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Both of them, indeed, died within two years of the time of their reaching England. John Alasco, however, laboured with great success in London, and Peter Martyr, in Oxford, until the accession of Mary: the benefit indirectly reaped in England, therefore, from the distresses of the Protestants abroad, may on the whole be estimated as very considerable. Various interesting particulars respecting the arrival of Bucer and Fagius, their labours in England, and their deaths, are narrated in Melchior Adam's "Vitæ Germanorum Theologorum."

The particulars of Barrowe's and Greenwood's sufferings are so well narrated in an article on the "Pilgrim Fathers," communicated to the British Quarterly Review, by its distinguished editor, that we need make no apology for extracting the paragraphs relating to them:

"Among the persons apprehended in 1592, were Henry Barrow and John Greenwood. In the records of the proceedings against these recusants, the former is described as 'gentleman,' the latter as 'clerk.' Barrow was the author of a petition to parliament on behalf of himself and his suffering brethren, from which the above extracts are taken. The indictment against Barrow and Greenwood charged them with holding and promulgating opinions which impugned the Queen's supremacy; with forming churches, and conducting religious worship contrary to law; and with having indulged in libellous expressions concerning some eminent persons. On these grounds sentence of death was passed on them; and in pursuance of that sentence, they were both conveyed from Newgate to Tyburn.

"The rope was fastened to the beam and placed about their necks, and in that state they were allowed for a few moments to address the people collected around them. Those moments they employed in expressing their loyalty to the queen, their submission to the civil government of their country, and their sorrow if they had spoken with irreverence or with improper freedom of any man. They reiterated their faith in the doctrines on account of which they were about to suffer death, but entreated the people to embrace those opinions only as they should appear to be the certain teaching of Holy Scripture. When they had prayed for the queen, their country, and all their enemies and persecutors, and were about to close their eyes on the world, the proceedings were suddenly stayed, and it was announced that her majesty had sent a reprieve. The revulsion of feeling which ensued may be imagined. Consciousness of life suddenly flowed back to hearts from which it seemed to have passed away, and men as good as dead again began to live. The breathless people shared in this reflux of emotion. The condemned men gave expression to their joy as became them-the people did so in loud acclamations; and, as the victims were re-conducted from the suburbs of the metropolis to Newgate, the populace in the lanes and streets, and from the windows of the houses, hailed their return as a happy and righteous deliverance. On that day, Barrow sent a statement of these occurrences to a distinguished relative, having access to Elizabeth, pleading that, as his loyalty could no longer be doubtful, he might be set at liberty, or at least be removed from the 'loathsome jayle' of Newgate. But early on the following morning, the two prisoners were again summoned from their cells. All that had taken place on the preceding day proved to be a mockery. It was not true that the bitterness of death had passed. They had again to gather up the strength of nature which might enable them to meet that stroke from the hands of a public executioner, and thus, mentally at least, it was their hard lot to undergo the penalty of a double dissolution. They were now conveyed to the same spot with more

secresy, and were there disposed of in the manner in which society has been wont to dispose of marauders and cut-throats."-Brit. Quart. Rev. No. I., pp. 11, 12.

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The baptism of Tschoop is described in Loskiel's History of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Indians in North America. This man, the greatest drunkard among all the Indians, was the first whose heart was powerfully awakened through the grace of Jesus Christ. He asked the missionary, what effects the blood of the Son of God, slain on the cross, could produce in the heart of man.” Had the missionary received the most valuable present, it would not have afforded him a pleasure in the least degree equal to what he felt in hearing this question from a soul which sought salvation. Tschoop's emotion was very great when instructed respecting the sufferings and death of the Redeemer, and he soon manifested the power of Divine grace working effectually in his believing heart. His own account of his conversion is so remarkable that we must quote a part of it :—


