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incommodo. If the ablative follows on doleo, maereo, the occurrence is regarded as the occasion for the expression of the sorrow; if the accusative, then as the object of the emotion. Eventu here=fato, as in Verg. Aen. II, 758 ducis exemplum eventumque secuti, and often in

Livy and Caesar. 31 sin... veriora: the omission of the verb (here sunt) is common with

Cicero in short emphatic clauses, especially when the pronoun ille or hic forms part of the clause. Cf. Acad. 2, 86 iam illa praeclara ; N. D. 1, 20iam illa palmaria (so Bait. rightly reads); Acad. 2, 94 si (sc. taces), quia obscura, concedo; Fam. 3, 10, 10 si illa amoris signa ; N. D. I, 25 sed haec vestra ; Fam. 12, 2, 2 sed haec tolerabilia, illud non ferendum; also Lael. 20, p. 34, 1. 6 beluarum hoc quidem extremum ; 78, 1. 20; 19, 1. 24. For the constr. veriora ut cf. n. on 50,

p. 44, 1. 5. 32 illa:=haec of 13, 1. 10.

P. 32. I sensu enim amisso etc.: the idea is followed out in Tusc. 1, 87 sq. 3 laetabitur : will exult’; laetari is stronger than gaudere.

& 15.
cum illo...actum optime est : n, on 11, 1. 16.

fuerat : not put for fuisset, and therefore not to be compared with Horace's me truncus illapsus cerebro sustulerat and the like. The pluperfect stands here where the perfect fuit or imperfect erat would have been more usual ; fuerat aequius implies ‘it had always been in our eyes more reasonable to expect'. "The substitution is pretty common in Latin comedy, as Plaut. Trin. 119 ei rei operam dare te fuerat aliquanto aequius ; Terent. Adelph. 685 virginem quam te non ius fuerat tangere; so often in Plaut. and Ter. ut dixeram for ut dixi. Observe that the real subject to fuerat is the whole phrase quem exire de vita, and that in vitam must be supplied after introieram from de

vita below. [Fin. 2, 119 erat aequius; Tusc. 2, 12.] 7 videar : sc. mihi ipse videar; so in l. 16.

quocum : n. on 2, l. 17.

publica re: uses like this shew that the phrase res publica represented to the Romans two words, and not one compound word. Cf. Fam. I, 9, 12 res ipsa publica; ib. 1, 8, 4 rei totius publicae ; 64, 1. 15 reque publica ; res privatae and res publica are often contrasted as in Att.

9, 7, 5; ib. I, 18, 1. Cf. n. on 42, 1. 7. 9 quocum ...communis: 'with whom I had a common home and

served a common service'. For the collocation of the words cf. n. on 8, 1 22 cum summi viri tum amicissimi; for the sense 100.

in quo...amicitiae : "wherein lies the whole essence of friendship'. Cf. 92, p. 56, 1. 31. 10 voluntatum...consensio: 'the fullest agreement in policy, taste, and politics. For the definition of friendship here given cf. § 92 ; also 61, 11. 14, 15, also n. on 20, p. 34, 1. 1. 2 commemoravit:=praedicavit, not recordatus est; see my n. on Arch. § 29.

opinion'. The word voluntas in Cic. frequently means inclination in

falsa praesertim: briefly put for praesertim cum falsa sit; cf. Off. 1, 137 deforme est de se ipso praedicare, falsa praesertim; Tusc. 5, 19 propriis argumentis tractanda quaeque res est, tanta praesertim; Lael.

26, 1. 17. 3 quam quod spero: if the former construction had been carried on we should have had quam spes fore etc. The change, however, is of a sort comnion with Cicero, as Fin. 3, 25 sapientia enim et animi magnitudinem complectitur et iustitiam, et ut omnia quae homini

accidant infra se esse iudicet. 4 eo mihi magis: for the separation of eo from magis cf. n. on to, 1. 8 quam id recte; for the phrase eo magis cf. 7, l. 16.

est cordi: for a full discussion of the predicative dative and a list of exx. see Roby's Gram., Pref. to Vol. 2. The name 'predicative' seems unsuitable here, for cordi is the one dative on the list with regard to which the substitution of the nominative (in the predicative sense) is

inconceivable. Cf. 43, 1. 8 curae; 70, l. 12 honori. 5 vix tria etc.: so Fin. 1, 65 quod quam magnum sit, fictae veterum

fabulae declarant in quibus tam multis tamque variis, ab ultima antiquitate repetitis, tria vix amicorum paria reperiuntur, ut ad Orestem pervenias profectus a Theseo. The three pairs are Theseus and Pirithous, Achilles and Patroclus, Orestes and Pylades. The friendship of a fourth pair (Damon and Phintias, of whom perhaps Cic. was thinking in our passage), is celebrated in Off. 3, 45; Fin. 2, 79.

nominantur: ‘are quoted'.

quo in genere: sc. amicitiarum. 6 sperare videor... fore: this clause simply repeats the sense of the words amicitiae...fore in 11. 13, 14. The tautology is illustrated by Seyffert, who qu. Brut. 313 quoniam totum me, non naevo aliquo aut crepundiis, sed corpore omni videris velle cognoscere. For videor=mihi videor (19, 1. 21) see above, l. 7.

