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19 mihi...cogitanti: so the De Oratore begins-cogitanti mihi sae

penumero et memoria vetera repetenti perbeati fuisse, Quinte frater, illi videri solent... So the second book of the De Divin.-quaerenti mihi multumque et diu cogitanti...occurrebat.

propter imbecillitatem atque inopiam: cf. 23, 1. 8 egentes abundant, imbecilli valent; Arist. Eth. Nic. 8, 1, 2 év trevía de... jóvnu olovrai καταφυγήν τους φίλους και πρεσβυτέροις προς θεραπείας και το ελλείπον της πράξεως δι' ασθένειαν βοηθείας.

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meritis:=officiis, beneficiis.
quod quisque minus: cf. n. on 29, 1. 31 ut quisque minimum.

posset: sc. habere, to be supplied from acciperet.
23 vicissimque redderet: ‘should repay the favour in his turn’.

esset: was, i.e. from the beginning.

proprium amicitiae: 'inseparable from friendship’. Amicitiae is genitive, not dative; it is doubtful whether Cic. uses the dative after proprius at all. Cf. 47, p. 43, 1. 12; 91, l. 21.

sed etc. : 'while another ground of friendship was more venerable, more noble, and more derived from nature herself'. Seyffert calls

attention to the six successive words ending in the same vowel a. 25 amor...amicitia: the same statement in Fin. 2, 78; N. D. 1, 122 and

below 100, 1. 15. 26 princeps ad: so Arch. i hunc video mihi principem ad suscipiendam

rationem horum studiorum exstitisse; Phil. 10, 24; Sull. 9. Tráns.

* leads to the establishment of goodwill’. 27 ab eis percipiuntur: ‘are obtained from those', not by those '. 28 simulatione...causa: n. on 57, 11. 6, 7.

temporis causa: 'to suit the occasion'. Cf. § 53 ad tempus. 29 fictum: opposed to verum below, as simulatum is to voluntarium.

et: see on 30, p. 38, 1. 1 suaque omnia.

voluntarium: ‘sincere’; i.e. the real expression of the will or feeling.

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$ 27. 31 ab indigentia orta: Cic. probably did not use ortus with abl. without

the preposition (though our mss give a few instances). Lahmeyer's note, therefore, which accounts for the preposition here by supposing natura and indigentia to be personified, is mistaken.

potius...magis: the difference in sense between these two words is in use frequently obliterated, but potius strictly means better, and there. fore ought to indicate that of two alternatives one is preferred by some individual to the other, while magis strictly means more, and ought to have no direct reference to choice. Cf. also 76, p. 52, 1. 4 n.

applicatione...cogitatione: these ablatives are not dependent on orta, but are ablatives of the means or instrument. Trans. more through a leaning of the mind influenced by (cum) a feeling of affection than through meditation upon the extent of the advantage such an attachment (illa res) was likely to bring'.

applicatione animi: lit. bending of the mind towards something'. Neither lexica nor editors quote any other passage where applicatio is used except in the legal phrase ius applicationis; but the phrases applicare se or animum ad aliquem or aliquam rem are common; cf.

closely 48, 11. 27–29; also 32, Il. 20—22; 100, ll. 10–12. 33 quod etc.; "the nature of this principle may be perceived in the

case of animals'. For quod quidem quale sit cf. Academ. 2, 124 quod intellegi quale sit vix potest.

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P. 37. quibusdam: the limitation (for which see n. on 6, p. 29, 1. 1) is due to the fact (insisted on in N. D. 2, 129) that many creatures abandon their eggs when laid.

animadverti: n. on 8, 1. 21.
ex se natos : Lahm. quotes N. D. 2, 62 ex nobis natos liberos vo-

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camus.

ita amant: cf. Arist. Eth. Nic. 8, 1, 3 púoel 7 ¿vut ápxelv Folke apos το γεγεννημένον τώ γεννήσαντι (ή φιλία): και ου μόνον εν ανθρώπους, αλλά και εν όρνέοις, και εν τοις πλείστοις των ζώων, και τους ομοεθνέσι προς άλληλα και μάλιστα τους ανθρώποις.

ad quoddam tempus: N. D. 2, 129 usque ad eum finem dum possint se ipsi defendere; so in 53, 1. 5 ad tempus. 3 sensus: 'feeling', or impulse', i.e. as opposed to the calculation

of advantages mentioned above. 5 quae dirimi non potest: this is contrasted with ad quoddam tempus

above. 6 similis sensus amoris: i.e. sensus amoris caritati parentum similis; for

the brevity (common in comparisons) cf. n. on 32, l. 26 quam ab imbecillitate.