"Brethren, I have been a heathen, and have grown old amongst the heathen; therefore I know how heathen think. Once a preacher came and began to explain to us that there was a God. We answered-Dost thou think us so ignorant as not to know that? Go back to the place from whence thou camest. Then again another preacher came and began to teach us, and to say-You must not steal, nor lie, nor get drunk,' &c. We answered, Thou fool, dost thou think that we don't know that? Learn first thyself, and then teach the people to whom thou belongest to leave off these things; for who steals, or lies, or who is more drunken than thine own people? and thus we dismissed him. After some time, brother Christian Henry Rauch came into my hut and sat down by me. He spoke to me nearly as follows:I come to you in the name of the Lord of heaven and earth. He sends to let you know that he will make you happy, and deliver you from the misery in which you lie at present. To this end he became a man, gave his life a ransom for man, and shed his blood for him, &c. When he had finished his discourse, he lay down upon a board, fatigued by the journey, and fell into a sound sleep. I then thought, What kind of man is this? There he lies and sleeps. I might kill him, and throw him out into the wood, and who would regard it? But this gives him no concern. However, I could not forget his words. They constantly recurred to my mind. Even when I was asleep, I dreamed of that blood which Christ shed for us. I found this to be something different from what I had ever heard, and I interpreted Christian Henry's words to the other Indians. Thus, through the grace of God, an awakening took place among us. I say, therefore, brethren, preach Christ our Saviour and his sufferings and death, if you would have your words to gain entrance among the heathen."—Loskiel, part ii. pp. 14, 15.

At his baptism, Tschoop received the name of John; and thenceforward devoted himself to the cause of the Redeemer. His gifts, as may be inferred from the last extract, were very distinguished. His labours were greatly blessed both to Europeans and Indians. "Few," it is said, "of his countrymen could vie with him in point of Indian oratory. His discourses were full of animation, and his words penetrated like fire into the hearts of his countrymen. His soul found a

rich pasture in the Gospel, and, whether at home, or on a journey, he could not forbear speaking of the salvation purchased for us by the sufferings of Jesus, never hesitating a moment, whether his hearers were Christians or heathen." Loskiel gives many specimens of his

happy talent in addressing individuals.

"An Indian woman from Menissing paid a visit to John, and told him that as soon as she had a good heart, she would also turn to the Lord Jesus. Ah! replied John, you want to walk on your head. How can you get a good heart, unless you come first to Jesus?"-Loskiel, part ii. p. 77.

He laboured actively for four years, in preaching the Gospel, and otherwise promoting the welfare of his Indian countrymen, who consulted him on all occasions and died in 1746, of small-pox.



Shortly before his last illness, he visited Bishop Spangenberg, and addressed him thus I have something to say to you. I have examined my heart closely; I know that what I have to say is true. Seeing so many of our Indians depart this life, I put the question to myself, whether I could resign my life to the Lord, and be assured that he would receive my soul. The answer was, Yes! for I am the Lord's, and I shall go and be with him for ever.' During his illness, the believing Indians went often, and stood weeping around his bed. Even then he spoke with power and energy of the truth of the Gospel, and in all things approved himself to his last breath as a minister of God. His pains were mitigated by the consideration of the great sufferings of Jesus Christ; and his departure to him was gentle and placid as that of a faithful servant, entering into the joy of his Lord."-Loskiel, part ii. p. 94.

The Savoy conference, which met for the first time on April 15, 1661, was a conference appointed by Charles II. ostensibly to arrange the differences between the episcopal and presbyterian parties, but really to take off the odium of measures on which the court and prelates had already determined. Twelve prelates with nine assistants were appointed on the episcopal side, and as many ministers on that of the presbyterians. Both sides were represented by some of the most distinguished men they have comprised at any period. But as the conference assembled in bad faith, so far as the episcopal party were concerned, it ended with no other fruit than mutual embittering. It is instructive as one proof out of many, of the hopelessness of settling religious controversies by the authority of a court, or of a majority. Let us learn from it to value our privilege of professing without penalties the convictions of our private consciences, and to make conscience of ascertaining for ourselves, and obeying, the will of God as written in his word.

