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most perfect state of discipline. Go- it was found that the barrier of ice, vernment provided every comfort and extending across from Prince Leopold's convenience for the crews embarked Isles to the North coast, had broken up, in this perilous undertaking; and it so that the ships were now enabled was universally acknowledged, that no to pursue their course westwards. discovery ships ever left the shores of Having reached long. 92°, they found England in a higher state of equip- the land on the north side of the ment.*

Strait, which had been continuous, They left England on the 11th of from the entrance of Sir James LanMay 1819, and reached Cape Fare- caster's Sound, now discontinuous, well, the most southern part of West owing to a great inlet. Land, howGreenland, on the 14th of the succeeding ever, was still seen to the westward : June. On the 20th of June, the ships So the expedition continued its course were in lat. 64° north ; on the 26th in that direction. In doing so, the June, they were beset in the ice, and, ships passed a number of great islands, after having endeavoured, but in vain, all of them apparently surrounded to urge their way, during a painful de- with ice; from which circumstance, tention of four days, were, at last, partial detentions were unavoidable

, glad to get back again. Having reach- and their course ran in a sort of ziged lat. 74° north, they determined to zag style, from lat. 73° N., to lat. force a passage through the barrier of 75° N. ice, which they found to be eighty On the 4th of September, they miles broad. Having succeeded in were in long. 110° W.; and here this, they reached Possession Bay on they discovered an island which apthe 31st July; and, on the 1st August, peared to be larger than any they entered in safety Sir James Lancaster's had hitherto examined, and which Sound, where they found the same we understand was named Melville open sea which has been described in Island, in honour of the distinguishthe accounts of the former expedition, ed statesman, now at the head of the They advanced to long. 89° west, Admiralty. This island, we are inmeeting with but little obstruction formed, extends from long. 106° W., from the ice; and in long. 90° west, to 114° W. On the 8th of Septemdiscovered two considerable islands, ber, the ships reached 112° W., and named Prince Leopold's Isles. But, were inclosed for several days in the at this point, their progress west- ice. Winter was now fast approachwards was interrupted by a strong ing ; the ice was rapidly encreasing, barrier of ice, extending quite across and violent north-westerly gales kept from these islands to the north coast it in a constant and dangerous state of of what Captain Parry, we understand, agitation. named Barrow Straits. Being thus These circumstances, of course, renarrested by the ice, and forced to alter dered the navigation very difficult, their course, they now entered a great and began to endanger the safety of inlet, of 14 or 15 leagues in breadth, the ships. Our gallant countrymen, which they found extending to the however, continued to contend with southward. They sailed along its all these difficulties till the 22d of castern coast-its. middle part and September, when it became evident western coast being blocked up with that farther navigation was at an end ice, as far as lat. 71° north, when for the season; and, therefore, prutheir farther progress southward also dence dictated their retreat to a sewas found to be impossible, by reason cure haven for the polar winter. For of the ice. In proceeding down this this purpose, they returned eastward, inlet, the magnetic attraction increased and found a harbour in Melville 80 powerfully, that the existence of Island. But the ice had already the magnetic pole may be conjectured formed from eight to ten inches thick, to be somewhere in that neighbour- and therefore, the crews were forced hood; probably in the lat. 70 N, and to cut a passage for three miles long. of 100° W.

through the ice. The 26th of SepOn their return to Barrow's Straits, tember, in short, had arrived before

* The Edinburgh Review, with its usual good faith, says the Hecla and Griper were miserable ships, and totally unfit for their intended voyage.

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7 they were fixed in their winter quar- poses in a solitary grave, amidst the bela

ters in five fathoms water, and with trackless wilds of Melville Island. A

in about 200 yards from the shore. little mound was erected to his me*** The lat. of this harbour, (if we recol- mory, in a region which had never a lect rightly, named Winter Harbour,) before been seen by any civilized be

is 74 deg. N., and long 111 deg. W. ings, nay, the soil of which has, to all

Hitherto, they had never lost sight of appearance, been but rarely visited by to a continuous barrier of ice to the a few casual wanderers, from the southward, that is, from west long. most forlorn and isolated tribes of 90 deg. to the extreme of Melville the human race. Island.

