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lief of want; and it is in virtue of a gener- · Chalmers addresses himself throughous desire on the part of a poor man, when out the whole of this sermon, that we

this money is refused; when, with the should think it must compel the I feeling that his necessities do not just warrant him to be yet a burden upon others, tention of all that are not entirely de

assent almost as certainly as the athe declines to touch the offered liberality; graded from the honest pride of their h when, with a delicate recoil from the un.

looked-for proposal, he still resolves to put forefathers. After a few more parait for the present away, and to find, if pos- graphs, there occurs the following sible, for himself a little longer; when, beautiful and philosophical passage. standing on the very margin of dependence,

“ We have no conception whatever, that, he would yet like to struggle with the diffi

even in millennial days, the diversities of culties of his situation, and to maintain this

wealth and station will at length be equalizsevere but honourable conflict, till hard ne

ed. On looking forward to the time when cessity should force him to surrender. Let the money which he has thus - So nobly kings shall be the nursing-fathers, and shifted from himself take some new direc queens the nursing-mothers of our church,

we think that we can behold the perspection to another; and who, we ask, is the

tive of as varied a distribution of place and se giver of it? The first and most obvious re

ply is, that it is he who owned it: but it is property as before. In the pilgrimage of still more emphatically true, that it is he life, there will still be the moving procession

of the few charioted in splendour on the who has declined it. It came originally highway, and the many pacing by their out of the rich man's abundance ; but it

side along the line of the same journey.was the noble-hearted generosity of the poor man that handed it onwards to its final des- elevated footpath for the crowd ; and there

There will, perhaps, be a somewhat more tination. He did not emanate the gift;

will be an air of greater comfort and suffibut it is just as much that he has not ab- ciency amongst them; and the respectabili. sorbed it, but left it to find its full convey- ty of evident worth and goodness will sit ance to some neighbour poorer than himself, to some family still more friendless lation. But, bating these, we look for no

upon the countenance of this general popuand destitute than his own. the first time out of an overflowing fulness. great change in the external aspect of soIt is given the second time out of stinted ciety. It will only be a moral and a spiri

tual change. Kings will retain their scepand self-denying penury. In the world's

tres, and nobles their coronets; but, as they eye, it is the proprietor who bestowed the

float in magnificence along, will they look charity. But in Heaven's eye, the poor with benignant feeling on the humble way; man who waived it from himself to another is the more illustrious philanthropist and reverence will arise to them back again ;

farers; and the honest salutations of regard of the two. The one gave it out of his and, should any weary passenger be ready affluence. The other gave it out of the

to sink unfriended on his career, will he, at sweat of his brow. He rose up early, and

one time, be borne onwards by his fellows sat up late, that he might have it to bea poorer than himself; and shower of beneficence be made to descend

on the pathway, and, at another, will a without once stretching forth a giver's hand from the crested equipage that overtakes to the necessities of his brethren, still it is him. It is Utopianism to think, that, in possible, that by him, and such as him, may the ages of our world which are yet to come, the main burden of this world's benevolence the outward distinctions of life will not all be be borne.

upholden. But it is not Utopianism, it is “ It need scarcely be remarked, that, Prophecy to aver, that the breath of a new without supposing the offer of any sum made to a poor man who is generous in his spirit will go abroad over the great family

of mankind-so, that while, to the end of desires, he, by simply keeping himself back time, there shall be the high and the low from the distributions of charity, fulfils all the high functions which we have now

in every passing generation, will the chari

ty of kindred feelings, and of a common una ascribed to him. He leaves the charitable fund untouched for all that distress which derstanding, create a fellowship between is more clamorous than his own ; and we,

them on their way, till they reach that heatherefore, look, not to the original givers and all human greatness is unknown.”

ven where human love shall be perfected, of the money, but to those who line, as it were, the margin of pauperism, and yet The two passages we have quoted firmly refuse to enter it--we look uron occur in one and the same sermon, them as the pre-eminent benefactors of so- about the middle of the volume. Yet ciety, who narrow, as it were, by a wall of we think those who read the work ata defence, the ground of human dependance, tentively, will not hesitate to agree and are, in fact, the guides and the guar- with us in considering them as furdians of all that opulence can bestow.

