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corps then under his command; and also whilft a trial of the said Colin Campbell was depending before a general Court-martial, by discouraging his friends, intimidating his witnesses, and depriving him of the lawful means of defence, as well as by suppressing the proceedings of the faid general Court-martial from the Earl of Albemarle, Leutenant-General of his Majesty's forces, (who is alleged, by the faid Colin Campbell, to have had at that time cognizance of the sentences of Couris. martial held in the said island of Martinique) under a pretence of the faid proceedings being transmitted to Great Britain, when in truth they were itill in his own cuftody: and furthermore, by a cruel confinement of the faid Colin Campbell, who was then ill, in a noisome and unhealthy prison, even though it was at that time known to the said Major Gené. sal Monckton, that the sentence against the said Colin Campbell was not capital.'

How this charge was supported by the Complainant, in the course of the trial, will fully appear from the judgment expressed by the Court, on this occasion :

· The Court is of opinion, that the charge and complaint of Colin Campbell, Esq; against Major General Robert Monckton, is altogether unsupported by evidence, and in some points expressly contradicted by the Complainant's own Witnesses: and doth therefore moit honourably acquit the said Major General Monckton of the fame and every part thereof. And the Court is farther of opinion, that the said charge and complaint is groundless, malicious, and Icandalous in the highest degree, and tending not only to injure the said Major General Monckton in his character, but to hurt the service in general, as it muft greatly affect every Officer, who may have the honour of commanding a body of his Majesty's troops, when he reflects that his character and reputation are diable to be thus publicly attacked by a person who has been dismissed his Majesty's service with ignominy.

• It is likewise the opinion of this Court, that the Complainant Colin Campbell, Esq; has, by many falsities, imposed upon his Majesty's Sccretary at War, in order to obiain a Court martial.'

See Review, Vol. XXVIII. page 495. Art. 10. A Treatise on Hemp. In two Parts. Containing, 1. Its

Hiftory, with the Preparations and Uses made of it by the Antients. 2. The Methods of cultivating, dressing, manufacturing it, as improved by the Experience of modern Times. Translated from the French of M. Marcandier, Magistrate of Bourges, 8vo. Is. 6d. Becket.

This sensible treatise contains several particulars to gratify the curiofity of the learned Reader, and many remarks and observations that may be useful to the Merchant and the Manufacturer.

NOVEL s. Art. 11. Cleanthes and Semanthe. A dramatic History. By the Author of Leonora.

I 2mo.

2 Vols. 6s. Davies. As this is the production of a female pen, and the Author hath profeffedly taken leave of the public, we shall not trouble our Readers witła

any critical reflections on this performance; which we should otherwise have judged so far above the common run of novels, as to merit fome animadversions, by which the Writer might have profited in any future work.

Art. 12. Oriental Anecdotes ; or the History of Haroun Alrachid.

I 2mo. 2 Vols. 6s. Nicol. Haroun Alrachid, to whom these anecdotes are faid to relate, lived about the time of Charlemagne, who governed in the West, whilft Alrachid and the Empress Irene gave laws to the East. The Writer bath not, indeed, introduced the enchantments and genii of the Arabian Tales, but hath made no scruple of adopting relations equally abfurd and unnatural. There is fome degree of originality, however, in this production, which diftinguishes it from the vulgar trash of modern eaft. ern romances. It appears to have been written originally in French, by a Lady, whose own hilory is something fingular. Madam de Faugués de la Cepedes, we are told, was born at Avignon, where in her early years, the was forced, by a cruel parent, into a convent: bal on the death of this unnatural relation, she had the courage to appeal to the Court of Rome against the violence which had been done her, and obtained so authentic a sentence in her favour, that her vows were aonulled, and the procured her liberty, with a due share of fortone from her Coheirs. She is said to have become soon afterwards acquainted with the young Chevalier, by whom she had a fon lately dead. On her coming over to England, in order to avoid fome difagreeable circumftances attending her situation in France, the entered into very intimate con. rections with Mr. Celesia, late Minister from Genoa, of whose subfequent marriage with an English Lady, she complained, as an ađ of injoftice to her. Of her literary character, we are told, that the King of Prullia himself, in the midit of all the occupations of a war, in which he was making head fingly against an union of the greatest powers in Europe, Touchsafed to express, by letter to her, his sense of her merit;" that 'the astonished the Braux esprits on her firft appearance in Paris ;' and that .M. Fontenelle, and many other great Judges, admired her genius.'

On the fuppofition, however, that these refpe&able fuffrages were not merely complimentary, Madam Cepedes must certainly have appeared to greater advantage in her conversation and other writings, than she does in the hiftory of Haroun Alrachid.

S E R M O N S. 1. THE Divine Glories diflaved in Babes and Sucklings,--at Haberdathers Hall, June roth, on the death of Nathanial Gibbons, who departed this life in the eleventh year of his age. By Thomas Gibbons, A. M. Buckland, &c.

2. The Operations of the Holy Glot considered,-before the Archbishop of York, at his primary visitation, hela at New-Maltoo, June 25, 1764. By Richard Conyers, M.'A. Rector of Kirby-Misperton, Vicar of Helmsley, and Chaplain to the Bishop of London. Dilly.

3. The Usefulness and Arule of Philosophy in Matters of Religion,-at the visitation of the Bishop of Glocefter, at Stroud Water, May 30, 1764. By John White, D. D. laze Fellow of All Souls, Oxford Rivington.

THE

MONTHLY REVIEW,

For SEPTEMBER, 1764.

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The Song of Solomon, newly translated from the Original Hebrew.

