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WHAT IS A COSHEKER?
Public attention was excited to some extent by
the singularity of the presentment case, which in
March last was brought before Mr. Baron Hughes,
at the Kilkenny Assizes, when Patrick Doyle was
impeached, under the statutes of Queen Anne and
Geo. lH., inter alia, for "koshering " from house
to house; and the jury found that "he was an
Irish gentleman, and would not work," and he
was sentenced to find two securities in 10/. each
for his good behaviour for seven years, or to be
imprisoned during that period.
The objects of this contribution are to correct what appear to me to be errors of the several scribes, who have attempted to define what a
ord is derived.
to sleep L~ m
In the coin
to it, fTrrihfircg as
"Their eenopvieBae «f Kerr
One of oar own respected , H. C, C, acutely, though equally at fault with the others, suggests Hot, rent.
Learning ana ingenious paQalogial iimjudilf have been thus expended on the roots and meaning of the word " cosherer f and now I reepeetfallT, though confidently, submit my conviction that all these conjectures and diaquiatkns are at variance with the derivation, accurate definition, and the historical and legal sizmfkaace of the word.
In a Treatise of IrtUmd, by John Dymmok, supposed to be in attendance upon Essex when he was Lord-Lieutenant' of Ireland, written about 1600, published by the Irish Archaeological Society, we are told that —
"Irish taxes or sen ices are of two sortes, either made unto the queene by the gentlemen towards their defence and maintenance of her forces in the country, as Byaingout, Bonaght, and Soren, or els by the Lord upon his tennant, as Coynye, Livery, Casheiy," 4c
The writer proceeds then to explain the meaning of these terms, and the word (i cashery" (coshery), he thus defines: —
"Cashery is certeine feastes which the Lord useth to take of histennants after Easter, Christmas, NVhitsontyde, Michaelmas, and all other themes at his pleasure; he goeth to their howses with alf his rravue and idlemen of his cuntrve, &c, and holdeth on this course till he have visited all" his tenants one after another."—Pp. 8, 9.
Sir James Ware's Antiquitates Hibemica; confirms the statement of Dymmok: —
"Coshery exactio erat Dynasts Hibemici, quando ab incolis sub ejus potestate, et clientcla, victum et hospitium capiebat pro seipso suaque clientela."—Sec. 12.
"Coshering" was a custom not peculiarly Irish; it was an ordinary custom, though not so named, also of feudal rule.
"The Lords," says Sir Henry Spelman, "might tnko not only of their tenants, but "of all the country there ibout, victuals and all other necessaries for furnishing 'lit castles, &c And bv signnrlatauthority as to 1\ c and it themselves and followers (called • coshering') at Ir tenants' houses; and when any matter of extra ■ary charge fell upon them, then to extort the so,,,,.
TOAD IN STONE (3rd S. vii. 339.)— I inclose ex- | (also attributed to Zuccaro), an engraving from tracts of a letter recently addressed to me by the which is to be found in Lodge's Portraits. He is Rev. Robert Taylor, the eminent local geologist there represented with the collar and badge of the mentioned by your correspondent:
Garter; and, as his installation did not take place “The toad continues in good health, is still an object of till May, 1597, the picture could not have been great interest, and daily has many visitors. I have little painted till after that date. more to add than what I have before stated to you, except I may here mention that there are several porthat I have carefully examined the rock from which the traits attributed to Zuccaro that could not have block was hewn. I have also carefully examined the man who found the toad, and those whom he immediately called
been painted by him till long after his visit to to witness the discovery of the stranger. I may add that England in 1574. Without going beyond Lodge's the quarry, or that part of it where the toad was found, Collection, I may particularise the portraits of was a few years ago abandoned on account of water ; but Edward Somerset, Earl of Worcester; George since then, in an adjoining old-worked quarry the water Carew, Earl of Totnes; Robert Cecil, Earl of surface of the water in this quarry about five feet, and in Salisbury; and Henry Howard, Earl of North
MELETES. there the toad was found. The rock might be damp, but ampton. I am perfectly convinced there was neither vein nor chink, D’ABRICHCOURT AND WINGHAM CHURCH (3rd and am still ready to maintain that the animal must have S. vii. 229.)—The most curious part of the been alive in a dormant state since the deposition of the
penance material of the rock; and, according to my theory of upon this nun for breaking her vows and remarrygeology, this, the magnesian limestone, was formed before ing will be found (p. 269) in Dunkin's Report of the foundations of the Yorkshire hills were laid ; so that the Proceedings at the Congress of the British Archit may be affirmed that it is older than these hills, and cological Association, held in Canterbury, 1844. that it is fully six thousand times six thousand years old. Of course the uninitiated will think this wild kind of of “N. & Q.” Not having access to a copy of
It will not well bear admission into the columns language, but I am ready to maintain my opinion.”
