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Kirkby Stephen, and has the following inscriptions (in Latin):

(Round the edges.) • Here I Thomas Wharton do lie, with a spouse on each side ; Eleanor here in this space; there hath Anna her place. Lo, earth, take to thee the flesh and the bones which are thine, Gracious God! the souls Thou hast given receive Thou into Heaven.”

(On the east panel.)
“Born of the Wharton family, my own strenuous right hand,

Gaining a victory over the Scots, gives me my honours ;
My wife, Eleanor, whom the house of Stapleton gave me,
Blest me with offspring abundant, six times making me parent;
Two of them fate took away from me when they were infants,
Two of them while in the vigour of youth themselves they delighted ;
Two of them still surviving the name of grandfather give me;
Anna, my second wife, is of the house of Salop renowned."

In the Kirkby Stephen monument the figure of a bull, on the neck of which the effigy of Wharton rests, being vulgarly supposed to represent the devil in a vanquished posture, probably suggested the following witty but ungallant parody, which was written by Dr. Burn, joint author of the History of Cumberland and Westmorland:

“ Here I Thomas Wharton do lie,
With Lucifer under

my

head;
And Nelly my wife hard by,

And Nancy as cold as lead.
Oh, how can I speak without dread ?

Who could my sad fortune abide ?
With one devil under my head,

And another laid close on each side." His widow, Lady Anne, survived him about seventeen years. She resided at Healaugh, and firmly adhered to the Roman Catholic religion, in which she had been brought up.

As an illustration of its prevalence in Yorkshire, notwithstanding the severe measures adopted by Queen Elizabeth and the Bishops for its suppression, it may be stated that a list of recusants, sent by Archbishop Sandys to the Privy Council, October 28th, 1577, contained 157 names, including twenty-two prisoners in Hull and nine in York Castle; and in this list appears “ The Olde Ladye Wharton, wydowe, of Healaugh, hability (means) 500 marks per annum, or thereabouts."* She was not brought before the Commissioners, but the Archbishop used strong persuasions to induce her to conform without effect. She was buried at Healaugh on February 3rd, 1584-5.

2.

THOMAS, THE SECOND LORD WHARTON, 1520-1572.

“The procedure of God, who disposes all things with gentleness, is to put religion into the mind by reasons, and into the heart by grace; but to try to put it into the mind and heart by violence and threats is not to put religion there but terror.”—PASCAL.

Thomas, the eldest son of Thomas, the first Lord Wharton, and Eleanor Stapleton, was born in 1520. He was 48 years of age when he came to the barony, and enjoyed the honour only four years. His early life was spent in the service of his father in border warfare. He was returned M.P. for Cumberland in 1545, and knighted the same year, made Sheriff of Cumberland, and acted as Deputy-Governor of Carlisle during his father's campaign in Scotland in 1547. With the progress of the Reformation under Edward VI. he had no sympathy, being a decided Roman Catholic.

He married Lady Anne, daughter of Robert Radcliffe, first Earl of Sussex, who bore him five children, viz.: (1) Philip, the third Baron, (2) Thomas, (3) Anne, who was married to William Woolrich, (4) Mary, and (5) Catherine.

Sir Thomas was chosen steward of the household of Princess Mary, and on her accession to the throne was sworn of the Privy Council. In 1554 he was returned M.P. for Hedon, Yorkshire, and the following year for Northumberland, and appointed Deputy-Warden for the east and west marches. When his first son was born, in 1555, he was named Philip, after his godfather, Philip II. of Spain (whom the Queen, herself half a

“Chapters of Yorkshire History,” by Cartwright, 1887, p. 149.

Spaniard, had married the year before), the deadly enemy of Protestant England, and the projector of the “Invincible Armada" for its conquest. It was the year in which the fires of Smithfield were kindled for the burning of heretics who would not submit to the authority of the Pope, or accept the dogmas of “the Church," but took the Bible as their "rule of faith, worship and manners." In this and the three following years 400 Protestant martyrs perished in England. Whatever may have been thought by the Whartons of the Marian persecution, Sir Thomas was rewarded by the Queen for his devotion to her interests with the grant of Newhall in Boreham, and other manors in Essex, He was a member of the Great Council of the North, and one of the witnesses of Mary's will (March 30th, 1558).

