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gacity which infpired an Ariftotle and a Bacon, like nature's oracles, to prophecy, what the experience of future ages should confirm.

Art. 12. Johann-Georg Zimmerman Mitglied der Koeniglich Preuffifchen Academien, &c. Zurich. 1763.

A Differtation on Medical Experience. By Mr. Zimmerman.

Mr. Zimmerman is a very celebrated phyfician in the Canton of Berne, in Switzerland. His principal defign in this very fenfible tract, is to obviate fome mifapprehenfions, which he conceives have arifen with regard to medical experience. It is a popular errour, he ob◄ ferves, to imagine that every ene is capable of medical obfervation, as if experience in this art could be obtained by the mere habitual ute of the fenfes. It is true, continues be, that in the mechanic arts, the practice of them is abfolutely neceflary; nor can the knack, acquired by habit, be fupplied by fpeculation; but in an art fo complicated and fcientific as that of medicine, a world of previous knowledge is neceffary to enable the obferver to comprehend what he fees, and to gather experience from obfervation. A mere practitioner or empiric, grown old in the practice of prefcribing or adminiftring medicines, is fuppofed by the ignorant to be a man of experience; though it is certain that these people feldom fee the fick, and never their difeafe. Our Author obferves there is a wide difference in this refpect between the antient empirics and the moderns; the former depending on the evidence of their own fenfes, on that of preceding obfervers, and on comparing the fymptoms of unknown difeafes with fuch as were already known: whereas the modern empirics even neglect to unite the study of diseases to that of their remedies.

In treating of the ufe of knowledge, and its influence on phyfical obfervation, Mr. Zimmerman makes a very juft diftinction between erudition and science; adviûng the medical ftudent to apply himfelf rather to the ufeful than the ornamental parts of learning. A proper courfe of reading, fays he, may fupply the place of whole years of practice; but, it would not only require a very extraordinary natural genius, but a longevity of many centuries, to acquire by practice alone all that is already known in the art of healing. It was a laying of Rhazes, that, he should rather prefer a learned Physician, who had never feen a fick perfon in his life, than a practitioner who should be igncrant of the discoveries and practice of the antients. Mere Practitioners, fays Mr. Zimmerman, decry that kind of knowledge which is acquired by reading; and to prove it ufelefs endeavour to propagate the notion that the art of Phyfick fhould always vary with the climate, In answer to this, he justly remarks, that the different appearance of distempers in different ages and climates, may create a neceflity for varying the dofes, times of application, and even fometimes the choice of our medicines; but the effential characters of a disease remain ever the fame, nor can require any effential variation in the method or the remedy to be employed against it: We treat for inftance the dyfentery in the fame manner and with the fame fuccefs in Europe as in India, and the bark is a fovereign cure for the ague in every country upon earth. We ftill discover moft diseases by the fymptoms, by which Hippocrates defcribed them of old, and the ableft phyficians in Europe

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continue fuccessfully to adopt the principles of that great antient in all important cafes.

Art. 13. Abregé Chronologique de l'Hiftoire de Pologne. 12mo. Warfaw.

A Chronological Abridgment of the History of Poland.

This abridgment is written in imitation of Henault's History of France, and appears to be well executed; which is paying the Author no little compliment, if Mr. Bayle's obfervation be true, que bien abréger eft de tous les ouvrages de plume le plus difficile.

Art. 14. Diatribe de Cepotaphio*, &c.

A Differtation on the Cepotaph, or the ancient Method of Burying the Dead, among the Egyptians, Hebrews, &c. By M. B. M. Van Goens. 8vo. Utrecht. 1763.

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This learned, and not incurious, differtation, is faid to be written by a young lad of fourteen. It is remarkable that the United Pro vinces have produced a number of these juvenile Geniuses; witness the celebrated Grotius, the three brothers William, Theodore, and Andrew Canter, with many others: Scaliger indeed mentions, as a thing incredible, the great number of learned youth that abounded in his time, in this Country. Whether it be owing to phyfical or moral causes, that the Dutch literati are in their youth fo much before, and in age fo much behind thofe of other nations, we prefume not to enquire.

As to the defign of this tract, next to that of difplaying the learning of its author, it appears to be a well-intended remonstrance against the horrid and detettable modern cuftom of burying the dead in churches, and church-yards, within the walls of populous cities.

Κηποτάφιον, from Κηπος a garden, and Tafos a tomb.