Murray's Kent Hand-Book, I am unable to say
whether the penance is given there in full. THE CASTOR WHIP (3rd S. vii. 354.)– MR. Mr. Dunkin thus writes:SPENCER Hall, and all who feel interest in the [After the death of John, a brief time after his marCaistor Whip, will find in The Archeological riage,] “ his disconsolate widow, shortly after—in the Journal, vol. vi. p. 239, an admirable article on
bloom of youth and beauty-vowed chastity, and was "The Gad Whip Service,” by Mr. W. S. Walford, solemnly veiled a nun by the Bishop of Winchester, at the F.S.A.
convent of Waverley ; but afterwards repenting of having Thos. PURNELL.
so precipitantly quitted the world, she secretly withdrew BERKELEY ARMS (3rd S. vii. 337.) – In an old
from the monastery, and about eight years after, 'before
the sun rising upon Michaelmas day, A.D. 1320, was pamphlet which I have (bound with some more clandestinely married to Sir Eustace Dabrieschescourt in Guides), The Gloucester Guide, among the arms a chapel of the mansion house of Robert de Brome, a said to have been in the east window of that ca canon of the College of Wingham, by Sir John Ireland, a thedral, are these: Gules, a chevron, ermine, be- priest. Such a striking violation of ecclesiastical disci
pline necessarily called forth condign punishment upon tween ten crosses, patée, argent, for Berkeley.
the culprits. The Archbishop of Canterbury summoned R. H. RUEGG.
them both before him at the mansion-house, Maghfield, H. M. Customs, W. I. Docks.
upon the seventh ides of April, and had not their high
rank and riches intervened, would have instantly proBREMEN COIN (3rd S. vii. 323.)—The letter s
nounced the marriage null and void. As it was, he enThe full inscription is joined for their penance,"
," * &c. · For which, see p. 269. FRANCISCUS I. DEI GRATIA ROMANORUM IMPERATOR
Αλφρεδ. . T. W. W.
VOLTAIRE (3rd S. vi. 533; vii. 211, 284.) – COUNTESS OF SUFFOLK (3rd S. vii. 94, 169, 269, | Le Roi Voltaire is the eccentric title of an Evo 349.)–From the description given by X., I think volume by M. Arsène Houssaye (Paris, 1858), there can be little doubt as to the identification of which seems, from a short account of it by Edward the portrait. The second wife of Thomas Howard de Barthélemy in his Essais Critiques, to be not was clearly the only Countess of Suffolk that it so much a biography of Voltaire as a disjointed could represent.
But I conceive that it could and somewhat paradoxical éloge, full of humour, not have been painted till many years later than verve, and esprit. A very brief and imperfect the date that X. would assign to it. I do not account of Voltaire's last hours is contained in the know the date of the lady's birth; but Thomas following extract from M. Barthélemy's Essais :Howard, her husband, was born in 1561, and it is "M. Houssaye retrace sa mort, couverte d'un nuage, hardly to be supposed that when he was not more mais qui eût été peut-être Chrétienne sans un empressethan nineteen his wife should be verging upon
ment maladroit, par lequel échouèrent les sages disposifat, fair, and forty. I think it more probable that
tions d'un ecclesiastique qui, bien qu'éssentiellement this likeness of the countess should have been
* In despite of the indelicacy of this astonishing pentaken at the same time as that of her husband ance, the lady endured it fifty one years.
