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nevertheless (as he confesses), subsequently fell into loose habits; but after a while returned to his former peace. He had a mechanical genius, applied himself to several arts, had a design for “the squelching of public fires," and kept several persons at work in divers places to raise things out of the sea. He invented (1676) what was about the first tolerably effective fire-engine; for which a patent was taken out by Messrs. Wharton and Strode.* In 1679 he was returned M.P. for East Grinstead, and supported in Parliament a Bill for the exclusion of the Duke of York (James II.) from the succession on account of the imminent danger of Roman Catholic supremacy, which would be incurred. “ The Duke," he said, “has used his utmost endeavour to ruin this nation and to destroy us all. I do not think that you will choose a Prince that will not speak the truth."

About this time he came into contact with some persons who professed to converse with angels and the spirits of good men deceased, and became himself an advanced spiritualist. He is made acquainted with the Fairies, “who are a very religious people," and hold their court at Moorfields, having a king and queen. He sends a message to his “ own dear mother (1683), who had died twenty-five years before. He is visited by the angel Gabriel, who“comes and stays above two hours"; he is "made a prophet by the Lord and Gabriel"; St. Peter speaks to him; and he has a vision that he should “die a martyr.” In the midst of all these extraordinary revelations he regards usquebath (whisky) as a “sovereign remedy"! It is not an unreasonable conjecture that his hallucinations were due to its potent influence. He appears to have had no sense of morality in the relations of the sexes, yet he was in his way very religious; and the last entry in his diary, a few

Cornhill Magasine, September, 1895, p. 263.

months before his death, was: “Began to walk close with God.”

After the Revolution he was returned M.P. for Westmorland (1689), in the place of Col. Henry Wharton, and subsequently for Malmesbury. It is recorded (October, 1691) that "Mr. Wharton, brother of the Comptroller, has had fourteen large cast-iron cannon fished up in St. George's Channel, and presented them to the Queen. This novel find is a relic of Philip the Second's Spanish fleet, which he named the Invincible, which was wrecked over a century ago” (Hist. MSS. Commission). In 1697 William III. constituted him one of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. The following year he was struck with a fit of apoplexy; but he recovered sufficiently to become M.P. for Bucks. In 1703 he quitted his command as lieut-colonel in Lord Windsor's regiment, by reason of his indisposition; died October 31st, 1704, and was buried at Wooburn. By his will he left his property to his “dear son Hezekiah lawfully begotten,” to whom letters of administration were granted as “Hezekiah, se nominans Wharton, alias Knowles," and who was second lieutenant of the company of Grenadiers, Gibraltar, and died in 1711, aged 27.

(11) Philadelphia (1654), who died an infant.

(12) Philadelphia (1655), a third of the name (in commemoration of Lord Wharton's amiable mother who died in 1654); who married : 1, Sir George Lockhart, who was assassinated in Edinburgh (1689), and 2, Captain John Ramsay.

(13) Frances (1656), who died in infancy.

(14) Henry (1657-89), who entered the army, and freely indulged in all the pleasures of mirth and gallantry of his time, of which the following incident is an indication : “ 1679. Mr. Henry Wharton is forbid the Court for having run through one of Madam Gwyn's [Nell Gwyn) horses, who drove too near him."* He served in the English

• “Cavalier and Puritan,” by Lady Newdegate, 1901.

army in Ireland under Schombergh, when James II. sought to recover his throne by the aid of the Irish. He was, it is said, a brave bold man ; and when Tyrconnel was made Governor of Ireland, he assumed the habit of a player and sang before the King the famous party song of “Lilli burlero," written by his elder brother Thomas. He was at the siege of Carrickfergus, which was taken August 28th, 1689, and died in the camp before Dundalk, October 28th, of the pestilence that carried off half the army (a few months before the battle of the Boyne). It is recorded of him that “he did not leave behind him a better officer or truer Englishman; no man was so generally regretted.” His

body was afterwards sent to England for interment. () Lord Wharton's third wife, whom he married August 24th, 1661,* was Anne, daughter of William Carr, of Fernihurst, Roxburghshire, and widow of Edward Popham, who had been Admiral under Cromwell. She is described as “a lady adorned to the full with surpassing gifts of mind and body," and bore

him a son,

(15) William (1662-87), who after returning from his travels abroad was killed in a duel by Robert Wolseley (son of Sir Charles Wolseley). The quarrel, it is said, was a “poetical” one. “Mr. Wharton had the better in the action with respect to the honour of it, but somehow or other he received a wound in his thigh, of which he died three or four days after in St. Giles' Parish, Westminster, December 14th, 1687. Failing to answer an indictment for murder, Mr. Wolseley was

