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chair? The party which was raised against him at last, and by whose means the pope accomplished his revenge, was made up of those who shrank from his faithful preaching. It consisted of the clergy whose corruptions he had reproved, of courtiers whose extravagance he had opposed, and of young men whose self-indulgence he had restrained. Dr. Guerike has made a scape-goat of him in favour of Luther, but we know of nothing in which Luther has any great advantage, except that he lived in a time more favourable to reformation, and when the advancement of learning permitted a wider issue of the Scriptures, and prepared a greater number of co-operators. Besides the expositions which have been mentioned, Savonarola wrote an apology for the Christian religion, in four books, under the title of "Triumphus Crucis," which was published at Florence in 1494; a treatise, “De Simplicitate Christiana," in four books, published at Florence in 1496; and some sermons, also printed at the same place, in two vols., in 1543. The best biography of this Reformer is that written by Dr. Rudelbach, which was published at Hamburgh, in 1835, under the title, "Hieronymus Savonarola und seine Zeit." 8vo.
There is nothing specially remarkable in the death-beds of the other men of God whose decease is noticed in our list, unless it be in that of Calvin, with which the public has become familiar through the pictures of Hornung, and the engravings which have been taken from them.* Calvin's was a peaceful and happy death, he died surrounded by friends, having lived to see the Reformation established on a firm basis, and departing in the assurance that the great work which, under God, he had so far advanced, would be carried forward on the same principles by the able and trusty fellow-workers who survived him. How different from the death of Voltaire, on whom conviction burst without a single ray of hope, and whose agonies were such that his infidel companions, as they could not alleviate, so they were not allowed to witness them! "The wicked is driven away in his wickedness, but the righteous hath hope in his death." Prov. xiv. 32.
Mr. Edward Bury was the intimate friend of Philip Henry, and was on one occasion apprehended with him as they were engaged together in a public religious service. Mr. Henry's daughter, Mrs. Savage, has thus referred to his death in her diary :
"May 10, 1700. This week, old Mr. Bury, of Bolas, in Shropshire, was buried, an aged nonconformist, some time a fellow-labourer and sufferer with my dear father-now gone to his reward. Few left of the old generation. Lord! pour out
* Our readers may not generally be aware that the picture, of which a very finished engraving was published by Mr. Tilt, is a second work of the artist on the subject. The first was painted and exhibited in Geneva, and is, we believe, still in that country. We prefer it on several accounts to the latter work. It is neither so crowded nor made up, and the general effect is better. A beautiful lithograph from it has been published in Paris.
of thy Spirit on our sons and daughters."-Mrs. Savage's Diary. Original Manuscript as quoted by Sir J. B. Williams, in his revised edition of the Life of Philip Henry. 8vo. edit. p. 146.
The memory of Thomas Doolittle also claims a passing notice. He was born at Kidderminster, of religious parents, in 1630. Mr. Baxter's discourses on the "Saints' Rest" were blessed to his saving conversion. On leaving the university, he went to London, where he was soon taken notice of for his warm and affectionate preaching; and the parish of St. Alphage being vacant, called him to be their pastor. He had been there nine years, faithfully and zealously employed, when he was deprived by the Bartholomew Act. After his ejectment, he supported his family by keeping an academy. During the plague, he retired, on account of his boarders, to Woodford-bridge, but afterwards returned, and opened a meeting-house for worship and preaching, being satisfied that it was his duty to exercise his ministry; but it was closed by the king's officers. On King Charles's licence, in 1672, he resumed his place, and set up an academy at Islington, where he educated several young men for the ministry, and among the rest his own son, who was many years pastor of a church at Reading. After the Toleration, he preached twice every Lord's-day, and held a lecture on Wednesday;
"At which he delivered his exposition of the Assembly's Catechism. He had a great delight in catechising, and urged ministers to it, as having a special tendency to propagate knowledge, to establish young persons in the truth, and to prepare them to read and hear sermons with advantage. . . . . A life prolonged beyond his usefulness was the greatest trial he feared, and God graciously prevented it; for the Lord's-day before his death, he preached and catechised with great vigour, and was confined but two days to his bed. In the valley of the shadow of death, he had such a sense of the Divine presence as proved a powerful cordial for his support. He died May 24, 1707, aged seventy-seven, and was the last of the ejected ministers in London."-Nonconformists' Memorial, 2nd edit. vol. i. pp. 86-89.