Art. 15. Difcours Moraux, pour fervir de fuite a Philofophe Chretien.
Par M. Formey. 12mo.
Berlin. 1764.

Moral Difcourfes, intended as a Supplement to the Chriftian Philofopher. By M. Formey..

Thefe difcourfes differ from thofe of the three preceding volumes, published under the above-mentioned title, in nothing more than the form.

Thefe are confeffedly downright fermons, and may therefore poffibly have more weight than the former difcourfes; but, like other heavy bodies, we do not think they will circulate fo faft as works of a lighter

turn.

Art. 16. Die Gefchichte des Kunft des Alterthumbs, &c. 4to. Drefden. 1764.

An Hiftory of the Arts of Antiquity. By M. Winkelman.

The very learned Author of this work treats of the rife and progrefs of the ufeful and polite arts, from the earlieft ages to thofe of ancient Greece and Rome, in a very fatisfactory and entertaining manner.

Art. 17.

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Art. 17. Oeuvres Diverfes de M. de Joncourt, Docteur et Profeffeur en Philofophie.

The Mifcellaneous Works of M. de Joncourt, Profeffor of Philosophy at the Hague. 2 Vols. 8vo. 1764.

The talents of the ingenious and learned M. de Joncourt are too well known, in the literary world, to need any information from us on this head. The volumes before us contain, among various tranflations from English authors, the following original pieces. Maxims Philofophical and Moral, in imitation of the reflections of the Emperor Antoninus.-Hercules's Dream, an imitation of the Greek of Xenophon.-An Essay on Infinity.-An Arithmetical Paradox-An Effay on Harmony-A Preface to a translation of the Dialogue of the Dead. -Obfervations on certain maxima and minima in common life.-On the Eloquence of the Fair Sex.-An Effay on Hope.-A Discourse concerning those who think themselves ill-treated by the world.-An Effay on the Deity.-On moral obligation.-On the art of dying well.

The Reader cannot expect to find fuch a variety of fubjects treated very much at large; our Author however, is never fo concife as to become obfcure; but difplays with equal fuccefs throughout this entertaining and inftructive mifcellany, the various abilities of the Philofopher, the Moralift and the Divine.

Art. 18. Entretiens entre un Solitaire et un Homme du Monde. Dialogues between an Anchorite and a Man of the World. 12mo. Cologne, 1764.

If M. de Voltaire, who has lived much longer than most of his contemporaries, were actually no more, and we had fo much faith in Ghofts, as to think they could affume the genius, as they are faid to do the figure, of perfons defunct, we should be apt to think his shade had here taken up the pen, as a proof that the grave could not conquer his indefatigable activity and induftry. We know there are people who would be ready to fay, and with juftice enough in that cafe, Peace, peace, perturbed Spirit! But, as we believe and hope Mr. de V. is ftill living, and as we have no faith in ghofts, we muft look upon the Writer of thefe dialogues as a living counterfeit, and not a dead one.

Dialogue I. Between Solitaire and Mundofo,

Sol. Ha! fon! By what wonderful providence do I fee thee among

thefe rocks?

Mun. Ha! father! How the devil came you here?

S. I hope, fon, for your relief and comfort-You feem in diftrefs. M. Yes, faith, I'm in bad cafe enough. I was fhip-wrecked on the coaft two days ago, about three leagues off.

S. In the late ftorm! I faw your veffel in diftrefs, and put up my fervent prayers to St. Anthony for your relief.

M. We were obliged to you, father, but I fancy St. Anthony was otherwife employed; for he fuffered our veffel to go to the bottom. Nay, if praying to the Saints could have done, we had enough of that on board. Tho' it poffibly was not their fault neither; we had not a good faman in the hip. With the help of half a dozen English fai

Tors,

lors, St. Anthony might have got us off the coaft, but it was not to be expected that the Saints fhould heave out an anchor or work the ship. S. And are you the only furvivor of the persons on board ?

M. No. There were four of us, till like fools we went to loggerheads about the few trifles we faved from the wreck.

S. Is it poffible?

M. Yes, very poffible, father; but, as I thought it idle to quarrel about property, till I had found fome means of preferving life, I left my comrades to decide the dispute by themselves.

S. Blefs me! What a world have I escaped!

M. Why, father, was you caft away here too?

S. No, fon, not literally; but, difgufted with the world, I retired to this place, to avoid its temptations, and to contemplate on the things of Heaven.