nishing the best key to the general There is something so truly Scot- purpose of the author in the whole of tish in the feelings to which Dr its speculations. It is clear that, to

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reconcile the poor, on the one hand, mind already disciplined for its reception ; to that which is inseparable from the ar- but assuredly the over-worked labourer, rangement of all human society;i. e. to skulking into an ale-house, is not likely to the wantof much that they see possessed exemplify the one, or prove the other. In by others ;-and, on the other hand, which the present state of society exhibits,

that barbarous tumult of inimical interests, to impress on the minds of their supe- religion appears to offer the only means riors the vast obligation to active be- universally efficient, The perfectness of nevolence and kindness which is inse- future men is indeed a benevolent tenet, and parably attached to the secure posses. may operate on a few visionaries, whose stusion of what circumstances have plac- dious habits supply them with employment, ed in their hands—has, throughout, and seclude them from temptation. But a been the chief purpose of his writing. distant prospect, which we are never to reach, He has looked upon the errors of will seldom quicken our footsteps, however

lovely it may appear; and a blessing which rich and poor alike, with the eye of a

not ourselves but posterity are destined to compassionate philosopher---that is, of enjoy, will scarcely influence the actions of a christian. He has no difficulty in any—still less of the ignorant, the prejuexcusing the delusions of the ignorant judiced, and the selfish. who

“• Go preach the Gospel to the poor.'

By its simplicity it will meet their compres_admire they know not what And know not whom—but as one leads the fections, by its precepts it will direct their

hension, by its benevolence soften their af. other." But he has seen through all the arts conduct

, by the vastness of its motives en

sure their obedience. The situation of the of those true and moving causes of poor is perilous: they are indeed both disturbance

“ from within and from without “ Whose end is private hate-not help to Unarmed to all temptations." freedom

Prudential reasonings will in general be Adverse and turbulent when she would lead powerless with them. For the incitements To virtue

of this world are weak in proportion as we And yet even of these he speaks are wretched calmly-we had almost said tolerant- The world is not my friend, nor the world's law,

The world has got no law to make me rich. ly; for it is probable that he is of the same opinion which was twenty years will most frequently become improvident.

They too, who live from hand to mouth, ago finely expressed by Mr Coleridge Possessing no stock of happiness they ea- viz. that “ the great majority of gerly seize the gratifications of the moment, democrats are persons who have at- and snatch the froth from the wave as it tained the same sort of knowledge in passes by them. Nor is the desolate state politics which infidels have in religion” of their families a restraining motive, un-a most philosophical view surely- softened as they are by education, and be. a view of perfect truth-a view equal numbed into selfishness by the torpedo

touch of extreme want. Domestic affecly worthy of the high reflective genius of Coleridge, and the christian -object if, as often as we see or recollect it

,

We love an

tions depend on association. wisdom of Dr Chalmers. It is de

an agreeable sensation arises in our minds. lightful to see how well the specula- But alas ! how should he glow with the chations of these two great thinkers--men rities of father and husband, who, gaining who have, we dare say, never seen scarcely more than his own necessities de each other and whose tastes are so mand, must have been accustomed to regard different, that they probably have his wife and children, not as the soothers of never thought much of each other finished labour, but as rivals for the insufit is truly delightful to see how well ficient meal! In a man so circumstanced

the tyranny of the Present can be overpowthey harmonize in regard to this great ered only by the ten-fold mightiness of the subject of philosophical interest.

