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found to have taken a certain wrong turn, to debar him the use of pen, ink, and paper; in order to prevent his exposing his own weakness, and communicating the like infirmity to others. What a number of fools have been converted into madraen! how many thousands of harmless, ignorant people have we seen blown up into Zealots, and set blazing by the epidemical ravings of one religious or political Enthufiaft! When it happens, indeed, (as is not uncommon) that these Apostles and Patriots are unable to read or write, the mischief they do to the community is limited, being confined to what they can propagace viva você within the circle of their acquaintance or more publicly from a joint-stool in the fields, or a tub in a garret. But when they are pretenders to literature, and are capable of dresfing up their nonsense in the garb of letters, the prefs affords them more extensive means of diffusing their folly, with the mischiefs at tending it.

We do not take upon us to say, at what time the friends of this Essayist, bad they been so authorized, should have laid him under the above-mentioned restraint. We cannot help think ing, however, that if this work made its appearance in Dublin, so long ago as the year 1759, as mentioned in the title, they should

have exerted themselves, for the credit of the Author and his family, as well as for the good of the public, to prevent its being re-printed at Oxford, in 1764.) i

We learn from the dedication, wbich appears to have been addressed to the Duke of Bedford, when Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, that our Author's name is Zachary Langton, probably an Irish Divine: and, though it may seem natural enough for a Clergyman of that country to enter into a defence of the Athanafian Creed, we have had a remarkable inftance of a learned Prelate of the church of Ireland, who diflented totis viribus against it. The Dedication, indeed, containing almost as many pages as the Ellay itself,, confifts almoft entirely of a defence of this Creed, and the Liturgy of the established Church ; plentis fully sprinkled with abuse of those who diffènt from its partis cularly the Orlagon * Gentry, as he calls the new, Congregation at Liverpooly His unbounded veneration for our molt excelleng Creeds, Articles, and Gommon Prayer, through all its Offices by law eftablished, may be gathered from the following note : as well as the very.charitable and christian-like manner in which he seems disposed to excite. che like veneration, or supply the want of it in others.

• The Testimony given by the King and Parliament' to the Common Prayer in the Act, which establisheth the use of very memorable, and sure hould never be forgotten by their fees From the form in which their church is built. 3


cessors, viz. that it was by the aid of the Holy Ghost with uniform agreement concluded and set forth, &c. May their fuc'cellors ever have the fame way of thinking and resolve to corroborate and invigorate those laws, which have been made to defend and secure it! that no persons whatsoever presume, under the highest penalties, to preach, declare, or (peak any tying in derogation, depraving, or delpiâng of the Caið book, or any thing therein contained, oc any part thereof. Ad for Unif. i Eliz.'

We should be glad to know, in what manner Mr. Zachrary Langton would have this clause of the Act of Uniformity corros borated and invigorated. Surely, surely he does not mean to revive the religious persecutions of the days of Mary and Elizabeth! Indeed, this avowed principle of intoleration, from a Protestant Clergyman, would be alarming, had not the Writer dropt some hints, of his not being really what he pretends; and that his opinion of the Romilh church is fullas favourable as that which he entertains of the church of England. Were not this the case, he would hardly juftify the practice of the latter by the example of the former, as he seems to do in the following words ; speaking of one of our prayers, which, he says, is accepted in a certain sense, - for this great and good reason, viz. because this very prayer is directed by the catholic as well as our own church, particularly and personally to the eternal Son of God himself. In this passage, the catholic church is distinguilhed from the church of England; whole Members, nevertheless, profess to believe in one catholic apostolic church. Our Author, however, 'appears to believe in two, and in this place to put them both on a footing. . It is true he does, in other places, rank popery with atheism, idolatry, and deism; so that it is of very little consequence what church hath the honour of fo incon Giftent a Member; whose notions of the Christian system, and reasonings about divine revelation, are, as chimerical and inconclusive, as those which he displays of his politics and philosophy. : His encomiums on the university of Oxford, on the famous Lord Ruffel, his Patron's ancestor, and on other diftinguished perfonages, are to the highest degree extravagant, not to say Sometimes bordering on blasphemy. Thus, speaking of the late, General Wolfe, he says, the Saviour of the world was his guide, not only to the gates of Death, but beyond them, even to the gates of Heaven and the throne of God.' In speaking of Oxford, he says, “When the most. RADIANT UNIVERSITY under the sun OF RIGHTEOUSNESS distinguished herself, as SHE really did in the reign of CHARLES THE MARTYR, for


her loyalty, for her superior love of country, true religion, and vir. tue.'' We could not forbear smiling allo, at a farther instance of our Author's sagacity, in his bestowing the title of Christian Hero, and the following eulogium on his present Majesty of, Prussia, viz. • That he honoureth the Son, even as he honoureth the Father.' The expression, indeed, being here a little equivocal, the encomium may not be thought altogether void of propriety, by those who have had an opportunity of learning the religious sentiments of his PnMy from his writings. A Sceptic may, with no great impropriety, be said to honour the Son as much as he honours the Father, tho'he should have too little veneration for the name of either.

The Dedicator’s compliment to Himself and Patron, at the latter end of his epistle, is also something curious, being entirely of a piece with the rest of his performance. I presume, my Lord, says he, for it is high time, to lay this little pacific book, so very well meant, aiming at domestic, religious, as well as civil peace, at your Grace's feet, being fully persuaded, that if it has the good fortune to meet with a favourable reception from your Grace, the true descendent of the great and good Lord Russel, that faft, that never-to-be forgotten friend to our most excellent Church and State, it will then rise from its bed of obscurity, and shine in the leitered, nay in the Christian, as your Grace's administration now doth in the political world, and answer likewise, in some measure, the fair-spirited intent of the vain Author,'

Vain Author! indeed! but we have done with thee; for, as to thy Essay, we find nothing in it but a farrago of stale and trite arguments, mest inconclusively strung together, in a manner altogether worthy of thy dedication, and as unworthy of critical animadverfion.