M. A very proper fpot! For you can fee little elfe than the sky. I dare fay you may fee a flar at noon-day, almost as plain as if you were at the bottom of a well. But pray, good father, cannot you help one to a little fuftenance? I have eat nothing but a few shell-fish these three days.

S. Gladly, fon, walk in, there is my cell; I was just going to dinner, when I first heard you.

M. I thank ye, father.--Ha! fine fish! good fallad! wine too! a fnug retreat! You would live here very comfortably, father, if you had any body to converfe with now and then. A pretty little pratling female might make e'en this folitary spot agreeable but I have no notion of a man's living, like an unit, by himself.

S. Religion and Philofophy furnish me with reflections that fupply the place of converfation.

M. As to Religion, I made a vow to St. Dominic, when I was laft at Lisbon, that fo long as his Inquifition endured, I would never open my lips about the matter. But, with regard to Philofophy; I have been in England, father, and have laid in fuch a cargo, that I believe I am your match. Come, let us start a fubject of difpute.

S. I mean not to differ; what should I difpute for?

M. To fhew your Philofophy, certainly.

S. And is that the ufe of Philofophy?

M. Doubtiefs.

S. Then an Anchorite cannot be a Philofopher, as he has nobody to difpute with.

M. True, and I will undertake thereupon to convince you that a life of folitude is the moft useless life in the world.

S. I hope not altogether. Drink, fon, eat. You are welcome. M. Excellent wine, this! I did not think thefe rocks produced fuch refreshing fallads, Yes, father, your folitary philofophy is all out of fashion. It is difcovered by the moderns, that a man may be as devout in a cathedral as in a cell, and may cultivate philofophy as well on the Exchanges of Amfterdam and London, as if he were caft away on Robinson Crufoe's ifland. In a word, father, it is to be demontrated-delicate fish!-that an Anchorite is an useless being, and cannot poffibly be of fervice to any human creature. Moft delicate fish,

indeed!

S. Not even to a fhip-wrecked mariner→→→→

M. Egad,

M. Egad, father, you have caught me. I fee that a man fhould be filent at meals: his brains are not worth a farthing while he is filling his belly. I beg your pardon. It must be owned, you have very elfentially ferved me, as my late craving, and now fated, appetite can teftify.

S. Learn hence, fon, how readily ingratitude arifes from want of reflection; you may from this inftance alfo learn the vanity of that philofophy which confifts only in words. Know that, as Nature hath made nothing in vain, fo Providence will not fuffer any thing that is innocent to be useless. "Virtue, fay you men of the world, confifts in doing good to others, and how can a man do good to others who lives by himself?" Great, however, is the merit of him that hath courage to withdraw himself from temptation and does no harm. If I do little good to my fellow-creatures, I do them lefs ill. In the world 1 fhould do more of both. But, even fuppofing the love of folitude an errour, let the providential fervice I have now afforded you, in this defolate fituation, teach you, that Heaven will not permit even the blindness and errours of mankind to render them totally useless to each other.

In this dialogue, the Hermit appears to have the advantage of the Voyager; but in the fucceeding, the latter reaps the greater triumph for this flight defeat, and prevails on the former to return again to Society.

Art. 19. Verhandelinge over de Eigenschappen, &c. 4to. Leyden. 1764.

A Differtation on the Attributes which neceffarily flow from the Existence of a neceffary Being. By Mr. Witteveen. To which are added three other Differtations on the fame Subject. Written by the other Candidates for the Stolpeian Prize, given by the Univerfity of Leyden.

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If the difcuffion of metaphyfical queftions ferved to no other end than, as logical exercises, to employ the diftinguishing faculties of the mind, we could not deny their utility. It is certain also that this is generally the beft ufe that is made of them; the ideas applied to the terms, in fuch difquifitions, being for the moft part arbitrary and chimerical fo that though the fcholar may not advance in real knowlege, he may acquire an habitude of acuteness and precifion in thinking, which he could acquire by no other means. We think therefore the Legacy, made by the late M. Stolp, for fupporting an emulation in the students of Leyden, with regard to metaphyfical difquifitions, extremely useful; and are glad to fee that the judges, who difpofe of the prize, discountenance the unneceffary introduction of theological fubjects.

Art. 20. Verhandelingen vitgegeeven door de Hollandfche Maatfchappy der Weetenschappen te Haarlem. Vol. 7. 8vo. Haarlem. 1763..

The Tranfactions of the Philofophical Society of Haarlem.

This volume, which is the feventh, contains twenty memoirs, on different fubjects; among which is one, by Profeffor Camper, on the

fenfe

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