Future. Religion will cheer his gloom with Listen to Coleridge-the words were her promises, and by habituating his mind spoken long ago-but, alas! the day to anticipate an infinitely great Revolution is not near when they are likely to be hereafter, may prepare it even for the sudheard out of place.

den reception of a less degree of ameliora

tion in this world. * “ By what means can the lower classes be made to learn their duties, and urged to

But we must return to Dr Chalmers: practise them? The human race may per

and we think we cannot do better haps possess the capability of all excellence; than select some of those specimens and truth, I doubt not, is omnipotent to a of his best style, which may be found

Friend, vol ii. p. 256.

in the discourses addressed more

in his heart-and, renouncing all his origiimmediately to the other great class nal tenderness about Sabbath, and Sab. of hearers--the superiors, the natural bath employments, he can now, with the superiors, but no less surely the na

thorough unconcern of a fixed and famitural guides, guardians, and bene- fellows throughout every scene of profana

liarized proselyte, keep equal pace by his factors of the poor. He has been

tion--and he who wont to tremble and respeaking more generally of the coil from the freedoms of irreligion with the immense variety of ways in which sensibility of a little one, may soon become the example of the higher orders acts, the most daringly rebellious of them allso as to vitiate the moral feelings of and that Sabbath which he has now learned, their dependants, and, pointing with a at one time, to

at one time, to give to business, he, at steady finger to the evils which these another, gives to unhallowed enjoyments in their turn have good cause to ap- cursions, given up to pleasure, and en

and it is turned into a day of visits and exprehend, from those whose moral feel- livened by all the mirth and extravagance ings have more or less, by their own

of holiday-and, when sacrament is proneglect, or contempt, or carelessness claimed from the city pulpits, he, the apt, of these feelings--become highly vi- the well-trained disciple of his corrupt and tiated and depraved. On one or two corrupting superior, is the readiest to plan specific offences of this sort, he then the amusements of the coming opportunity,

proceeds to dwell at great length, and among the very foremost in the ranks i and with an earnestness which springs, of emigration and though he may look we have good occasion to know, from back, at times, to the Sabbath of his fa

ther's pious house, yet the retrospect is aldirect observation of some of the most

ways becoming dimmer, and at length it alarming symptoms by which the bad

ceases to disturb him and thus the alie. [ spirit of the region wherein the Doctor nation widens every year, till, wholly given resides, has of late been widely and over to impiety, he lives without God in openly exhibited.

the world. “ Another and still more specific offence is "s And were we asked to state the dimenbeginning, we understand, to be exemplified sions of that iniquity which stalks regardin our own city, though it has not attained lessly, and at large, over the ruin of youthto the height or to the frequency at which it ful principles were we asked to find a occurs in a neighbouring metropolis. We place in the catalogue of guilt for a crime, allude to the doing of week-day business the atrocity of which is only equalled, we

upon the Sabbath. We allude to that vio- understand, by its frequency-were we call. ilence which is rudely offered to the feelings ed to characterise the man who, so far from

and the associations of sacredness, by those attempting one counteracting influence aexactions that an ungodly master lays at gainst the profligacy of his dependents, is

times on his youthful dependents—when sues, from the chair of authority on which $those hours which they wont to spend in he sits, a commandment, in the direct face E: church, they are called upon to spend in the of a commandment from God--the man i counting-house-when that day, which who has chartered impiety in articles of sought to be a day of piety, is turned into a agreement, and has vested himself with a

day of posting and of penmanship-when property in that time which only belongs to the rules of the decalogue are set aside, the Lord of the Sabbath-were we asked to

and utterly superseded by the rules of the look to the man who could thus overbear ** great trading establishment; and every the last remnants of remorse in a struggling othing is made to give way to the hurrying and unpractised bosom, and glitter in all $ emergency of orders, and clearances, and the ensigns of a prosperity that is reared on

the demands of instant correspondence. the violated consciences of those who are

Such is the magnitude of this stumbling- beneath him-0! were the question put, i block, that many is the young man who has

to whom shall we liken such a man ? or, here fallen to rise no more that, at this what is the likeness to which we can compoint of departure, he has so widened his pare him ? we would say, that the guilt of distance from God, as never, in fact, to re- him who trafficked on the highway, or trafturn to him—that, in this distressing con- ficked on that outraged coast, from whose

test between principle and necessity, the weeping families children were inseparably s final blow has been given to his religious torn, was far outmeasured by the guilt

principles that the master whom he serves, which could thus frustrate a father's fondand under whom he earns his provision for est prayers, and trample under foot the time, has here wrested the whole interest of hopes and the preparations of eternity. his eternity away from him that, from this There is another way whereby, in the moment, there gathers upon his soul the employ of a careless and unprincipled mascomplexion of a hardier and more deter- ter, it is impossible but that offences must mined impiety--and conscience once stifled

You know just as well as we do, now speaks to him with a feebler voice that there are chicaneries in business ; and, and the world obtains a firmer lodgement so long as we forbear stating the precise ex

come.