Philosophical Transactions, &c. Vol. LIII. Concluded. See

Reviews for September and October.

of the Sun.

Containing the Mathematical and Astronomical Papers. Art. 1. An Account of the Sun's Distance from the Earth; diduced from Mr. Short's Observations relating to the horizontal Parallax.

In a Letter from Péter Daval, Efq; V. P. of R. S. to James Barrow, Esq; V. P. of R.S. HIS Gentleman observes, that the mean horizontal pa

rallax of the sun, or the angle which the femidiameter of the earth subtends, when seen from that luninary, is 8”,65. Rev. Dec. 1764.




Also, that the mean semidiameter of the earth, according to the latest observations, is 3958 English miles. Then, as 8,65 to 360°, the whole periphery of a circle, so is the femidiameter of the earth = 3958, to the periphery of the orbit of the earth. round the fun, = 593,011, ,08 miles, the circumference of the orbit of the earth, the femidiameter of which is the earth's diftance from the sun. But the periphery of a circle to its semidia-, meter, is very nearly as 6,283185 to one. Consequently, 593,011,308 divided by 6,283185 = 94,380,685, will be the mean distance of the earth from the sun in English miles. Art. 2. Observatio Cometa, qui Mense Maio, 4. 1759, apparuit

faela Haga-Comit. à Pitro Gebry, J.V.D. Societatis Reg. Scientiar.

Socio, & Commercio Literar. cum Academ. Scientiar. Parisiensi &Reg. Societ. Gotting. juniło.

In this paper there are four observations on the comet which appeared in May 1759. On the 2d at nine in the evening, its longitude was igo 12' 24' m, and its latitude 28° 40' 5" louth, On the 3d, was 17° 11' 40" m, and its latitude 27° 20' 20" south. On the 6th, its longitude 12° 51' 7" m, lat. 22° 37' 24" south. And on the rith, 11° 59' 14" in, lat. 21° 1'44" south. A Delineation of the Transit of Venus expected in the Year 1769.

By Janies Ferguson. Mr. Ferguson has here given a very large projection of the expected transit of Venus on the 3d of June 1769, when AftroHomers will have a much better opportunity of determining the fun's parallax than they had in the last transit. It is well known, that the degree of accuracy to which the sun's parallax may be obtained from these transits, will, in a great measure, depend upon observations being made by able Artists at proper places : the best fituated for this tranfit, Mr. Ferguson observes, are Wardhuys in Norwegian Lapland, or any other place near the North Cape, and the isles of Solomon, that of Tuberon, St. Bernard, or the Fly iflands in the South Sea; because in these places the whole transit will be seen from the beginning to the end. At the saine time, the line of the visible transit in Lapland will be longer than that supposed to be seen from the earth's center; and the time of the planet's describing it, will be yet longer, on account of its apparent motion being flower by Lapland's moving the same way. But at the Solomon isles, the vie fible line of the transit will be shorter than that supposed to be feen from the center of the earth, and the time of Venus's deTcribing it will be still more shortened, on account of the apparent quickness of her motion, arising from its being in a con. trary direction to the motion of the Solomon islands.


The sun's parallax is in this projection supposed to be 8";s. But if the parallax be found to be either greater or less than that affumed by Mr. Ferguson, the difference of the visible durations of the tranfit will also be either greater or less. So that if these differences be well ascertained by observation, the sun's parallax will be found, and consequently his distance from the earth, and that of every other planet in the solar system, will be determined. The total ingress will happen at London, according to Mr. Ferguson's calculation, at 37 min. 30 sec. after seven in the evening. Art. 9. An Account of the Appulse of the Moon to the Planet Jupiter ; obferved at Chelsea. By Mr. Samuel Dunn.

. This Gentleman observes, that the alteration of the angles of position made by the cusps of the moon, and a planet to, which the moon makes a near appulse, will always enable those who are astronomically inclined, to determine from observation, the longitudes of places, by the naked eye, and a clock or watch set to apparent or equal time. And gives an instance of an observation of this kind made at Chelsea, on the 25th of December, 1762, at 11 h. o min. 30 sec. apparent time; when the dittance of the planet from the moon, was half a degree. Art. 17. A Letter from Monsieur Wargentin, Secretary to the Roya

Academy of Sciences in Sweden, to Mr. John Ellicot, F. R. S. concerning the Transit of Venus.

M. Wargentin, from comparing the observations on the trandit of Venus, made in Europe and at the Cape of Good Hope, determines the sun's horizontal parallax to be not less than 8”, nor more than 8",3. He also very juftly observes, that as it is of the last importance to be assured of the longitude of places where the observations were made; he therefore endeavoured to determine them in the best manner he was able, from observations made at the same places, on the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites ; a very considerable number of which are annexed to this paper, Art. 18. Remarks on the Cenfure of Mercator's Chart, in a posthumous

Work of Mr. We of Exeter. In a Letter to Thomas Birch, D.D. Secretary to the Royal Society, from Mr. Samuel Dunn.

This letter contains a request to Dr. Birch, that he would search the Philosophical Transactions, to see if any paper h25 been printed there, concerning a sphere inscribed in a hollow cylinder, and swelling its surface to the sides of the cylinder, in order to construct a more accurate chart, for the purposes of Navigation, than that invented by Mr. Edward Wright, and generally known among Navigators by the name of Mercator :

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