stands for semper.
dévoué à la foi, plaisait à Voltaire et s'était déjà fait en mark the grave of Ossian.* A quantity of fairy tendre."
and folk lore (enough to fill a volume) is in existJ. MACRAY. ance about these “ Nine Stones.” This may elicit
S. REDMOND. FOXES OR SHEAVES (3rd S. vii. 338.) – In reply something more about them. to the question, who first suggested the substitu Liverpool. tion of sheaves for foxes in Judges xv. 4, I may
HENRY MARTEN (3rd S. vii. 114.)-Your corstate that this subject is discussed in Harris's Natural History of the Bible, from which it ap- the Regicide. I do not know if it is worth men
respondent P. wishes to know the arms of Marten pears that the notion of sheaves is first found in the Republ. des Lettres, Oct. 1707; and Dr. Ken- tioning, but in the chancel of Ewelme church, nicott refers to the Memoirs of Literature, 1712, who is believed to have been a relation of Henry
Oxon, is a monument to Colonel Francis Martyn, p. 15, for a like translation. Sewall
, Hollis Pro- Marten. The arms are uncoloured : A chevron, fessor of Hebrew in Harvard College, Cambridge, between three lions passant gardant, impaled with U.S., replied. Some think the jackal and not the fox is intended, but Gesenius has shown that the monument is mentioned in Skelton’s History
a fess ermine between three anchors. As though the proper Hebrew name for jackal is '*, ee (=
of Oxfordshire, the inscription is not given, I copy howler), whilst Synej, shual, is by the best modern
it from my father's notes, as possibly interesting scholars rendered fox, as in our version.
to the readers of “N. & Q.": T. J. BUCKTON.
“ Hic juxta situs est FRANCISCUS MARTYx de Ewelme,
in Comitatu Oxon. Armiger, qui obiit nono die Junii MANETHO (3rd S. vii. 356.)– To counteract the
Anno Domi 1682, Etatis 74. Hoc monumentum Johis attempt to disparage the authority of Manetho by Martyn unus Executorum posuit.” Hengstenberg, who has probably confounded some other of that name, it may be useful to state that
Francis Martyn built a large house in Ewelme, in Heeren's Manual of Ancient History (pp. 51-54,
which was pulled down between forty and fifty Oxf. 1833), the Greek authority for the first per and it is supposed his influence was used for the
years ago. He was an officer in Cromwell's army, riod of Egyptian history, after Herodotus and
preservation of the monuments in Ewelme church Diodorus, is Manetho, described as the
during those troublous times.
L. C. R. “ high priest at Heliopolis, who flourished under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, about 1.c. 260. He wrote the “CHRISTIAN BREADBASKET” (3rd S. vii. 356.) Ægyptiaca, of which, besides several fragments in Josephus, A periodical under this title was issued some the enumeration of the kings has been preserved in the Chronicles of Eusebius and Syncellus. The authenticity lished by Houlstone & Wright, but it lived, I
three or four years ago, price 2d., monthly, pubof the Pharaohs mentioned by him have been deciphered think, only seven months. Each number was on the Egyptian monuments. It is worthy of observation, brought out, near the end, with The Basket of that in Herodotus we have the documents of the priests of Crumbs, being short pieces, under such titles as Memphis; in Diodorus those of the priests of Thebes ; in Manetho those of the priests of Heliopolis — the three
the following: “How to make a Fast a Feast,” principal seats of sacerdotal learning : perfect consistency
“ He is a Babe," “ Temptation,” &c. I trust cannot, therefore, be expected in the accounts of those his this will give BREVIS all he requires on this head. torians."
W. WILLEY. Bunsen, Lepsius, and Osburn concur in this Birmingham. eulogy of Manetho.
T. J. BUCKTON.
GERVASE HOLLES (3rd S. vii. 356.)—Gervase Lichfield.