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tent of them, there is not an individual redeemed from all iniquity, among you, who has a title to construe the thoroughly furnished unto all good works. assertion into an affronting charge of crim. Here is a grievous occasion to fall. Here inality against himself. But you surely is a competition between the service of God know, as well as we, that the mercantile and the service of Mammon. Here is the profession, conducted, as it often is, with exhibition of another offence, and the bringthe purest integrity, and laying no resistlessing forward of another temptation, to thoses necessity whatever for the surrender of prin- who are entering on the business of the ciple on any of its members ; and dignified world, little adverted to, we fear, by those by some of the noblest exhibitions of un- who live in utter carelessness of their own tainted honour, and devoted friendship, and souls, and never spend a thought or a sigh magnificent generosity, that have ever been about the immortality of others—but most recorded of our nature ;-you know as well distinctly singled out by the text as a crime as we, that it was utterly extravagant, and of foremost magnitude in the eye of Him in the face of all observation, to aflirın, that who judgeth righteously. each, and every one of its numerous competitors, stood clearly and totally exempted

Such are the general views of this from the sins of an undue selfishness. And, book, which cannot fail to increase, accordingly, there are certain commodious great as it has long been, the fame of falsehoods occasionally practised in this de- Dr Chalmers. We cannot conclude, partment of human affairs. There are, for however, without expressing our reexample, certain dextrous and gainful eva- gret, that a work so admirably adaptsions, whereby the payers of tribute are en- ed for making a great and powerful abled, at times, to make their escape from impression on the minds of all thinkthe eagle eye of the exactors of tribute. ing men, should have been disfigured There are even certain contests of ingenuity between individual traders, where, in the

-we can in conscience use no slighter higgling of a very keen and anxious negoci- word-by the introduction of not a few ation, each of them is tempted, in talking passages in which the excellent general of offers and prices, and the reports of Auce principles of the author's reasoning are tuations in home and foreign markets, to pushed to an extreme, that we should say the things which are not. You must fear may be productive of no good efassuredly know, that these, and such as fect whatever ; but on the contrary, these, then, have introduced a certain quan- tend to throw very considerable distity of what may be called shuffling, into the communications of the trading world

credit on his authority. The reader, insomuch, that the simplicity of yea, yea,

who has perused the passage last quotand nay, nay, is in some degree exploded; ed with such pleasure as its beauties, and there is a kind of understood toleration both of thought and expression, are established for certain modes of expression, calculated to convey, will in all likeliwhich could not, we are much afraid, stand hood feel hurt and mortified, when on the rigid scrutiny of the great day ; and turning over another page or two, he there is an abatement of confidence between

comes upon a piece of declamation, man and man, implying, we doubt, such a proportionate abatement of truth, as goes to

apparently quite as grave and earnest, extend most fearfully the condemnation that concerning that most stale and hackis due to all liars, who shall have their part neyed of all the topics of Christian Inin the lake that burneth with fire and brim- structors, Religious Monitors, Evan

And who can compute the effect of gelical Magazines, et hoc genus omne,all this on the young and yet unpractised ob. the sin of making our servants say, “ not server ? Who does not see, that it must go at home,” when we happen to be disinto reduce the tone of his principles; and to clined for the reception of company. It involve him in many a delicate struggle be- is really mortifying to think, that such tween the morality he has learned from his catechism, and the morality he sees in a

a man as Dr Chalmers should permit counting-house ; and to obliterate, in his his mind to be seriously occupied, even mind, the distinctions between right and for the number of minutes necessary wrong; and, at length, to reconcile his con- to write down the words of such a science to a sin which, like every otherpassage, with a subject, which almost deserves the wrath and the curse of God; every human being that reads the and to make him tamper with a direct com- book, must consider so utterly unmandment, in such a way, as that false- worthy of his intellect. There are in his estimation, than the peccadissoes of enough surely, and to spare, of good an innocent compliance with the current

simple men and women, whom there practices and moralities of the world ? Here,

can be no harm in permitting to then, is a point, at which the way of those groan, since such is there good will who conform to this world, diverges from and pleasure, over such enormities as the way of those peculiar people who are this. But Dr Chalmers should not

stone.

