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15 sapienti: a dativus commodi='for the benefit of the wise man’, or

as concerns the wise man'. Cf. 11, l. 22.

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§ 19. agamus etc.; 'let us proceed then with our gross wits, as says the proverb'. Another form of the proverb is crassa Minerva; cf. also invita Minerva. Minerva in these phrases stands for 'wits' or 'intellect'. The expressions ut aiunt (22, 1. 30), quod aiunt, or aiunt simply (Hor. Sat. 2, 2, 64), also id quod aiunt (Terent. Phorm. 506) and ut dicitur (Lael. 97, p. 58, 1. 3, and 101, l. 30) quod dicitur (67, 1. 22) are often

inserted parenthetically (like leyóuevov) to indicate a proverb. 17 fides...liberalitas : these words must be taken in two pairs with a pause

between the two (i.c. after integritas), in accordance with a fashion exceedingly common in Cicero. Fides and integritas, loyalty and uprightness, are cognate qualities, as are aequitas and liberalitas, reasonableness and generosity. Cf. Sest. I eos qui omnia divina et humana violarint vexarint perturbarint everterint, where the words violarint vexarint go together and refer to divina, while the last two words refer to humana. Other examples will be found in Mayor's n. on Phil. 2, 89. To them add abiit excessit evasit erupit, which is probably not an instance of climax, as is commonly supposed.

cupiditas libido audacia. Spassion, caprice, temerity'. Cic. generally (e.g. Tusc. I, 20) translates émiovula by cupiditas or cupiditates. He always uses audacia in a bad sense; cf. De invent. 2, 165 audacia...

vitium est. Its use in a good sense is very rare in other authors. 18 constantia : ''strength of character'; cf. n. on 8, 1. 29. 19 ut:=quales; so in 5, 23 sic enim est habitus, sic=talis.

sic etiam : cf. Cat. m. 20 ut sunt, sic etiam nominantur senes.

naturam ducem : cf. n. on 17, p. 33, 1. 1. The sentiment is an echo of Stoicism. The Stoics all said that the true life was life according to nature, but they were not agreed as to the meaning of the word nature. Some took it to mean the natural constitution of man; others the constitution of the universe, from which by contemplation the wise man drew his rules of life. With the words of Cicero here cf. Arch. 15 ego multos homines excellenti animo ac virtute fuisse sine doctrina et naturae ipsius habitu prope divino per se ipsos et moderatos et gravis exstitisse fateor ; etiam illud adiungo saepius ad laudem atque virtutem naturam sine doctrina quam sine natura valuisse doctrinam.

sic: the adverb here takes the place of an object to perspicere, such as tale aliquid.

mihi perspicere videor : a modest way of saying perspicio; cf. De Or. 1, II vere mihi hoc videor esse dicturus; so above, 15, 1. 7 and l. 16.

ita...ut: 'under this condition, that...'; so 1, l. 4; Tusc. 3, 59 ea lege nos esse natos ut.... 23 societas: this is the doctrine of Aristotle in his Politics (pvoel dvopw

TOS TO LTLKÒV šộov), which Cicero repeats and expands in a hundred



passages. Cf. especially Off. 1, 50 and 51, where the different grades of social union are set forth as here; also Acad. 1, 21; Leg. 1, 23 and 61; Fin. 3, 66 and 5, 66.

ut quisque proxime accederet: sc. nobis, nos or ad nos (all three constructions being found with proxime accedere in Cicero). Cf. Off. 1, 50 optime societas hominum coniunctioque servabitur, si ut quisque erit coniunctissimus, ita in eum benignitatis plurimum conferetur; also for ut quisque Verr. 1, 1, 19; 4, 143; Off. I, 65; and below, 26, l. 22 ;

29, 1. 31; 46, 1. 30. 24 cives etc.: ‘fellow-countrymen are preferable to foreigners'. For

the omission of sunt cf. 14, 1. 31 sin illa veriora. 25 alieni: 'strangers', whether of our own or any other country.

Observe that alienus is never used in good Latin with the sense of the English ‘alien'.

natura ipsa: i.e. nature and nature only; her efforts not having been seconded by those of men. Cf. Arch. 31 naturae ipsius habitu; also l. 31

and 51, l. 17 amor ipse. 26 ea: sc. amicitia, not natura; illa would have been clearer and more usual.

hoc: = hac re; 'herein’; cf. 23, 1. 4. 27 propinquitati: 'relationship’, including the relationship of citizen

to citizen as well as that of the members of a family one to another. 28

non potest: observe that Latin idiom requires the repetition of the verb potest in the negative clause, where English idiom would omit it. [So also when the negative clause precedes, as in 90, l. 17 non capiunt, eam capiunt.] Sometimes item takes the place of the verb, as in Orat. 147 omnium magnarum artium sicut arborum altitudo nos delectat, radices stirpesque non item; but non could not stand without item; cf.

62, 1. 27; 73, 1. 5. 29 propinquitatis: for the omitted adversative particle (sed or the like) cf. n. on 5; 1. 25.