Holles' “Church Notes” have never been printed CLINT OR CLENT: Ossian's GRAVE (3rd S. vii. in a complete form. The quotations occasionally 323, 365.) — LORD LYTTELTON's note, at the last seen in small topographical works relating to quoted page, puts me in mind of a curious monu Lincolnshire have been obtained by the compilers ment(?) situate on the apex of a wild and desolate from the MSS. in the British Museum. Edward mountain pass, not far from the small town of Peacock, Esq., F.S.A., of Bottesford Manor, near Borris, county of Carlow, on the road leading Brigg, has had in contemplation of publishing from Kilteally to Borris. There are nine stones these remarkably interesting records with notes. set up in a peculiar perpendicular manner, and the The late Lord Monson incurred the expense of place is called the “ Nine Stones.” The stones obtaining a copy of Colonel Holles' Notes, and are about from four to six feet above the ground, this, we believe, is the only complete
one in the and set very irregular as to form. There is a county to which they chiefly relate. The Dean world of local tradition and mystery about these and Chapter of Lincoln's Library does not possess pillars, which are of rough granite, and appear in a copy!
ŠTAMFORDIENSIS. their natural form; the stone is plentiful in the locality. One of the traditions, credited by the
* Ossian is said to have been the son of the great giant people in the neighbourhood, is, that these stones warrior, Finn M'Cool (?).
SOBRIQUETS OF REGIMENTS (3rd S. vii. passim.) The Wedgwoods : being a Life of Josiah Wedgwood, with I have just met with the inclosed, and have copied
Notices of his Works and their Productions, Memoirs of
the Wedgwood and other Families, and a History of the it, not knowing, however, whether it has been
Early Potteries of Staffordshire. By Llewellyn Jewitt, already inserted among your articles on the so F.S.A. With a Portrait, and other Illustrations. briquets of regiments or no.
(Virtue Brothers.) 46th. The Lacedemonians.—Enoch. Markham, a The complaint made by Mr. Gladstone in his admirable younger brother of the Archbishop of York, was eulogium on Wedgwood, that it was strange that the life Lieut.-Colonel of the 46th Regiment, which was
of such a man should, in this nation of shopkeepers, yet employed in America during the War of Inde
at this time remain unwritten, is no longer called for.
The groundwork of the present volume, which has been pendence. The following anecdote is related of
one of serious labour to the editor, is to be found in the him:
chapters of Wedgwood and Etruria which form a part of the Having halted his men under a heavy fire, whilst he series of histories of the porcelain and earthenware manuwas for a few moments considering the best mode of at factories of this kingdom, which Mr. Jewitt is giving in tack, he heard talking in the ranks, upon which he coolly the pages of the Art Journal. These have been remodelturned round, and, commanding silence, harangued the led and re-written, and the additional matter has swelled men upon the discipline of the Lacedemonians, and their the narrative to more than double its original size. It mode of marching to an attack in perfect silence. This now contains a very interesting history of the “great circumstance gained the regiment the sobriquet of The Josiah and his family," and his works: and the latter Lacedemonians.”—History of the Markham Family, 8vo, being profusely illustrated (the book contains 145 wood1854, p. 57.
cuts), the editor is justified in regarding it as a pleasing
J. G. NICHOLS. and lasting Wedgwood memorial. WHITE LADIES AT WORCESTER (3rd S. vii. 238.)
The Annual Register ; a Review of Public Events at Home
and Abroad, for the Year 1864. New Series. (RivingIn the Report of the Congress of the British Arche
tons.) ological Association, held in 1847 in Worcester, by
There is obviously a new and long career of usefulness Alfred John Dunkin (p. 298), is an account of the opening to the New Series of this valuable Compendium excavations made with the consent of the proprie- of Home and Foreign History. Our newspapers get too tress of the White Ladies, in search of a subter- large for private individuals to file, but the more pro
minent features of them are here condensed and indexed ranean passage said to exist between that nunnery
ready for immediate reference. and Hindlip House. There is also an engraving of the ruins of the chapel as it existed in 1847.