When the sun had its greatest Every thing was soon made snug southern declination, a' twilight was i for the formidable winter of these re- perceptible at noon in the south

gions. The officers and crews formed ern horizon, affording sufficient light I various plans for passing the dreary to read a book with difficulty. The

days, or rather nights, of the polar re- day was like the fine clear evening of

gions. Plays were performed by the winter in our climate. The stars or officers for their own amusement and shone with great brillianey, and when

that of the crews; and we are told, the moon appeared in the firmament, X, that a melo-drama was written, having she shone with a beauty and splen

for its object the probable success of dour unknown in the more southern ha the expedition, and their ultimate re- and temperate regions of the globe.

turn to their friends through Beh- The northern lights appeared frequenti ring's Straits, after having planted the ly, generally of a yellow colour, of British flag in countries which had sometimes green, but rarely red, and

eluded the bold and fearless darings most commonly towards the southk of a Davis and a Baffin.

It was remarked, that this A The sun disappearedentirelyonthelith brilliancy was seldom so great as in be November. The thermometer was be our country ; no noise was ever heard 91 low Zero of Fahrenheit's scale, when to proceed from them, and the mag2. the expedition entered Winter Har, netic needle did not appear to be afmy bour. In the month of November, fected by their presence. But we long o the spirit of wine thermometer was to know if they were visible the whole LE 50below Zero, and in February, day- and what were their various te the coldest month of these regions, forms, and motions, and transparenin the spirit of wine pointed to the cy. The sun re-appeared on the 3d

tremendous cold of 54o and 55° of February, after an absence of 83 below Zero. During these intense days, and those only who have suffercolds, our adventurous countrymen ed the privation of its “glorious light”

felt but little inconvenience so long as can feel and tell the rapture with 73 they remained under the housing of which the crews hailed the first glimpse in their ships.

A slight covering for the from the mast-head. They had calears, and a shawl around the neck, culated the exact period of its return,

were considered as sufficient protec- and were anxiously looking for it from ution against the most intense degree the main-top.

of cold; but when the atmosphere In April, some partial symptoms of ssi was agitated by gales of wind, then thaw appeared. By the end of May,

the cold became truly dreadful and pools and streams of water made their insupportable, and every one was appearance, and shortly after, regular

forced to seek shelter below. Never- thaw commenced. Nearly about this da theless, scarcely any accident occurred time, Captain Parry, with a party of is from exposure to cold; while the con his officers and men, crossed Melville distant and regular exercise, which Island, and reached the sea on the

formed a necessary part of the duty opposite side, in Lat. 75o N. of the crews, kept every one lively, where they discovered another and active, and free from disease. One Island. They were fourteen days

only took place during the ex. absent, and we have heard, made *pedition, and that was in the case of many curious observations on the

an individual who had contracted the forms of the hills and mountains 236

disease of which he died before he of this Island, collecting withal, left England. This poor fellow re- very extensively, specimens of all its

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vegetable, animal, and mineral pro- to that of the rein-deer. One of the ductions. The remains of an enorm sailors, who had ventured beyond his mous whale were found far inland, and companions in search of rein-deer, rea few huts, intimating the presence turned to the ship with all his fingers

were discovered by some frost-bitten, from carrying his musket of the party. Vegetation had now too long. When the fingers were become active; and sorrel was found plunged into cold water, ice was in such quantity, as to remove all formed on its surface, and this conthese symptoms of scurvy which had tinued to be the case for half an hour begun to make their appearance among afterwards, as often as the fingers were the crew.

The ice in Winter Hare plunged into it. The sailor lost five of bour was also beginning to dissolve his fingers. rapidly, and by the end of July, it From Lancaster Sound to Melville had entirely disappeared. Yet the Island, the compass, we understand, ships were still quite blocked up by was found to be totally useless, a cirthe exterior ice. It was not till the cumstance which left to the comman30th, that the outside ice began to ders no other guides than the heavencrack ;-on the 31st of July, it moved ly bodies and the trend of the land, off very gently, and released the crews thus at once presenting the striking from their winter prison, where they spectacle of modern navigators trackhad been shut up for 310 days. ing the ocean, without the compass,

On the 6th of August they reached as was done by the mariners of old. the western extremity of Melville We cannot, indeed, conceive a more Island, situated, we believe, in Long. striking scene than that of our dis1140 W. where the ice was found to covery ships forcing their solitary be very thick and impermeable. From course through unknown regions, sur. this island new land was observed to rounded with rugged, dreary, and dethe south-west, estimated to be 20 solate wastes, in the midst of the most leagues distant; so that they may be appalling dangers, and deprived of the said to have seen land as far west as use of the compass. Long. 118°. Many attempts were The Hecla was forced into Leith Roads made to reach this interesting Terra by stress of weatherma circumstance incognita, but in vain ; and the come which afforded us an opportunity of mander and his admirable crew were, conversing with the officers, and of with feelings of the deepest regret, furnishing our readers, from the reforced to return, owing to the vast collection of their most interesting barriers of ice.