exstitit: ‘has arisen'. Note that exsistere does not mean to exist but to come into existence.

si aliquem: si has almost the same sense as cum here, and was perhaps used because the repetition of cum would have been awkward. Aliquem after si is perhaps more vivid than quem : trans. 'some actual

person’. Cf. 88, 1. 18; 24, 1. 23 n. 7 moribus et natura: the collocation natura et moribus is more natural

and common. Cf. 7, l. 6 with n. 8 quasi : serves, as usual, to soften the metaphor (n. on 3, p. 28, l. 2),

which however is a very common one; cf. Fam. 12, 5, 3 virtutis tuae lumen; Off. 1, 103 probi ingeni lumen; also Lael. 100, 1. 10 virtus ostendit suum lumen; 48, 1. 28 si quasi significatio eluceat.

$ 28. 9 nihil...amabilius: the same words are in N. D. I, 121, with which

cf. Off. 1, 55; ib. 2, 17.

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quos numquam vidimus: cf. N. D. 1, 121 virtute, quam qui adeptus erit ubicumque erit gentium a nobis diligetur [a Stoic utterance).

Fabrici...Curi: for Fabricius and Curius cf. nn. on § 18. 3 memoriam usurpet: ‘goes over his recollections'. Usurpare ( rip-are, implying a word usu-rip-us) is strictly 'to seize on for use'; hence =to constantly put a thing into practice, or of thoughts, to con them over.

Cf. 8, 1. 28. viderit: subjunctive because the clause is concessive :-' though he has never seen them'. 5 Cassium: sc. Vecellinum (cf. 36, I. 32). Consul in 493 B.C. and

concluded a treaty with the Latins; consul for the third time in 486 and admitted thé Hernicans to the league, but in the same year, having brought forward a lex agraria was suspected of aiming at despotic power, and tried and put to death (Liv. 2, 41).

Maelium: also suspected of aiming at tyranny, because he gave away corn to the poor. In 439 Cincinnatus having been made dictator, sent his magister equitum, Ahala, to summon Maelius. When Maelius refused to obey the summons Ahala had him put to death (Liv. 4, 14). 7 altero...alterum: in Off. 1, 38 Cic. makes the same comparison

between Pyrrhus and Hannibal. The traditional Roman view of Hannibal is expressed by Horace's abominatus Hannibal, yet the charges brought against him can be thoroughly disproved even from

the information preserved by Roman historians. B oderit: here fut. ind.; above subj.

§ 29.

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maius: 'a more difficult matter '; cf. maximum est in 69, p. 49, 1. 33.

etiam: this would naturally come before in hoste, but thrust aside in order to get completed as soon as possible the construction vel in... vel in.

quid mirum est: like quid magnum est, as in Academ. 1, 6.

est...si moveantur: a common form of the conditional sentence in Cicero; cf. Academ. 1, 7 sive Zenonem sequare, magnum est. The sense here is ‘if the supposition be made that etc.'. Cf. n. on 13, 1. 14; also 104, 1. 22.

coniuncti: here no participle but a mere adjective: so many other past participles in Cic. lose their participial force; particularly commendatus.

possunt: the young student should consider how the change to possint (which might stand here) would affect the sense.

beneficio accepto: beneficio is here used in an abstract sense, for which the plural might have been expected. Trans. 'by the receiving of service'.

studio: sc. amici.
consuetudine: “familiarity'.
R. L.

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25 motum animi:=applicationem animi in 27, 1. 31; a narrower sense than that in 48, l. 17.

et amoris: for amor is princeps ad benevolentiam coniungendam; see 26, 1. 26. 26 adhibitis: in sense almost=additis. 27 imbecillitate: 26, 1. 20; 23, 1. 8; N. D. 2, 122 ne homines quidem

censetis, nisi imbecilli essent, futuros beneficos et benignos fuisse ? 28 ut: 'the purpose being that '.

sit per quem: for the omission of the antecedent cf. 22, 11. 20, 22; also 65, 1. 19 est quatenus. 29 generosum: lit. ‘high-born' and so the metaphor is modified by

ut ita dicam, for which see n. on 49, l. 33. So Tusc. 2, 16 quaedam generosa virtus.

natam volunt: ‘are persuaded that it sprang'. In 48, l. 20; 98, 1. 23 we have the esse inserted. For the omission, which is common in Cic.

with volo, cf. Fin. 5, 13 Strato physicum se voluit. 31 ut quisque; n. on 19, 1. 23.

minimum esse in se: cf. 26, 1. 22; 46, 1. 30; De Or. I, 123 ut in quoque oratore plurimum esset ; ib. 2, 122 si quid est in me. Here trans. “the fewer resources a man supposed himself to possess, the more suited would he be for friendship'.