With a Commentary and Annotations 12mo. 2s. Dodfley.
T is with all the becoming modefty, ever attendant on real

merit, that our ingenious Translator and Scholiaft presents this performance.to the learned, as an attempt to rescue one of the most ancient and beautiful paftorals in the world, from the obscurity and confusion in which it has been involved, by the injudicious practice of former Commentators. The generality of these, says he, have been so busily employed in opening and unfolding its allegorical meaning, as wholly to neglect that literal senle, which ought to be the basis of their discoveries. For, as he very justly observes, if a sacred allegory may be defined, as a figurative discourse, which, under a lower and more obvious meaning, delivers the most sublime and important truths, it is the first duty of an Expositor, to ascertain that lower and more obvious meaning: it being impoffible, till this be done, to discover what other truths are couched under it. Without this, continues he, all is vague and idle conjecture. It is erect. ing an edifice without a foundation, which, however fair and goodly to the view, will be blown down by the flightest breath of true criticism. The first principles of figurative composition require, that the metaphorical sense and the proper, the allegory and its literal meaning, the apologue and its moral, the parable and its spiritual application, should be clearly distinguished from each other. To jumble and confound them, is contrary to the rules of all good writing, and, indeed, of common sense. Yet this, our Translator remarks, has been the great fault of almost all the Expositors of Solomon's Song : even the beít of them, Bishop Patrick, making no regular distinction between the two VOL. XXXI.

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senses;

senses; but explaining one verse in the literal meaning, and devoting the next to allegorical conjecture.

To prevent this confufion, and to establish and illustrate the literal sense, is professedly the sole design of this undertaking*.

It is of very little consequence, the Translator thinks, to enquire how far the incidents of this poem are founded on fact; whether it be considered as a fimple pastoral, or a sublime allegory: as the same poetic beauties may be displayed, and the iame allegorical truths may be delivered, whether the circumstances of the narrative be real or feigned. From its many personal and local particularities, he is apt to be of opinion, however, chat this song describes a real marriage, and that Solomon once celebrated his nuptials in the pastoral manner therein described. Agreeable to this supposition, he divides the poem into seven dramatic eclogues, descriptive of the seven days of the nuptial solemnity among the ancient Jews; adopting, with some variation, the plan of the celebrated Bishop of Meaux, as described by Dr. Lowth.

In support of the propriety of this scheme he observes,

• It is well known, that among the Hebrews, from the earliest times, the nuptial feast continued seven days. This appears from the words of Laban to Jacob, when he had obtruded Leah

upon him instead of Rachel. Fulfill her week, i. e. compleat the seven days of the nuptial folemnity with Leah ; and (then) we will give thee this (Rachel) also ;. for the fervice which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years. Gen. xxix. 27. It appears allo' from the marriage of Sampson, that the nuptial feast lasted seven days. Judg. xiv. 15, 17: and even from the marriage of Tobias with Sarah.-Raguel the bride's father insisted, that the marriage-feast should be solemnized at least fourteen days, that is, double the usual time, because he had given his daughter and son-in-law up for loft. See Tob. viii. 19, 20. This rule is to this day observed among the Jews, and is deemed so esential, that their Rabbies say, if a man were to marry several wives at once, he ought to observe a nuptial week of festivity with every one of them t.

During these seven days of feasting, the Bridegroom was attended by a select nuinber of Companions, who paft the

Not that the Translacor is of opinion, with the learned Professor Michaelis and others, that this poem hath no allegorical meaning. On the contrary, he seems to entertain the notions generally received on that head, supported with fo much plausibility in Dr. Lowth's Prælectiones, + • Calmet. pref. sur les Cantig. Seld. uxor. Heb. I. ii, c. 11.

whole

whole time with him, and are styled in the New Testament the Friends of the Bridegroom, John iii. 29; and the Children of the Bridechamber; Mat. ix. 15. Sampson had no fewer than thirty at his wedding. Judges xiv. 11. but whether that was the stated number does not appear. On the other hand, a select number of Virgins accompanied the Bride; these are called in the book of Psalms the Virgins her Companions, Pf. xlv. 14. and are in the Gospel said to be Ten in number: whose business it was to go forth and meet the Bridegroom, Mat. xxv. 1, &c. In the company of these the week of marriage was spent, no doubt, in every kind of diversion that was not forbidden by the law* : and from the following poem it should seem, that every one of the seven days was anciently appropriated to some ceremony that entered into a confirmation of the marriage contract. At prefent the Jews compleat all the nuptial rites on the evening of the marriage, and devote the seven days, following to festivity. and mirth only.

< The several Writers who have treated of the marriage ceremonies of the Jews, vary in their accounts from each other, and expressly tell us, that different usages have prevailed in different times and places ti for zealously as the Jews are attached to their ancient customs, they have admitted considerable changes in this respect, as well as other nations. A striking difference may be observed between the marriage rites occafionally mentioned in the Gospel, and those observed by the Jews at presents: and doubtless in the time of Solomon, and in the ages preceding the great captivity, they were still more remote froin the modern usage. This ought to be considered by those who are ditappointed in not finding in this poem all the marriage ceremonies described, as they are at present laid down in the Jewith Ritual.

< In an excellent little treatise, intitled, The present State of the Jews, by L. Addison, D. D. we learn how marriages are solemnized among the Jews of Barbary. After the marriagecontract is made between the Bridegroom and the relations of the Bride, she is carefully bathed for several days; and this with a peculiar attention on the eve before the marriage: after which

• Even the intervention of the Sabbath did not interrupt the nuptial, feitivities. See Calmet and Selden, ubi fupra. + • Seld. Uxor. Heb. L. ii. c. 16. et pallim.

"To infance only in one circumstance; in the time of our Saviour, the Bride was attended with Ten Virgins, who went out with lamps to meet the Bridegroom: at present I find mention but of Two, and these ft on each side the Eride, when the Bridegroom makes his entrance. This at lealt is the chance the Jews of Barbary.

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