The Romance of the Scarlet Leaf, and
other Poems, with Adaptations from the Provençal Troubadours.
Αλφρεδ. . Hamilton Aidé. (Moxon & Co.) ANNE LADY PARRY AND THE MANOR OF CHARL The opening poems of this little volume remind us TON (3rd S. vii. 211.)- I find in Hasted's Kent strongly of Rogers's Italy; not so much as being imita
tions of it, as being the emanations from a kindred mind. (folio edit. i. 35), that Queen Elizabeth in her
Is Mr. Aidé right in supposing he is the first to give in fifth year granted the manor to Lady Anne Parre. English any poetical adaptations from the Provençal I find, however, no mention therein that she was Troubadours ? the widow of Sir Adrian Fortescue; nor do I find The Early English Organ Builders and their Works from that she bequeathed the manor to Thomas For the Fifteenth Century to the Period of the Great Rebeltescue, but that King James I. granted the manor
lion. An unwritten Chapter in the History of the Organ. to Sir Adam Newton, knight and baronet.
By Edward F. Rimbault, LL.D. (A. Whittingham.) ALFRED JOHN DUNKIN. All admirers of the King of Instruments will receive Dartford.
with thanks from Dr. Rimbault this interesting contribution to the early history of Organ-building in England.
Dr. Rimbault's industry in research, and judgment in Miscellaneous.
selection, give ample security for the value of his in
formation. NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. The Holy Sepulchre and the Temple at Jerusalem. Being
Notices to Correspondents. the Substance of Two Lectures delivered in the Royal Institution, Albemarle Strect, on the 21st February, 1862,
We have lately received so many Queries accompanied by requests for
private letters in reply, that We think it right to announce that we and the 3rd March, 1865. By James Ferguson, F.R.S.,
cannot undertake to furnish private Replies to any inquirers. &c. (Murray.)
Our Correspondent, who writes to us on the subject of a recently pub
lished tract on " Genealogies," will, on consideration, see that his reThese two lectures contain a resumé of all the main marks are of too personal a character. points of the argument, with a sufficient amount of illus ERRATA. - 3rd s. vii. p. 364, col. ii. line 21, for "Goilemach " read
Goileamach; " line 34, for "rushid" read "rushed." tration and references to make it intelligible, by which
A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of “N. & Q." is now Mr. Ferguson believes he establishes the fact that the ready, and may be had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price Is. 6d.; building popularly known as the Mosque of Omar is, in
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Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmer. over what he believed to be the tomb of Christ. The
"NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, and is also subject is one of great interest ; and the volume is, for issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for many reasons, well timed. The appendix contains some Six Months forwarded direct
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yearly, INDEX) is 118, 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order
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LOYDON, SATURDAY, JAY 20, 1865.
to sleep)," and thinks there is no doubt about the
derivation. CONTENTS.-NO 177.
In the columns of the Daily Telegraph of the 24th NOTES : – What is a Cosherer ? 391 – Ballad : Battle of March, an oriental etymological origin is sought
Harlaw, 393— Antony and Cleopatra, 395 – Scotch Peers, for the word; and on the 27th following, "Philo1713-14, Ib. - The Roman Hypocaust at Slack
,” in an erudite and interesting contribution
logist," Metropolitan Roads in 1692 — De Gustibus, &c. - - Flyleaves -- Toasts - Batler - The Epistle to the Laodiceans to it, exhibiting an acquaintance both with the -“That's the Cheese" – Couplets, 396.
oriental languages and the Irish or Keltic, says QUERIES:-“Nan Hartlib” and “Clodius,” 398 -- Bishop | very truly :
Bedell - Carfax - Annual Sermon on Censoriousness -
Cosher is another name for the class called in Hibernocated - Tip me the Traveller - Tyler's “Life of Henry of
Celtic • Tories,' or 'plunderers,'searchers,'' seekers,' &c. Monmouth," 398.
