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others, and those che ableft and most judicious critics, ascribe tha invention to Hugo de Sancto Claro, a Dominican monk, best known by the name of cardinal Hugo, who wrote about the year 1240, and died in 1262. This celebrated monk was the first who made a concordance of the vulgar Larin Bible. In doing this, he found it necessary in the first place to divide the books into fections, and these sections into under-divisions, that he might make his references with greater ease; and point out in the Index with greater exactness, where every word or passage might be found in the text, which till then was extremely ditficult, if not impossible. These sections are the chapters into which ihe Bible haib ever since been divided. But as to the underdivisions of these fections, or chapters, Hugo's way of making them was by the letters A, B, C, D, &c. placed in the margin, at equal diftance from each other, according as the chapters were shorter or longer; which method was imitated by our first English translators of the Bible.
Robert Stephens, the learned and famous French printer, taking the hint from Hugo, subdivided his under-divisions, and instead of letters, placed numeral figures in the margin of a Greek Testament, which he printed 1551 ; and afterwards in an edition of the vulgar Latin Bible, which Conrad Bodius printed for him four years after.—But now, whereas Stephens had only put numeral figures in the margin, the Editors of an English N. Teftament about this time, printed the several little subdivisions with breaks, and placed the number at the begining of every one of them. * Thus was the present state of our English Bibles fixed above two hundred years ago ; since which time, it hath not received any improvement whatever, from public authority.
We shall conclude these strictures, with the judgment of the learned Ifaac Casaubon, who said, he did not entirely disapprove the present method; yet did not doubt but there might be another far more convenient, if some great divine would undertake the work. + Which brings us to our proper business of representing to the public, what Mr. Wynne hath done in the Edition before us.
It is proper that his design be given in his own words. "The Gospels and Acts of the Apostles are here divided into fections and paragraphs, according to the various transactions related by the Evangelists ; and the epistles agreeably to the subjects they treat of, without destroying the connection, or huddling to. gether a variety of matter : in both I have followed Bengelius's
• Lewis's Hift. of trans. of Bible. + Notæ in Nov. Teft.
method, after having compared it with the Alexandrine Manuscript. As to punctuation, I have been careful in correcting it, not only in the yulgar translation, but also in the original, as appears by the notes.
The Text is something different from the vulgar translation, which at first I designed to copy verbatim ; but on comparing that version carefully with the original (though it is a good translation upon the whole) I thought it requisite to deviate from it sometimes, and frequently to alter the language. For some of the words and phrases, familiar to our ancestors, are now grown so obsolete, as not to be intelligible to the generality of our readers : others are too mean, equivocal, or inadequate to the original, which is perhaps owing to the Auctuating state of our language; and some passages are not so exa&ly rendered by our translators, as a work of that kind required. In all these cases, I made no scruple of differing from our public translation, endeavouring at the same time to steer in a juft medium between
fervile literal translation, and a paraphrastic loose version ; between low, obsolete, and abscure language, and a modern enervated style. How far I have fucceeded, the impartial public mult determine.
As for the Notes, they are partly selected from the best eritics and commentators, and partly occurred to me by a care. ful perufal of the original; but I have only inserted the substance of the former, without troubling the reader with the names of the Authors, or distinguishing them from the latter : this would have been of no service to the unlearned ; and the learnéd will be at no loss to distinguish the one from the other. However, it would be unjust in me not to mention the learned and pious Dr. Doddridge, whose Family Expositor has furnished me with many excellent notes and illustrations of obscure pas. fages in the N. Testament."
We look upon every attempt to improve and render perfect the translation of the New Testament, to be of so much importance to the progress of true religion, and to the honour of genuinc Christianity, that we are disposed to receive every work of this kind with the greatest candour : and it is with peculiar satisfaction and pleasure (as we have had occasion, more than once to obferve) that we fee so many of our clergy directing their studies and attention this way, being (with our Author) fully persuaded,
that if these facred books are but read and understood, they cannot fail of convincing every sincere inquirer of their divine authority, and making him a true christian.'
Mr Wynne seems to have made his divisions into chapters and sections, with a good deal of attention and judgment.
There There is indeed no difficulty in doing this in the historical books, as every person 'must at first sight see, where one narrative begins and another ends. But this is not so easy in the reasoning part of the Epiftles, where the different topics are more concealed, and sometimes run into one another. It is possible some of his divifions here may be disputed in point of propriety, though in general we think thetn well done.
As to the trandation, and many of the notes, they are so much taken from the Family Expositor of the late Reverend Dr. Doddridge, that the duty we owe the public obliges us to say, they are more the property of that learned Critic, than of our Editor. Whoever will be at the pains of comparing them together will readily join us in acknowledging the resemblance of the one to the other; we had almost said the sameness.
The Doctor's method was, in the course of his Exposition and Paraphrafe, to interweave his own verfion of the sacred Text, distinguishing it by Italic Characters : this work hacha long been in the hands of the public, its character and merit are well known; and therefore as our Editor has followed it so closely, and introduced very few variations from it of any importance, it cannot be necessary to enter into a particular exainination of it.
