, dum in corporibus essent mortalibus, vivere, cum excessissent ex eis emori.

optimoque...expeditissimum : cf. Tusc. I, 40 sq. ; also Plato, Phaedo 114 B. Diog. 8, 31; Sen. Suas. 6, 6; Sen. ep. 86, 1.





§ 14. 23 praesagiret : on this word cf. Cic. Div. 1, 65 sagire enim sentire acute est : ex quo sagae anus quia multum scire volunt, et sagaces dicti

Is igitur qui ante sagit quam oblata res est dicitur praesagire, id est, futura ante scire.

Philus : see Introd. p. 19.
Manilius : see Introd. p. 19.

adesset : observe the singular after, and cf. Mur. 15 et proavus Murenae et avus praetor fuit; Phil. 11, 27 et Brutus et Cassius, multis iam in rebus ipse sibi senatus fuit; Att. 4, 17, 4 et ego et Cicero meus flagitabit; also see below, 70, 1. 19 confertur.

alii plures: cf. Brut. 36 Hyperides et Aeschines et Lycurgus et Dinarchus aliique plures. 25 triduum disseruit: the discourse is represented by Cicero's work

De re publica.

9 ea.

de re publica: 'concerning the commonwealth', i.e. the ideal or best form of commonwealth. 26 extremum: this neuter adj. is used as a noun frequently by Cic.

as below, 20, p. 34, 1. 6; Div. 2, 91 and 103, also by Lucr. 1, 960, Livy, Tacitus, etc.

fuit de: 'treated of'.

animorum: observe the plural, where we use the singular (“the soul') in the abstract sense. Immortalitas animorum also occurs in Cat. m. 78, Leg. 2, 68; aeternitas animorum in Tusc. I, 80.

quae: as only the last book of the De re publica (comprising the Somnium Scipionis) discussed the immortality of the soul, the neuter quae refers not to the whole work, but merely to the extremum. Quod would have been correct but inelegant. Quae is a sort of explanation of extremum 'the conclusion, I mean such matters as'. For the plural relative referred to a singular antecedent cf. the not uncommon phrases ex eo genere, quae (Fin. 3, 70) and ex eo numero qui with plural verb (Arch. 31, where see my n.); also n. on 70, l. The

usage is frequently found in Greek, as Plato, Rep. 554 A ono avpotrolds ávnp, oớs on kai

επαινει το πλήθος. 27 quiete :=somno, a somewhat poetical usage, but occurring pretty frequently in Cicero.

visum: here the neut. participle used as noun, not the accus. of visus, ūs. The latter word occurs in Cic. only in one doubtful passage, viz. N. D. 1, 12.

Africano: sc. maiore.

id si ita est, ut: 'if the truth really is, I mean that'. For the explanatory ut cf. 70, 1. 8; also 15, 1. 18 hoc ita necesse est. 28 in morte: 'upon death'; i.e. immediately after death; cf. Lucr.

1, 111 aeternas quoniam poenas in morte timendumst (i.e. punishments ensuing upon or after death).

facillime evolet: cf. reditum expeditissimum above. Volare and its compounds ad- in. 6. praeter- volare, with volitare are particularly favourite words with Cic.; see many exx, in Nägelsbach, Stilistik $ 132,

Evolo implies very rapid and sudden motion; cf. Brut. 272 tantos processus faciebat ut evolare non excurrere videretur ; Or. 2, 209; ib.

2, 317. 29 é custodia : cf. Rep. 6, 14 ei vivunt qui e corporum vinclis

tamquam e carcere evolaverunt; Tusc. I, 75 cum illuc ex his vinclis emissi feremur, minus tardabitur cursus animorum; so ib. I, 118; De Or. 2, 22.

cui censemus fuisse: the form of the question is like that in 24, p. 35, 1. 29 quid arbitramur etc. (with which cf. Verr. 3, 156 quid isto fore festivius arbitramur qui etc.). Censetis would have been more usual; in many scores of similar passages in the speeches of Cic. I do not think that the first person censemus once occurs.

Cf. Fin. 5, 50 quem enim ardorem studi censetis fuisse in Archimede ?

maerere.. eventu: for the constr. cf. Tusc. I, 30 nemo maerei suo



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