But the same parties were also called “cosherers,' which QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - Edward VI. – Melanthe - literally means footmen—etymology: coss, a foot; and “ Albania "-"The Western Prospect of Bear's-Den Hall
ear, a man.” in co. Surrey" - St. Agnes and her Lamb — Bull against One of our Mendicant Friars, 401.
own respected correspondents, REPLIES:- Capital Punishments, 402 – H. H. Prince H. C. C., acutely, though equally at fault with Francis Rhodocanakis, 403 — “ Lang.Nebbed Things,” 16. the others, suggests cios, rent. - Portrait of Milton -- Hackney Horses: Affri - Martial's Learning and ingenious philological conjecture Epigram - Posterity of King Harold - Adverbs improperly used - Meauing of Arbery - The Philips, Earls of have been thus expended on the roots and meaning Pembroke - Dalyell's Scottish Poems” – The Lincoln of the word "cosħerer;" and now I respectfully, shire Church-Notes of Gervase Holles – Royal FrankingPagau Caricature - The third Plague of Egypt - Caraboo
though confidently, submit my conviction that all - Cuisha: Cuisheag - Benjamin Franklin - Descendant these conjectures and disquisitions are at variance of Sarsfield - The O'Connors of Kerry-"Woodrow's Pri. with the derivation, accurate definition, and the vate Letters," &c., 405. Notes on Books, &c.
historical and legal significance of the word.
In a Treatise of Ireland, by John Dymmok,
supposed to be in attendance upon Essex when he Notes.
was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, written about
1600, published by the Irish Archæological SoWHAT IS A COSHERER ?
ciety, we are told that Public attention was excited to some extent by “ Irish taxes or services are of two sortes, either made the singularity of the presentment case, which in unto the queene by the gentlemen towards their defence March last was brought before Mr. Baron Hughes,
and mayntenance of her forces in the countrye, as Rysin
gout, Bonaght, and Soren, or els by the Lord upon his at the Kilkenny Assizes, when Patrick Doyle was
tennant, as Coynye, Livery, Cashery," &c. impeached, under the statutes of Queen Anne and Geo. III., inter alia, for “coshering” from house The writer proceeds then to explain the meanto house'; and the jury found that “he was an ing of these terms, and the word “cashery" Irish gentleman, and would not work," and he (coshery), he thus defines :was sentenced to find two securities in 101. each “Cashery is certeine feastes which the Lord useth to for his good behaviour for seven years, or to be take of his tennants after Easter, Chrismas, Whitsontydė,
Michaelmas, and all other tymes at his pleasure ; he imprisoned during that period.
goeth to their howses with all his trayne and idlemen of The objects of this contribution are to correct his cuntrye, &c., and holdeth on this course till he have what appear to me to be errors of the several visited all his tenants one after another.”—Pp. 8, 9. scribes, who have attempted to define what a “cosherer” was, and whence the word is derived. firms the statement of Dymmok :
Sir James Ware's Antiquitates Hibernicæ conThe Times, in an editorial article, March 11 last, says, “ the derivation of the term cosherer’ incolis sub ejus potestate, et clientela, victum et hospitium
“ Coshery exactio erat Dynastæ Hibernici, quando ab is more than doubtful;" and conjectures that “he capiebat pro seipso suaque clientela."-Sec. 12. is one who pretends to be an Irish gentleman, and will not work.” And again adds :
“Coshering” was a custom not peculiarly Irish; * A cosherer is described by some etymologists as a man
it was an ordinary custom, though not so named,
also of feudal rule. who goes about from house to house claiming food and lodging, sometimes as a feudal superior, sometimes as a “ The Lords,” says Sir Henry Spelman, “ might take kinsman ; cousining himself upon the inmates, and cozen not only of their tenants, but of all the country thereing them out of their substance.”
about, victuals and all other necessaries for furnishing On the 13th of the same month a correspondent, their castles, &c. And by signorial authority as to lye and
feast themselves and followers (called coshering ') at " Priscilla,” writes, “cosherer is obviously de- their tenants' houses ; and when any matter of extrarived from the French word coucher (to lie down, ordinary charge fell upon them, then to extort the same