§ 20. 30 maxime: this qualifies hoc, not intellegi. 31 ex infinita etc.: starting from that undefined union of mankind, which

only nature has knit together, the institution has been so concentrated and confined within narrow limits, that all affection is a bond connecting

either two individuals or at least a small number'. 32 res: as in 17, p. 32, 1. 27, and 1. 6.

angustum: adjective for noun, like extremum, above, 14, l. 26, and below, p. 34, 1. 6. 33 duos: so right, not duo. See Appendix.



P. 34. enim: the conditions of amicitia here given are so difficult of fulfilment that they account for the rarity of caritas (as above inter duos aut paucos) which is the kernel of friendship.



omnium...consensio: in 15, 1. 10 it is said that the whole pith (omnis vis) of friendship lies in the consensio voluntatum studiorum sententi

In the present passage the objects towards which the voluntates, studia and sententiae are to be directed are so described as to include all things in heaven and earth. The division of all things into res divinae and res humanae belonged to everyday talk and has no reference whatever to any philosophical system, as Seyffert tries to make out. Cf. the title of Varro's greatest work, Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum. For the genitive rerum after consensio=de rebus cf. Roby $ 1395, Kennedy $ 163 B, also 86, 1. 19; 37, 1. 10; 34, l. 11.-Compare with this definition of friendship the following: Aristotle, Rhet. 2, 4 έστω δη το φιλεϊν το βούλεσθαί τινι α οΐεται αγαθά, εκείνου ένεκα, αλλά μη αυτού και το κατά δύναμιν πρακτικών είναι τούτων. (Cf. Eth. Nic. 2, 7, 13.) Cic. Invent. 2, 166 amicitia, voluntas erga aliquem rerum bonarum illius ipsius causa quem diligit cum eius pari voluntate; Planc. 5 vetus est lex illa iustae veraeque amicitiae ut idem amici semper velint, nec est ullum certius amicitiae vinculum quam consensus et societas consiliorum et voluntatum; Sallust, Cat. 20 idem velle atque idem nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est. Neither in Eth. Nicom. books 8 and 9, nor in Plato's Lysis, is any very exact definition of friendship attempted.

benevolentia et caritate: 'kindliness and affection'. These words are often thus joined, as in Sest. 6; Phil. 2, 107 and 112; Off. 1, 54. Cf. 32, 1. 19 benevolentiae caritatem. Observe that the words cum benevolentia et caritate qualify consensio; cf. 3, l. 20 sermonem de amicitia ;

66, 1. 12 in omni re severitas; 51, l. 15; 61, l. 15. 3 haud scie an: in Cic. and the best writers this phrase is affirmative,

meaning probably'; in later writers negative, with the sense 'probably not'. Cic. never uses after haud scio an either quisquam or ullus, but always some negative phrase ; cf. 51, 1. 23.

excepta sapientia...datum: cf. Plato, Timaeus 47 B piloooplas yévos, ου μείζον αγαθόν ούτ' ήλθεν ούθ' ήξει ποτέ τη θνητώ γένει δωρηθέν εκ 0wv, which Cic. thus turns in his translation, at the end of the frag. ment of it which is preserved: quo bono nullum optabilius nullum praestantius neque datum est mortalium generi deorum concessu atque munere neque dabitur. Cic. frequently imitates the passage, as below, 47, p. 43, 11. 2, 3: Academica 1, 7; Tusc. I, 64; Leg. 1, 58.

divitias alii etc.: cf. closely $ 86. 6 beluạrum: so rightly written, not belluarum.

extremum: for the omission of est cf. n..on 14, l. 31. extremum here =finis, in the sense of finis bonorum or summum bonum. The passage is aimed at Epicurus and his followers who pecudis et hominis idem

bonum censent (Academ. 1, 6). Cf. 32, 1. 14. 7 caduca et incerta: 'fleeting and unstable'; cf. pro dom., 146 caduca semper et mobilia haec esse duxi, non virtutis sed fortunae munera.

posita in: cf. n. un 7, 1. 13. 9 praeclare illi quidem: sc. faciunt. Cf. Academ. 2, 94 si habes quod

liqueat neque respondes, superbe, sc. facis (such is the mss reading, which may be right, though editors change it).




signit et continet : ‘produces and upholds'; cf. 100, 1. 10 virtus et conciliat amicitias et conservat. nec sine virtute etc. : cf. 18, 1. 3 nisi in bonis amicitiam esse non posse.

3 This matter is touched on by Aristotle Eth. Nic. 8, 1, 7 abrepov év aâo γίνεται η φιλία ή ουχ οίόν τε μοχθηρούς όντας φίλους είναι ; cf. 8, 2, 6 sq. esse : emphatic ; trans. 'exist'.

§ 21. iam:='to proceed', as often.

consuetudine sermonis : cf. Verr. 4, 109 cotidiana dicendi consuetudine.

nec eam... metiamur: Seyffert rightly says that this clause is not intended to contrast strongly with the first part of the sentence, otherwise non would have been written for nec and eam omitted. The clause is really explanatory=non metientes. For the construction of metiri cf. n. on 97, 1. 2, and for the expression met peîv tl tivi in Aristot. Eth. Nic. 8,

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14, 10.