§ 16. 8 istuc ita necesse est: the ita is really not pleonastic in phrases of this

sort, though often regarded so by editors. The sense here is isiuc necesse est, et eo modo quo tu dicis necesse esse. Cf. Arch. 2 hoc ita dici, with my n. A number of similar passages are quoted by Madvig on

Fin. 2, 17. So in Plato, Philebus 20 D ÉTELDT toûO' oŰtws ETTES. 9 sumus otiosi : the same reason for the discourse is given in Fin. 1, 14 quoniam nacti te sumus otiosum. According to Roman feeling it was not considered proper for statesmen to discuss philosophical questions except as a relaxation from more serious business. Cf. the exordia of Academica I and II and also of Fin. III, also n. on Lael. 10, 1. 6. In Acad. 2, 6 Cicero says restat ut eis respondeam qui sermonibus eius modi nolint

R. L.

personas tam gravis illigari. Quasi vero clarorum virorum aut tacitos congressus esse oporteat aut ludicros sermones aut rerum colloquia leviorum!

pergratum mihi feceris si etc.; cf. Att. 1, 20, 7 per mihi, per, inquam, gratum feceris si in hoc tam diligens fueris quam soles. 20' spero item Scaevolae : cf. 7, 1. 14 credo ex hoc item Scaevola.

soles: sc. respondere.
ceteris: cf. n. on 7, 1. 9 reliqua.

cum ex te quaeruntur: for reading see Appendix. For the personal quaeruntur put in the place of the impersonal quaeritur see n. on 35,

1. 22. Trans. 'when questions concerning them are put to you'. 22 disputaris : cf. n. on 1, 1. 6.

qualem existimes, quae praecepta des: these two clauses are explana. tory of quid. Taking with them the words de amicitia quid sentias the whole may be translated, “your opinion concerning the theory and practice of friendship'. In cc. V-VII, which correspond to qualem existimes, Laelius gives his view of the nature and definition of friendship; in cc. XI—xxvi he lays down practical rules and maxims con

cerning it. 23 mihi vero : this form of emphatic assent is common in Cicero's

dialogues; e.g. Academica 1, 14; ib. 25; ib. 41. id ipsum tecum agere; 'to make the same request of you'. Cf. 4,

1. 4. cum enim saepe mecum ageres. 24 antevertit: lit. "turned in front', or “thrust in front', i.e. his request

or his speech. Here trans. 'anticipated me'. 25 gratum admodum:=pergratum of l. 19.

I $ 17. 26 non gravarer: 'would raise no objection’; cf. Cluent. 69 primo

gravari coepit quod... 27 praeclara res : cf. 4, 1. 5 digna mihi res visa est. 28 quis ego sum aut...: for the almost tautological form of the question

cf. Acad. 2, 32 nec vero satis constituere possum quod sit eorum consilium aut quid sibi velint; Nepos, Dat. 6, 6 cum quid ageretur aut quare fieret ignorarent. For the sense, cf. Fam. 9, 18, 3 ipsa illa si quae fuit in me facultas orationis ; Arch. 13 oratio et facultas. The word facultas implies readiness acquired by practice.

doctorun: here philosophers by profession as in 21, 1. 13; cf. the words below, eis qui ista profitentur. 29 eaque: Nauck rightly remarks that Graecorum is a substantive and

not merely an epithet of doctorum; otherwise Cic. would have written eorumque for eaque. Eaque=kał taûta.

ut eis...subito: the practice belonged first to the sophists and rheto. ricians, then to the philosophers of the New Academy. Cf. Fin. 2, I sophistae...quorum e numero primus est ausus Leontinus Gorgias in conventu poscere quaestionem, id est iubere dicere qua de re quis vellet audire.

Audax negotium, dicerem impudens, nisi hoc institutum postea translatum ad nostros philosophos esset ; De Or. 1, 102 quid? mihi nunc vos tamquam alicui Graeculo otioso et loquaci et fortasse docto atque erudito

quaestiunculam de qua meo arbitratu loquar, ponitis; so ib. 3, 127. 30 quamvis subito: 'however suddenly';= tam subito quam vis.

magnum opus est: so in De Or. 1, 103 Cicero says of Gorgias permagnum quidem suscipere ac profiteri videbatur. For magnum opus=a

great task, cf. Academ. 2, 121; Tusc. 3, 79 and 84; Orat. 75. 31 quae disputari de amicitia possunt: this refers to Fannius' words

above, l. 21 de amicitia disputaris. There is a contrast between disputari and hortari ; Laelius at first declares himself unable to give a scientific and philosophical discussion of friendship; he can only give

some practical directions concerning it. 32 censeo petatis: censeo is wrongly explained by most editors (as

Seyffert, Lahmeyer, Nauck) to be parenthetic, petatis being supposed to be a subjunctive used in the hortative sense. Petatis, however, is directly dependent on censeo, ut being suppressed, as it often is with curo, caveo, sinere, hortari, and many other verbs; cf. also n. on 10, 1. 4 cave; 47, 1. 8 necesse. Sometimes the ut is inserted, as in Caes. B. C. 1, 67, 1; Cic. Phil. 3, 37.

