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“It is painful to relate," says Mr. Wharton, “that in the same year she gave Lord Chancellor Bacon £310 to decide in her favour a suit respecting her second husband's estate." His marriage with Dame Dorothy did not turn out happily, and in 1602 she wrote bitterly complaining of the treatment she received at his hands. Although little concerned about the religious controversies of his time his name appears on a Special Commission for suppressing Schism in the province of York, November 24th, 1599. This Commission was a very comprehensive one, intended to enforce the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity and subsequent Acts, and authorised to inquire concerning persons who absented themselves from the Anglican Church and held private conventicles, and to punish offences against the Articles and doctrine of the Sacraments in the Book of Common Prayer (Rymer's “Fodera”). It was directed not only against Roman Catholics but also against Puritans and Separatists, great numbers of whom suffered severely during the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Lord Wharton was not a good manager of his inheritance, and failed to live within his income, which, nevertheless, amounted in 1605 to £2,107 vs. 4 d. a year (equivalent to over £8,000 at the present time). Of this amount the Wharton demesnes raised, beside feeding two hundred deer, £, 100; Ravenstonedale Park and lord's ground there, &c., £ 100; and the rectory and vicarage of Ravenstonedale, £ 116 135. 4d. The yearly allowance made to Sir George, his elder son, was £ 302 7s. 5d., and to Sir Thomas, his younger son, £ 100. Of these two sons some account must here be given.
(1) Sir George was born at Brougham Castle, one of the seats of the Cliffords, in 1583 ; educated at Wharton Hall, admitted fellow commoner at Caius College, Cambridge, at the age of 12, and knighted at the coronation of James I., July 27th, 1603. He was a young man of quick temper and reckless speech, always ready to quarrel even with his friends; and was killed in a duel with Sir James Stuart, son of Lord Blantyre, who was a gallant youth, a great favourite of James I., his godfather, and had come up from Scotland with hopes of high promotion. An account of the occurrence is given in a letter from Thomas Scriven to the Earl of Rutland :
"1609, Nov. 11. On Thursday last, in the afternoone, here fell a very ill accident. Sir George Wharton and Sir James Steward (the same that married Lady Dorothie Hastings) rode into the fieldes at Islington; there fought with rapier and dagger, and bothe are slayne deade at the ynstant. The quarrel happened the night before at cardes in Whitehall in the Erle of Essex's chambers and upon a very light occasion. They are both buried privately by the King's commandment in the Church at Islington and in one grave together' (10 November, 1609]. MSS. Commission; Duke of Rutland, Vol. 1., p. 419. He died greatly indebted to divers persons, which doubtless added to the monetary difficulties of his father.
(2) Sir Thomas, who thus became heir to the Wharton title and estates, was a young man of a different character. He was born at Wharton Hall in 1587, educated at Well (four miles from Bedale), admitted to Caius College, Cambridge, April 28th, 1602, graduated M.A. 1607, incorporated M.A. of Oxford, and knighted at Whitehall, April 25th, 1611. In the same year he married Philadelphia, only daughter of Sir Robert Carey, afterwards Earl of Monmouth,* and Elizabeth Trevanion, who is said to have been “as sweet a woman as her daughter.” He purchased for £7,200 the reversion of the Manor of Aske, near Richmond, on the death of Eleanor Bowes, “widow of worthy Sir Robert Bowes, of Aske, the Treasurer of Berwick, and Ambassador of Scotland the most part of twenty-one years," and conveyed the same, December 13th, 1611, to Sir Robert Carey, William Wobridge, and Humphrey Wharton, "for the use of himself and his wife
Sir Robert Carey was grandson of Mary
Boleyn, sister of Anne Boleyn, mother of Queen Elizabetň. He was the first to announce the death of Queen Elizabeth to James I., who said: “I will be a good master to you, and will requite this service with honour and reward," and created him (1622) Baron Carey of Leppington, Yorks, and Earl of Monmouth. The title became extinct on the death of the second Earl in 1661.
Philadelphia for life, and of their heirs male.” Philadelphia brought him two sons, viz. (1) Philip, the fourth Lord Wharton, and (2) Thomas, of whom further mention will be presently made.
Lady Eleanor Bowes was grand-daughter of the first Lord Wharton; she survived her husband twenty-five years, and, as recorded in her epitaph in Easby Church, “departed this life in the holie profession of God's truth in the 77th year of her age 25 day of July A.D. 1623." At Aske Hall (now the seat of the Earl of Zetland), Sir Thomas Wharton also resided from the time of his marriage until his death. The household was distinguished by its fervent attachment to the doctrines of the Reformation and its practice of personal piety. Marjory, alias Joan, sister of Sir Robert Bowes, was the wife of the celebrated Scottish reformer, John Knox, who was at one time minister at Newcastle.