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13 docti : cf. 17, p. 32, 1. 28 doctorum.

magnificentia : cf. Plato Symp. 210 D kalovs 1byovs kai jeyalopeπείς. So magnificum in 32, l. 15.

viros bonos : cf. 18, 1. 6. 14 Paulos etc.: the plural in the sense of 'men like P.' etc. For

Paulos, cf. § 9; for Gallus SS 9 and 10; for Philus § 14. 16 omnino nusquam reperiuntur: cf. 9, p. 29, 1. 33; n. on 18, 1. 13.

§ 22. 17 opportunitates: the word opportunitas is 'opportuneness ' rather than

'opportunity'. To say that friendship has opportunenesses’ is equivalent to saying that it shews the characteristic of 'opportuneness' on many occasions. Cicero uses the plural of abstract nouns like this more fre

quently than any other author. 18

vix queo : Cic. always says non queo or vix queo, never nequeo, though he uses other parts of the verb nequire. For queo in an affirmative clause cf. 71, 1. 26.

principio: 'to begin with’.

vita vitalis : it is not known to what work of Ennius the quotation belongs. The words are an imitation of Bios Blurbs. In his own style, Cic. would have written vita potest esse ulla ; cf. 86, 1. 32 vitam

esse nullam = βίον είναι αβίωτον. 19 quae...conquiescit : 'which does not find peace in an interchange of

kindness with a friend'. Cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 9, 3 átorov ίσως και το μονώτην ποιείν τον μακάριον" ουθείς γάρ έλoιτ' άν καθ' αυτόν τα πάντ' έχεις αγαθά : Sen. ben. 3, 12, 2.

quid dulcius : the omission both of enim and est gives an abrupt emphasis to the question; also 55, 1. 19 ; 30, p. 38, 1. 3 ; 40, p. 41, 1. 30; 25, 1. 12 ; 99, 1. 33. Cf. n. on 14, 1. 31.




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quicum: cf. n. on 2, 1. 17. For the sense of this passage Seyffert well compares Seneca de Tranquill. animi c. 7 quantum bonum est ubi sunt praeparata pectora in quae tuto secretum omne descendat, quorum conscientiam minus quam tuam timeas, quorum sermo sollicitudinem leniat, sententia consilium expediat, hilaritas tristitiam dissi pet, conspectus ipse delectet; Plin. Ep. 5, I, 12.

qui esset etc. : lit. 'what sort of enjoyment of such importance?' Quis would have meant merely what enjoyment ?' (Cf. n. on gravis aliqui casus in 84, l. 11.) As Seyffert points out, tantus is here only a rhetorical variation for magnus, and as tantus implies quantus there is really an ellipse. For the context cf. Aristot. Eth. Nic. 9, 9 throughout, esp. 8 2 εστι γαρ η παρουσία αυτή των φίλων ηδεία και εν ταις ευτυχίαις και ατυχίαις" κουφίζονται γάρ οι λυπούμενοι συναλγούντων των φίλων. ceterae: cf. n. on 7, l. 9 reliqua.

9 quae expetuntur: 'which are objects of desire'. Cic. commonly uses expetere, expetenda to represent the Greek alpeîv, aiperd, which are technical terms common to all the later Greek philosophical schools. Anything which forms part of the summum bonum is aipetóv. Cf. 46, 1. 29 expetendas; 80, l. 3, expetita; 31, l. 13. apportunae etc,

iare suited, for the most part, each of them to a single end; riches, that you may enjoy them; influence, that you may be

honoured, etc.'. 26 valetudo:= here the bona v. of 20, 1. 5; cf. n. on 8, 1. 25. 27 amicitia: for the omission of autem or some such word (adversative

asyndeton) cf. 5, 1. 25; 13, l. 16; 49, 1. 32. 29 loco: observe the simple ablative with excluditur. Nullo loco may

however have an adverbial sense equivalent to that of nusquam. The adverb praesto in the preceding clause makes this probable, and the probability is increased by pluribus locis below, multis locis in 47, p. 43, l. 4; hoc loco in 67, 1. 16.

intempestiva: 'out of season'. 30

ut aiunt: n. on 19, I. 15. Fire and water were fixed upon as the first necessaries of life in the aqua et igni interdictio, which was equivalent to a sentence of exile. Cf. Off. 1, 52 ex quo sunt illa communia (officia); non prohibere aqua profluente; pati ab igne ignem capere

si qui velit. 32 quae tamen...prodest: a sidelong protest against the theory ($ 18) that only the copol were capable of friendship.

delectat et prodest: so Horat. A. P. 333 aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae.

vera et perfecta: “pure and faultless'; the telela pilía of Aristotle (Eth. Nic. 8, 6, 2) also i us dxmous oxia (ib. 8, 5, 3) and a mens pha

in Plato, Lysis 214 D; cf. vera amicitia in 23, 1. 6; 58, 1. 16. 33 pauci: cf. § 15.


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