P. 33. anteponatis etc.; for the sense cf. § 104.

nihil est enim : note enim, third word in the clause; had it stood second est would not have been so emphatic. Cf. 50, 1. 7.

tam naturae aptum : for the separation of tam from aptum cf. n. on To, 1. 8 quam id recte. The phrases naturae aptus, ad naturam aptus are common in Cic. (as Fin. 4, 46; Off. 1, 100) and are of Stoic origin. The Stoics defined virtue as being Púo el óuoloyounévws Šñv (naturae convenienter vivere). Cf. below 19, 1. 21 naturam optimam bene vivendi

ducem. 2 vel secundas vel adversas : so Cic. says of literature (Arch. 16) secun

das res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solacium praebent.

8 18. 3 nisi in bonis: 'except in the case of good men’. Cf. 65, p. 49, 1. 3, where inter bonos corresponds to in bonis here.

neque...reseco : ‘nor do I probe the question to its roots', i.e. the question whether only good men can be friends. The Stoics had declared that only perfect men (sapientes, copoi or otrovdacol=boni, since none but the oopòs is otovdałos) could be friends. So Diog. Laert. 7, 124 Tho piliav èv Móvous toîs otrovdalous elval léyovol, and Aristotle Eth. Nic. 8 and 9 passim ; also Socrates in Xen. Mem. 2, 6, 20. The phrase ad vivum resecare, literally 'to cut back to the quick ’, is here identical in meaning with the subtilius disserere that follows, and with the subtilius quaerere of 7, 1. 10.

5 sed ad communem utilitatem parum : sc. disserunt ; 'but scarcely so

as to promote (lit. in the direction of) the general good'. 6 sit ita sane: this is a common formula aegre concedentis. So

Academ. 2, 84 ne sit sane ; ib. 2, 105 sint falsa sane. 7 eam sapientiam interpretantur: sc. esse (cf. 50, l. 15; 64, l. 24;

below, l. 1); "they understand wisdom to be a thing which...'; eam is by attraction for id; for similar attractions of gender see n. on 50,

1. 1o. 8 nemo: cf. 7, 1. 9 and 9, p. 29, 1. 33. The leading Greek Stoic phi

losophers hardly ever ventured to point out any actual person as having attained to wisdom. Posidonius (Diog. 7, 94) seems to have allowed that Socrates, Diogenes, and Antisthenes had made some advance towards it. Seneca allows Cato the younger to have been really sapiens.

ea quae...etc. : 'such things as form part of the experience and life of all; not such as are objects of imagination or aspiration'. A philosopher who propounds wild theories is often said by Cicero optare; cf. Acad. 2, 121 somnia Democriti non docentis sed optantis ; Tusc. 2, 30 oplare hoc quidem est non docere; N. D. I, 19 optata magis quam inventa; Leg. agr. 1, i cogitata sapientium an optata furiosorum. Cf.

n. on 11, 1. 18. JO C. Fabricium : C. Fabricius Luscinus, consul in 282 and 278 and

censor in 275 B.C., commanded against Pyrrhus, and was famed for his integrity. One of Pyrrhus' suite is said to have made an offer to Fabri. cius to poison the king; Fabricius merely sent to inform the king that there was a plot against his life.

M'. Curium: M'. Curius Dentatus, consul in 290 B.C., conquered the Samnites in the third Samnite war (cf. Cat. m. 55) and also

commanded against Pyrrhus. I Ti. Coruncanium : the close friend of Dentatus (see 39, 1. 27);

commanded with distinction against the Etruscans in 282 B.C.; in Cat. m. 27 he is mentioned as one of those quorum usque ad extremum spiritum est provecta prudentia.

iudicabant: esse omitted as with interpretantur in l. 7.
normam : 'standard'.

sibi habeant : cf. the formal expression used by a Roman husband in divorcing his wife—tuas res tibi habeto. 13 invidiosum et obscurum : 'arrogant and unintelligible'.

concedant ut: when concedere means to give permission to do something it regularly takes ut with subjunctive, but when it means to admit a fact it is regularly followed by the accusative with infinitive. The subjoined passage shews the distinction; Rosc. Am. 54 concedo tibi ut ea praetereas quae, cum taces, nulla esse concedis. Sometimes, however, Cicero substitutes the subjunctive construction for the infinitive (but not vice versa) as in our passage and Fin. 5, 78 si Stoicis concedis ut virtus sola vitam efficiat beatam. In such passages the effect of the admission is rather looked to than the admission itself. The meaning here is ‘let them make such an admission as to bring it about that these were good men'.

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