We have no room for a particular notice of Count Zinzendorf's death or character, but the particulars may be found in Bost's History of the Moravians, and Spangenberg's life of the Count, which has been translated by Mr. S. Jackson. In Bost will also be found a very interesting account of the nightly watch established at Herrnhut, and of some remarkable events affecting the Moravian community, which occurred on the 12th of May, in different years, on which account that day was designated at Herrnhut "the critical day."
The discourse which we have referred to as having been preached by Dr. Carey on the 30th May, 1792, was that in which he urged his hearers to expect great things for God, and to attempt great things. Dr. Ryland, in his memoirs of Fuller, says of this discourse, that "if all the people had lifted up their voice and wept, as the children of Israel did at Bochim, (Judges ii.) I should not have wondered at the
effect. It would have only seemed proportionate to the cause, 80 clearly did he prove the criminality of our supineness in the cause of God." The foundation of the Baptist Missionary Society was greatly promoted by this discourse, if it is not to be ascribed to it as its principal cause.
We have not recorded in our table, but we deem it worthy of a notice here, that Robert Moffat's "Missionary Labours and Scenes in Africa," is dated May 24, 1842. If the Book of Sports, dated May 24, 1618, was (though occasionally, as we have seen, overruled for good,) an instrument of so much evil, why should not the record of the zealous missionary's labours be eminently valuable as a blessing and a stimulus to many? Many will have reason to bless God to all eternity in the perusal of worse books than this.
On May 9, 1799, the Religious Tract Society, the parent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and an abundant fountain of spiritual knowledge to the people, was established. The last day alone can reveal the blessings it has scattered. With their leaves "the mower filleth his hand, and he that bindeth sheaves his bosom. Let all that go by say: The blessing of the Lord be upon you! We bless you in the name of the Lord!" Psalm cxxix. 7, 8.
ON THE TEMPTATION OF CHRIST.
THE history of our Lord's conflict with Satan recorded by St. Matthew, in the fourth chapter of his gospel, is full of instruction and encouragement. Milton has made it the subject of his second great epic :
"Recover'd Paradise to all mankind,
By one man's firm obedience fully tried
Through all temptation, and the tempter foiled
In all his wiles, defeated and repulsed,
And Eden raised in the waste wilderness."
It would be adopting some of the worst principles of neological interpretation to believe, that this historic relation is a merely figurative description of mental conflict-of the oscillations of an agitated mind. We believe it to have been a real battling between the PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES and champions of two opposing interests,-sin and holiness, condemnation and salvation, hell and beaven.
Whether any form was assumed, and, if any, what form Satan took to aid his assault of our Lord, are questions which it were vain to attempt to answer. It might have been that of an angel of light, or a temptation, real indeed, but spiritual and invisible. If the latter, the mode of Satanic attack more nearly resembled the temptations of Christians.
Satan's hatred to holiness, to happiness, and to God, will sufficiently
account for the bold effort which he made to ruin the Head of the second covenant, as he had, by appeal to unbelief, appetite and pride, destroyed the first Adam. Had he succeeded, all the gracious purposes of God to save and glorify fallen man, would have been frustrated and nullified. The arch-enemy makes his essay, when our Lord was in solitude, and when he was exhausted with long-continued fasting; yet he trod the wine-press alone, and proved that neither fulness nor hunger, degradation nor grandeur, could injure the integrity of his character. He could afford to fight under every conceivable disadvantage. He could allow his adversary to choose the place, and circumstances, and weapons, and yet conquer.