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§ 30. 32 ut enim etc.: this question is discussed by Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 9, 9,

beginning αμφισβητείται δε και περί τον ευδαίμονα ει δεήσεται φίλων ή μή.

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P. 38. sic...ut. notice this comparison within the comparison introduced by ut quisque.

munitus est: cf. the edita doctrina templa of Lucretius; also Attius quoted in Cic. Div. I, 45 sapientia munitum pectus, and St. Paul's breastplate of righteousness'. Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 60 hic murus aheneus esto nil conscire sibi, nulla pallescere culpa.

nullo: Cic. uses the abl. and gen. of nullus as substantives, to replace the abl. and gen. of nemo, which were not in use.

He avoids, however, the use of nullus, nulli, nullum as substantives, and even prefers nemo homo, sapiens and the like to nullus homo and the like. Nor does Cic. write nulli (nom. plur.) by itself, since nemo expresses the same sense. Generally the Republican and Augustan writers agree with Cic. in his treatment of nemo and nullus. For other exx, of adjectives used as substantives see n. on 50, l. 7 similium.

suaque omnia etc., for the sense cf. 7, 1. 13. For que after the negative word nullo, where a modern would have been inclined to use

sed, cf. 26, 1. 29 nihil simulatum est et; also nec...et...et in 80, 1. 4. 3 quid enim? Like our exclamation 'why, now !'

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Africanus indigens: the copòs or sapiens of the Stoic system was aútápkns, sufficient for himself. Chrysippus (Seneca Ep. 9) drew a fine distinction, that there was nothing the wise man needed, though there were many things it was advisable for him to havenulla re indigere et tamen multis illi rebus opus esse. Cf. Plato, Lysis 215 B πώς oύν οι αγαθοί τοις αγαθοίς ημίν φίλοι έσονται την αρχήν, οι μήτε απόντες ποθεινοί αλλήλοις, ικανοί γάρ εαυτούς και χωρίς όντες, μήτε παρόντες χρείαν αυτών έχουσι;

indigens: the omission both of an interrogative particle and of erat renders the question more emphatic. For the latter omission cf. n. on 22, l. 20 quid dulcius; for the former De Or. 2, 276 quid ? ego non cognosco vocem tuam?

ac... ne...quidem etc. : 'and assuredly neither was I in need of him'. Ac or atque at the outset of a sentence often introduces a statement emphatically. Observe that Cic. and the other writers of the best period never use nec...quidem, the place of which is often taken by ac, or et, or atque followed by ne...

...quidem. 5 ego: sc. dilexi to be supplied from dilexit. Cf. Phil. 2, 38 sed et

ego quid ille et contra ille quid ego sentirem et spectarem, videbat; also below, 73, 1. 3.

virtutis eius: the use of a genitive dependent on another is commonest in Cic. when, as here, the dependent genitive is a pronoun. Cf. 37, l. 12 illius furoris.

opinione...habebat: for the somewhat roundabout mode of expression cf. Att. 7, 2, 5 erat (epistula) de re publica, de opinione quam is vir haberet integritatis meae : de benevolentia quam ostendit co sermone quem

habuit de triumpho. 6 fortasse non nulla : remark the show of modesty.

habebat...dilexit; the change of tense should be observed; the imperfect denotes that Africanus was some time in coming to his conclusions about Laelius; dilexit points to the moment his decision took

effect. 8 multae et magnae : when two adjectives are in agreement with the

same noun Cic. generally connects them with et, where English idiom would often require them to be put side by side. When multus is one of two adjectives the conjunction is rarely left out (cf. Greek usageTollå kal kaká), but if multus is one of three adjectives the et sometimes disappears. Cf. Verr. 5, 119. multi et graves dolores, but Fam. 5, 17, 3 multis fortissimis atque optimis viris; Pro imp. Cn. Pomp. 6 multa...

..magna et gravia bella. Cf. however below, 49, 1. 30 multis inanibus; 54, l. 12 multorum praepotentium. 9 causae diligendi : a somewhat pleonastic phrase; it would have been

enough to say that love (not the causes of love) starts from hope. Cf. however Fin. 1, 42 rerum gerendarum initia proficiscuntur a voluptate aut a dolore; Tac. Hist. I, 39 initio caedis orto; Liv. 32, 34, 7 ab illis principium belli ortum est.

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