If Mr W. had given us an edition of Dr. Doddridge's Verfion, with the best of his learned notes and criticisms, he would have done an useful service, and what hath often been wished for. He would then have been intitled to the thanks of the public; but we do not think it easy to justify him in the use he hath here made of that version : nor will the mention he hath made of the Doctor's name in the Preface, respectful as it is, give him a fair right to it,
The History of Religion : particularly of the principal Denominations:
of Christians, vize of the Church of Rome, England, Scotland Nonjurors, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists in general, Quakers, Antinomians, Moravians, and Methodists in general. Containing a succinct and genuine Account of their original and present Constitution, Discipline, Doctrines, IVorsisip, and Ceremonies : with a general Account of the various Sectaries of less note, since the first establishment of Christianity. Including a General History of the Reformation, and so much of Civil and Ecclesiasical History as is connected with, or necessary to explain and illustrate the Work. To which is added, a Dictionary of the
principal Religious Orders, Offices, Days, Rites, Customs, Habits, and Characters; the most important Tranfactions of EccleD: 4
fiaftical Councils, Synods, &c. explaining all such ambiguous Words and Phrafes, as have a proper Conne£tion with the Subjects of tbis
Hisary. By an Impartial Hand. 8vo. 4 vols. il. 4 s. Henderson, Nicoll, &c.
O draw a juft and striking picture of the principal denomi
nations of Christians, from the beginning of the Christian Æra to the present time, to mark the peculiar and distinguishing features of each, and to exhibit them in their proper colours and attitudes, would be a work equally instructive and entertaining. A writer, properly qualified for fuch an undertaking, would throw new light upon the history of the human mind, and do eminent service to the cause of truth, virtue, and religion. He would pay distinguished honours to those great and illustrious characters, who in perilous times have nobly dared to vindicate the sacred and unalienable rights of conscience and private judgment; who at the hazard of their lives and fortunes have stood up for the honour of God, and the good of mankind, and who have given the most satisfactory evidence of the fincerity of their belief of Christianity, by exemplifying in their own lives those amiable virtues of benevolence, meekness, moderation, and humility, which it every where so powerfully recommends. He would paint in bold and glowing colours the bigotry and perlecuting zeal of haughty and imperious Churchmen, who have perverted the design of the most benevolent system of religion that ever appeared on Earth, and made it subservient to the horrid purposes of pride, avarice, cruelty, and unbounded ambition ; who have been warmly engaged in the service of the Devil, while they have been talking loudly of the glory of God; and who, to use the language of a very ingenious Writer, having got what ARCHIMEDES only wanted (viz. another world, on which he could fix his engines) have moved this world at thoir pleasure.
A Writer, duly qualificd for the task we have mentioned, would, we repeat it, expose in proper colours the insolent and domineering fpirit of priests, who ever have been, are still, and ever will be, the same. The clergy over all Europe, there is reason to think, indeed, are at present much more moderate than they have ever before been known to be; but, notwithftanding this, let not the friends of liberty and moderation trust too much to flattering appearances
We have lately, very Jately had, in our own country, a striking instance to prove, that a great deal of the old leaven is still left, and that appearances are often very deceitful. The cruel punishment, (for cruel it certainly was) infli&ed upon a poor, puny Infidel, a mere mite of Scepticism, for a palery scrap of infidelity, tho
low to be relished even by a Link-boy, or common Porter, known only to a few, and treated by all who read it with the contempt it deserved ; thews plainly that we ought ever to be upon our guard against prelatical encroachments, and priestly tyranny.
When a person of great spirit, and distinguished abilities, remonstrated warmly on this occasion to a late minister, it is well known to many of our Readers in what terms he expressed himself in regard to those worthy Dignitaries of our Church, who, his Lordship said, came to him foaming at the mouth, &c. The names of these heroes deserve to bę, and shall be, transmitted to posterity; their magnanimous conduct on this memorable occasion shall be treated with distinguished respect, but shall be reserved for a work of more importance than an article in a Review. In the mean time, who can help admiring their intrepidity! Nobly disdaining fo cheap a victory as that over such Pygmies as David Hume, &c. they greatly dared to attack the Gigantic P-as An-at! .
These reflections naturally occurred to us on reading An history, of religion ; and we fatter ourselves, that our Readers will nei ther think them impertinent nor unseasonable.
We now proceed to the work before us, the Author of which appears, in some respects, to be but moderately qualified for the task he has undertaken. He seems, indeed, to be a sincere friend to civil and religious liberty, to have read a great deal upon the subject, and to have taken a world of pains; but, after all, his work, we are obliged to say it in justice to our Readers, is a heavy, injudicious compilation. The motives, however, which he affigns for the prosecution of his plan, do him honour; one of them, he tells us, was to suppress bigotry, prejudice, and censoriousness, which are too apt to take pofleffion of narrow minds; and, in their place, to inculcate and improve that mutual love and charity, even for persons of differing opinions, which is so agreeable to the dignity and honour of men, and of Christians.
• I write for no party, says he, my aim is to recommend a free and impartial enquiry into the genuine principles of Christ. ianity, which is the just foundation of truth and virtue, liberty and charity
• That generally-received maxim, Rome was not built in a day, is as undoubtedly true with respect to the conftitution, doctrine dod ceremonies of the Romish Church, as of its external form and stately edifices ; for this reason I have judged a brief account of the principal revolutions and variations in the government, worship, &c. of that church for seventeen centuries, a proper preliminary to the history of its present state.