When James I. was on his way to Scotland in 1617, he travelled by way of York and Ripon to Bishop Auckland, staying one night (April 16th, 17th) at Aske Hall. On his return he journeyed by way of Brougham Castle and Appleby, and stayed a night at Wharton Hall (August 8th, 9th); and here he was royally entertained, the great banqueting-hall (now unroofed and desolate) resounding with the hilarious mirth of the “British Solomon” and his company, including William Laud, the future Archbishop of Canterbury.
But the visit of James I. was an expensive honour for Lord Wharton. The year following his debts amounted to £16,713 ; and Humphrey Wharton, “ being the only man whom he could trust,” had the management of his estates, in order to the payment of these debts and certain annuities. After the death of his wife, Dame Dorothy (1621), and his son Sir Thomas (1622), he made a settlement by which his lands were entailed
* "He began his journey with the Spring, warming the country as he went with the glories of the Court, taking such recreation by the way as might best beguile the days and cut them shorter and lengthen the nights (contrary to the seasons), for what with hawking, hunting, and horse-racing, the days quickly ran away, and the nights with feasting, masquing, and dancing were the more extended.”—Nicholls, “ The Progresses of James I.,” Vol. III., p. 255.
on Philip (afterwards fourth Lord Wharton) for life; and in the following year he conveyed his estates to Sir Timothy Hutton, of Marske, near Richmond, Sir Talbot Bowes, and others, providing among other things for the payment after his death of £200 to his grandson Thomas (younger brother of the fourth Lord Wharton), and £20 for life to his nephew Philip Woolrich. In 1623 he was dispensed from attendance in Parliament on account of his advancing age and weakly condition, and he died March 25th, 1625, two days before the death of King James. His remains were interred with those of his grandfather, the first Lord Wharton, in Healaugh Church ; but there “no marble marks his memory.”
PHILIP, THE FOURTH LORD WHARTON, 1613–1696.
“Our Puritan Reformers were, as all Reformers that will very much benefit the earth are, always inspired by a Heavenly purpose to see God's own Law, then universally acknowledged for complete as it stood in the holy written Book, made good in this world ; to see this, or the true unwearied struggle towards this, it was a thing worth living for and dying for.”—CARLYLE.
Philip, often called “the good Lord Wharton," was the elder son of Sir Thomas Wharton, of Aske, and the “noble and virtuous” Philadelphia Carey, and came to the barony on the death of his grandfather, the old Lord Philip (1625). He was a Puritan, and a Parliamentarian in the conflict with Charles I., and lived to a good old age. But as an extended account of his life is furnished in subsequent pages, it is only necessary here, in order to preserve the continuity of this family history, to notice further his father, his younger brother, and his own household. HIS FATHER, SIR THOMAS WHARTON, OF ASKE,
1587-1622. In addition to what has been already stated concerning Sir Thomas Wharton, of Aske, it should be mentioned that he was M.P. for Westmorland in 1614 and 1621; one of the Commissioners for inquiring concerning malefactors on the borders, and an additional Commissioner for hearing causes before the great Council of the North.
He was the first of the family who exhibited any strong sympathy with the principles and sentiments of the Puritans. The men who were commonly designated by this name were distinguished for their zeal for Protestant or Calvinistic doctrine, their moral and religious earnestness, and their opposition to the introduction in Divine worship of rites and ceremonies not enjoined in the Scriptures. The reformation in the National Church had, in their view, stopped short of attaining its natural and proper result. Although James I. had declared of the Reformed or Presbyterian Church of Scotland that it was “the sincerest (purest) kirk in the world,” yet when he crossed the border his maxim became “No Bishop, no King"; and in council with the Lords (1604):
“He most bitterly inveighed against the Puritans, saying that his mother and he from their cradles had been haunted with a Puritan divell, which he feared would not leave him to his gravethat he would hazard his crown but he would suppress those malicious spirits. From the Puritans he proceeded to the Papists, protesting his utter detestation of their superstitious religion, and that he was so far from favouring it, as if he thought his son and heir after him would give any toleration thereunto, he would wish him fairly buried before his eyes.” *
For one thing James I. is entitled to lasting honour, viz. the encouragement he gave to a new translation of the Scriptures—"that inestimable treasure, which excelleth all the riches of the earth” (as the translators say)—which was undertaken at the request of the Puritans at the Hampton Court Conference, and published in 1611. This “Authorised Version” (for the distribution of which Lord Wharton long afterwards made provision in his Bible Charity) was founded upon Tyndale's New Testament (1525), Coverdale's Bible (1536), Matthew's Bible (1537), in which the labours of
* Peck's “Desiderata Curiosa," Vol. I., Lib. V., f. 44.