trifle so either with himself or his told by the author's own bookseller, 'readers. The person who objects to when he advertises, Dr Chalmers's the use of a phrase, so perfectly un- New Volume.derstood on all hands, in order to pre- It is a pity that such things should serve any appearance of consistency, have been permitted to make their apshould without all question become a pearance, in pages of which they are Quaker at once.

Indeed we cannot so little worthy. But we have already ", conceive upon what principle, he can said and quoted far more than enough, 12 overlook for a single moment, the hor- to shew that these are but the “ paucæ

rible iniquity of addressing an indivi- maculæ,” by which no man of sense dual by a plural pronoun--to say will permit himself to be discouraged nothing of the gross idolatry implied from an attentive perusal of an original, in the use of such names as, Monday, philosophical, and eloquent

Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Fri- book. 1 day, and Saturday--or the virtual lie

most

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DALE'S POEMS. We have seldom met with any pro- of the finest strains of emotion that ductions calculated to give a more en- have place within the human breast, gaging idea of their author's character, that none such can lay down his little

than the Widow of Nain,” and “the volumes without feelings of the e Outlaw of Taurus;”-two poems which warmest personal kindliness towards s have lately been published by Mr the poet himself ;-while the many,

Dale, of Bene’t College, Cambridge. who like the woman of Nain, have The notions usually connected with wept over the sole props of their

the name of academical poetry, are widowhood;—and the more who, like * such, that it is no wonder we threw the Outlaw of Taurus, have known

these little volumes aside at first, what it is to experience the horrors of eins without bestowing on them more than remorse, and to shed the tears of re

a very hasty glance. But if any of pentance_will engrave on their me

our readers have, from similar preju- mories, almost without an effort, the elbise dices, been induced to treat Mr Dale beautiful lines that must equally suri with similar disrespect, we beg leave prise and delight them, with showing nie to assure them that the loss is their how surely the soul of genius can di

His poetry is in truth the very vine the deepest secrets of the troubled CE reverse of what is usually produced in heart.

colleges : His style, indeed, bears all The picture of the last death-bed the marks of that easy unlaboured ele- scenes, in the house of Nain,--when gance, which can only be acquired af- the lonely woman watches--almost ter very long and intimate acquaint- without one ray of hope-beside the ance with the models of classical anti- patient victim of decay—is one that

quity ; but it is totally free from all we are sure will justify all we have be the coldnesses of pedantic imitation ; said. and the spirit that animates its num

The spirit of her son to cheer, bers, is no other than that of keen

With hopes, she now had ceased to feel ; human feeling, exalted and adorned From that dread stroke, which menaced near, by the impressions of a piety as tender A few short bitter days to steal : as it is deep.-We regard what the To soothe the languor of decay author has published as chicfly valu- She strove all other cares were fed ; able on account of the promise it un

And midnight's gloom, and morning's ray, folds; but, even if he were never to

Still found her watching by his bed, publish another line, he has already All love could do, or pain demand.

To render, with unwearied hand, done enough to secure for his name

The very firmness of despair the admiration of affectionate remem

Had nerved her weaker heart to bear; brance, among all that are worthy of Or never had that mother borne reading poetry. He has touched with To see him die-and thus to die a hand of so much gentle power, some Untimely wasting, ere the morn

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* The Widow of the City of Nain ; and Other Poems. By Thomas Dale, of Bene's College, Cambridge. Third edition. London. J. M. Richardson, 1820.

The Outlaw of Taurus, a poem ; to which are added : Scenes from Sophocles. By Thomas Dale, of Bene't College, Cambridge. London. J. M. Richardson, 1820.

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