* Mr. Goodwin's certificate of the marriage is endorsed “Littlecoate" (Wilts), the seat of the Pophams, where Sir Francis Popham, one of Cromwell's lords, died in 1669; his son, the Admiral, died of a fever, at Dover, in 1651, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, leaving his widow, Anne, with one son, Alexander, and one daughter, Letitia. Alexander was deaf and dumb, but of remarkable intelligence, and taught to speak, and when of age married Brilliana, a daughter of Sir Edward Harley, and halfsister of Robert Harley (first Earl of Oxford) and Edward Harley, but the marriage was not a happy one.

outlawed, but was afterwards pardoned." There is
an inscription in the church at Wooburn as follows:
“Near this marble lie the bones of William, only
son of Baron Philip Wharton and the aforesaid
Anne, most dear to both his parents, from whose
embrace after travelling abroad he was torn by a
premature and violent death.” The loss of her
darling son, on whom “she doted to excess," caused
his mother “a tedious, long grief and trouble of

mind” that brought her to her grave in 1692. Referring to Lord Wharton before the loss of his two sons, William and Henry, the author of the Memoirs of the Marquis remarks: “There could not be a more affecting sight than this old lord, attended by his four sons, the most comely, the most brave, and the most gallant men of their time, who were at the same time the most obedient and dutiful in their demeanour before him, though a little too apt to give way to their pleasures when they were not in his presence,

We must now leave for a little “the good Lord Wharton," and give some account of his son, the Marquis, and his grandson, the Duke, of whom it has been remarked: “Their public history is well known, and the private history of their struggles with the influences of a Puritan education might, if attainable, read some instructive lessons.”—HUNTER.




MARQUIS, 1648—1715. “His name will be ever endeared to the friends of liberty, and to all who have a true concern for the Protestant interest."-RAPIN.

Thomas, the eldest surviving son of Philip, fourth Lord Wharton, and Jane Goodwin, was born in

* “Memoirs of the Life of the Most Noble Thomas, late Marquess of Wharton,” London, 1715.


August, 1648, the year in which the Parliamentary Army asserted supreme control in the nation, and brought Charles I. to his trial and execution. In 1662, when, by the Restoration of Charles II. and the passing of the Act of Uniformity, the Puritan character of the English Universities was entirely changed, and Nonconformists were prohibited from teaching any public or private school, Thomas and his brother Goodwin were placed by their father under the care of Theophilus Gale, M.A., an Independent minister (ejected from his place as preacher at Winchester Cathedral and deprived of his fellowship at Magdalen College, Oxford), the learned author of The Court of the Gentiles, who went with them to Caen, in Normandy, where there were at that time several notable professors of the Reformed Faith.

The pass granted by the King (August 4th)

“for Thomas, Goodwin, Henry, Mary, and Philadelphia Wharton to repair into France, there to remain for some time for the bettering and improving of their health and experience in languages, and for their accommodation abroad to take with them Mons. de Febre, Theophilus Gayle, John Perkins, and two maid servants to attend them.” Mr. Gale had, as their tutor, an allowance of £40 a year, besides his diet and travelling expenses. He wrote to Lord Wharton concerning his eldest son Thomas :

“I find his capacity to be quickly apprehensive, fit to take in the more noble parts of humane literature, which I am about to engage him in... I find them both [Thomas and Goodwin), though a little intent upon their sports, as all youthful active spirits are, yet very tractable and willing to conform to my desires and directions."

In writing to his sister Mary, after her return, Thomas says:

“You could not have sent me better news than that Mr. Gale has not complained of me to my father, and that my father is not angry with me, for I assure you that there is nothing I fear more than my father's anger."

On removing from Caen in October, 1664, Gale left the two youths in charge of Mr. Abraham Clifford, and

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