When Elizabeth became Queen, Sir Thomas was excluded from Parliament and the Privy Council. He was also committed to the Tower for having Mass celebrated at Newhall; and while in prison he lost his wife (June 7th, 1561), over whom, it is recorded, “great moan was made in the country." But, on his petition to the Queen begging for pardon, and stating that he had been ill and left with a large household, which grew disorderly and spoiled his goods for want of government, he was released and afterwards placed in some positions of trust.

The year after he succeeded his father in the barony a rebellion broke out in the North (1569), headed by the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland. Their aim was to restore the Roman Catholic religion, release Mary Queen of Scots (then in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury), and place her on the throne. Coming to Durham, the rebels burnt all the English Bibles and Common Prayer-Books, and openly said Mass. · At first Lord Wharton appears to have hesitated whether to join or oppose the rebellion; but afterwards decided to remain loyal to the Queen. When urged to send help for its suppression, he wrote (November 24th)

to the Earl of Sussex that his tenants in Westmorland were destitute of horses and arms; that he was not able to make twenty able horsemen; was environed with malicious enemies bent to do him great displeasure ; and had no more than his household servants. Lord Scrope, who led the force for suppressing the rebellion, marched from Carlisle to Wharton Hall (December 17th), but hurried away in pursuit of the rebel lords. And when Wharton was actually setting out against them he had a dangerous fall from a horse, and thus gained neither the honour nor the obloquy of doing anything on behalf of the Protestant cause. In 1571 he sat in the House of Lords, and the year following died at his house in Canon Row, Westminster (June 14th, 1572), and was buried in the Abbey.

In that year took place the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, when ten thousand Huguenots were put to death in Paris, besides tens of thousands in the provinces, the Te Deum being afterwards sung at Rome by order of the Pope for the destruction of Christ's enemies, and a medal struck in commemoration thereof.

3.

PHILIP, THE THIRD LORD WHARTON, 1555–1625.
“We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths;

In feelings, not in figures on a dial.
We should count time by heart-throbs. He most lives
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best."

PHILIP J. BAILEY. Philip, the eldest son of Thomas, the second Lord Wharton, and Lady Anne, was born on June 23rd, 1555. The reason of his being called Philip has been already noticed. At the death of his father he was at the University of Cambridge. On June 20th, 1572, George, sixth Earl of Shrewsbury (brother of Lady Wharton of Healaugh), wrote from Sheffield: “I have just heard of Lord Wharton's death, and that the Earl of Sussex has the wardship of his son. His house and lands are near me, and my wife has a daughter of his years whom I mind to prefer in marriage. If his lordship will part with the young gentleman, I will give as much as another in marriage. Pray be a means between us to obtain this request, which my wife and I earnestly desire.” But the proposed match came to nothing

After attaining his majority he took his place in the House of Lords and attended its sittings for upwards of forty years, but took no part in its debates, nor was he in any way distinguished for his shining qualities or public services. He married at St. Mary Overy, Southwark, June 25th, 1577, Frances, eldest daughter of Henry Clifford, second Earl of Cumberland, who left her by his will 2,000 marks “ if she marrie a baron or a baron's son.” She brought him two sons—(1) George and (2) Thomas—and three daughters—(3) Margaret, (4) Eleanor, and (5) Frances. In the year of his marriage his name appears among the adventurers in the Cathay voyage (i.e. a ship going to China), each share being £25, which may be regarded as an indication of his being disposed to speculation and indulgence in reckless expenditure, which subsequently brought him into pecuniary difficulties.

He was made J.P. for Cumberland (1578) and several other counties; resided mostly at Canon Row, Westminster, and, after the death of his mother-in-law, occasionally at Healaugh. He often visited Skipton Castle, the seat of the Cliffords, and was sponsor at the baptism of the famous Anne, Countess of Pembroke, February 20th, 1590.

After the death of Lady Wharton in 1592 he married (1597) Dame Dorothy Colby, late wife of Sir Francis Willoughby (and previously wife of John Tamworth, squire of the body to Queen Elizabeth), on whom he made a settlement of £ 1,000 per annum out of Sinningthwaite and other lands, with entail to his elder son George, and remainder to his younger son Thomas.

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