On the 26th of April, 1843, the Lancashire Independent College was opened; the latest of those institutions in the prosperity of which that of the Congregational community in general is so deeply involved. The increased attention which has of late years been accorded to the

education of our ministers, and to our colleges, as the machinery by which that education is to be wrought out, is one of the happiest signs of the times; if not the very happiest, so far as our own denomination is concerned. A very valuable paper appeared last month in our own pages, and in those of "The Christian Witness," which described, briefly but very truly, the spirit which pervaded the recent conference in London, and pointed out with equal truth and skill, the claims which all our colleges and their respective inmates, have on the Congregational body. It is, we think, thoroughly consistent with the professed object of the present series of papers, to recapitulate them here. They are, "1st. Prayer that Christ would raise up young brethren every way qualified for his ministry-that the numbers of such may be greater, and their mental and religious endowments more eminent. 2nd. Prayer, frequent, distinct, and public, for the colleges-for the tutors-and for the students. 3rd. Kindness [i.e. a kind and just regard] for the young brethren training for the ministry in the colleges. 4th. Pecuniary contributions in their support." If, as the paper referred to truly says, “every other good work will find its surest advancement in a previous care for an efficient ministry," that is, if all our Bible, missionary, tract, and other evangelical societies, prosper as our churches prosper, and our churches prosper in proportion as our ministry is efficient, then surely the cause of our colleges must recommend itself both to the prayers and the beneficence of every individual who believes our principles to be worthy of his hearty support. As institutions where many have been trained, who are still labouring for Christ, or have entered their eternal rest; as institutions where not a few are at this moment preparing for the great work of saving souls; as institutions for which our Lord is, in his secret providence, preparing many who as yet know not the way in which they shall be constrained to walk-let the united prayer of all our Christian brethren for them be-Lord! send now prosperity!

Of the more private memorials our list contains, we can notice but one or two, leaving the others to be traced in the records of Christian biography. Accounts of Pellican, Frederick Myconius, Melancthon, and Bugenhagen, may be found in Melchior Adam, Middleton, and other authors; of Fox, in Thornton's Piety Exemplified; of Nitschman, in Bost's History of the Moravians; of Howe, Tallents, Philip Henry, and John Shuttlewood, in Palmer's Nonconformists' Memorial. The Life of Philip Henry, as written by his son, Matthew Henry, and edited with valuable supplements by Sir John B. Williams, and that of Howe, by Mr. Rogers, are well known as delightful pieces of biography. The former is singularly minute and copious in its details, which are communicated with that rare simplicity and unction, by which Matthew Henry was so eminently distinguished: the latter records all that there is any hope of learning now respecting its admirable

subject, in a spirit of which Howe himself, were he living, would not be ashamed, and in a style, into which we have sometimes vainly wished we could see his "Living Temple" transposed. The marriage of Philip Henry, and Howe's letter to Spilsbury, may seem, to uninstructed readers, too insignificant to memorialise but the latter is a document which might be recollected with great advantage, when ruptures occur in Christian societies; and Henry's reflections on his marriage, if we had them at hand for insertion, which we regret that we have not, would fully speak for themselves to all who are desirous of maintaining that "honourable" bond in a truly Christian spirit. We had intended to extract, from the Nonconformists' Memorial, the account of Shuttlewood, a very holy man, one of the earliest nonconformist tutors, and a great sufferer for conscience' sake, but our long extracts from D'Aubigné forbid it :-may we again recommend the perusal of that work to all our readers? We close for this month with an entry in Philip Henry's diary concerning the death of his son:

"This day fourteen years the Lord took my first-born son from me, the beginning of my strength, with a stroke; in the remembrance whereof my heart melted this evening. I begged pardon for the Jonah that raised the storm. I blessed the Lord that had spared the rest. I begged mercy-mercy for every one of them, and absolutely and unreservedly devoted and dedicated them, myself, my whole self, estate, interest, life, to the will and service of that God from whom I received all. Father! hallowed be thy name: thy kingdom come."

Had the "unfortunate parents" of Penelope Boothby known what Philip Henry knew, and done as Philip Henry did, they would not have refused to be comforted because she was not. They would not, when bereft of her, have also been bereft of consolation.



(Continued from page 201.)


BUT, if Calvinism is most expansive, it is no less distinguished by its profound depth. It is not simply a reformation of the faith, (as Lutheranism,) but it is also the reformation of the life; and it is thus more universally Christian. Without doubt, Lutheranism is free from Antinomianism, which, in fact, Luther himself opposed. Still, there are many differences in the manner in which the law is understood by them and us. One of the most prominent is pointed out by a characteristic trait. In the Lutheran catechism, the law and the ten commandments are placed before faith and the doctrines of

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