This temptation was permitted for the high purposes of testing the Redeemer's character, of his learning how to sympathise with all his tempted followers; and exhibiting the three classes of temptations with which, more or less, all true believers have to contend. It is to the last of these purposes that we shall in this paper direct attention.
We know indeed how disposed the tried Christian is to deny the parallelism between the Saviour's temptations and his own: he believes, that Jesus was Divine as well as human, and that even his humanity was free from sin. Let such, however, remember, that it was the human nature of our Lord which was assailed, and that the power by which that nature was sustained was the influence of the Holy Spirit,* rather than his own Godhead; and that the same Spirit helpeth our infirmities.
The sinlessness of our Lord's human nature, did indeed forbid any pre-disposition to evil, and exempted him from those regrets which our partial indulgence of temptations too often occasions; but still the temptations themselves are the same, and innocent humanity only shows how man, aided by gracious influence, would treat temptation, were he perfect; and how, consequently, he will repel the fiery darts of the evil one in the proportion in which he is sanctified. So that the example is complete, and we must imitate it as nearly as we can the best artists copy, though they do not equal the perfection of nature.
I. The first class of temptations may be ranged under the generic name of DISTRUST. Matt. iv. 3. We experience this kind of temptation when we are prompted to question the grace-the care—and the faithfulness of God. Satan would have our Lord distrust the promise of his Father to supply his needs, either by ordinary or by extraordinary means, and he challenges him to effect a miracle to meet the pressure of hunger. He could have created bread, as he did twice, at least, multiply it; but on this occasion he showed he could do more he could resist the devil and the cravings of hunger; he could
* See Dr. J. Owen, on the work of the Holy Spirit, in and on the human nature of Christ. Sec. 7.
believe in the word of promise, and wait for daily bread, when his own word might have instantly provided it for his necessity. "He answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God."
Christian, when tempted to dissatisfaction with your condition and privileges, look unto Jesus. The tempter may suggest, that your worldly circumstances,-your health and talents,-your religious advantages, are all unfriendly to piety and usefulness; and you may become impatient for a change. Would it not be better, he will say, that you should command more ease and comfort; that your talents of thinking and of speaking should be more powerful; that you should enjoy a ministry and a society of a more intellectual or of a more stirring and exciting character? How often do we give way to such vain and wicked imaginations as these; and forget, that not the bread alone, not the condition and privileges of life, but the word of God, his mysterious providence and grace, are what cause men to live. The just shall live by faith: believe, therefore, and make not haste to change your present order of means, but improve such as you do possess.
Distrust in God will tempt you to employ unauthorised means of obtaining relief. It was not agreeable to the arrangements of the covenant, that our Lord should work a miracle either to satisfy his own hunger, or to meet the desires of Satan. How often, when property, esteemed necessary to comfort, is not obtained by honourable care and industry, is it sought by political and indirect measures, and the arts of dishonesty; principle is surrendered to gain the patronage of the worldly; the Sabbath is desecrated by business because six days' profits appear inadequate; and too often such moral hazard is braved, as quite opposes the petition, "Lead us not into temptation." The Christian must never adopt as the motto of his conduct, Fas atque nefas. He must not fear, though the earth be removed, and the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea.
Allied to this use of improper means, is the temptation, when the mind is in a cold and worldly frame, to wish for more excitement. Some have desired a horrifying ministry, the fire and the whirlwind rather than the small still voice; they have turned from the calm oracles of revelation to the ravings of the Sibyl; and have vainly expected to receive benefit from the thunders of Sinai, rather than from the voice of an atoning Saviour, which says, "Father, forgive them." Some have prayed for what they term more law-work; some to be shaken over hell; and others, that some dreadful affliction may be sent to affect them. All this is wrong: it confines the God of all grace to bread alone to a single class of instruments, and entirely overlooks the fact, that more spiritual influence, not other means, is the blessing needed. "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they