conversations, with this narrative, Having failed in this attempt to which, although very brief, will be reach the south-western land, and the found, we venture to say, not inaccuwinter again approaching, the vessels rate. now sailed directly eastwards, through From the preceding narrative, and the Polar Sea, and Barrow's Straits, into other details in our possession, it apSir James Lancusler's Sound, thence pears, into Buffin's Bay, and by the usual 1. That Captain Parry has discovertrack homewards.

ed an opening into the Arctic Ocean, In their progress among the islands, from Baffin's Bay. * the officers shot a few rein-deer, ptar 2. That continuous land extends migan, partridge, and hares; and the along the north side of Sir James howls of the wolf were heard frequent- Lancaster's Sound, and Barrow's ly in Melville island. Several musk Strait, to long. 93° west; and that, oxen were killed ; and, we are inform- beyond this, onward to Melville Island, ed, the crews considered it, after be- the land appears not continuous, but ing properly macerated, to get rid of broken into islands; while, on the the musky Hlavour, as preferable eating south side of Sir James Lancaster's

* The Edinburgh Review says, that the only chance of a passage is through Cumbcrland Strait, and that it is vain to think of any opening into the Arctic Sea by Lancaster Sound. So much for their geographical foresight. In another of their rambling geographical articles, composed of unacknowledged shreds and patches from English, German, French, and Italian authors, there is an uncommon share of absurd vapouring about the condition of the Polar ice, all of which, although already sufficiently ludicrous and absurd, is, we understand, proved to be visionary by the observations of the present expedition. But, to say truth, we have already given the Professor his due in this Number.

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Sound, and Barrow's Straits, in a have just mentioned, by some of the westerly direction, to Prince Regent's openings at the head of Baffin's Bay. Inlet, the land is continuous; beyond 4. Either that the land observed to this inlet, land extends for a consider the south of the east and west line we able way to the west, when it is suc have mentioned, or of Barrow's Straits, ceeded by ice; and this extends on- is the coast of islands skirting the ward to the lofty mountainous land, north coast of America, or that some of seen to the south-west of Melville Is- the masses of land may be projecting land.

points of the great American continent. 3. That the land seen to the north 5. Finally, That, in all probability, ward, extending from Barrow's Straits the land extending from Prince Regent's and Melville Island, appears to be a Inlet, through Barrow's Straits and Langroupe of islands; that the land on caster Sound, along the west coast of the north side of Barrow's Strait, Baffin's Bay and Davis' Straits, to Cape named by Captain Parry North Devon, of God's Mercy, and from this point is probably an island, being separated through the great inlet at the head of from West Greenland by some of the Hudson's Bay, or through Cumberland sounds at the top of Baffin's Bay; and Strait, may be a great island, whose that, probably, West Greenland itself western boundary may be in a line may prove to be a great island, sepa. drawn from Foxes Farthest to Prince rated from the islands, in the line we Regent's Inlet.

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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

Distant Visibility of Mountains. ever, we cannot help thinking unphiloso(Froin the Quarterly Journal of Science, phical ; for, on reflection, it naturally ocLiterature, and the Arts):

curs, that the same creative power, which

produced one individual vegetable, could,

Authority. Miles Dist. Himalaya Mountains

Sir W. Jones 241

with equal facility, create a million ; and Mount Ararat, from Derbhend Bruce

that if genera in their native soils and cli. Mowna Roa, Sandwich Islands (53 leagues)

mates produced, in the early era of the Chimborazo (47 leagues)

world, endless permanent varieties, at what Peak of Peneriffe, from South

period did this propensity to indefinite mulCape of Lanzerota

Humboldt 153 Peak of Teneriffe, from ship's

tiplication cease to act ? It may be said,

115 that new permanent varieties, or species, Peak of the Azores

· Don M. Cagigal 126 continue to arise at the present day, but Temaheud

100

this remains to be proved ; for since plants Adam's Peak ('alcntta Monthly Journal 95

have been described with accuracy (we mean Ghaut at the back of Tellichery Do.

since the time of Ray and Tournefort), Golden Mount, from ship's deck Do. Pulo Pera, from the top of Penang Do. 75

what new species do we know, or even susThe Ghaut at Cape Coinorin

Do.

pect, to have been produced in a native loPulo Penang, froin ship's deck Do.

cality ? That many vegetables under cul. Restoration of Paintings.—The white tivation are apt to run into varieties, is obused in oil-painting is generally prepared vious; but the varieties of plants, in a state from lead, and forms the basis of many

of nature, are comparatively few in num. other pigments ; and is extremely liable to

ber, and these varieties are generally proturn brown or black, when affected by sul- duced by the individuals growing in situaphureous vapours.

M. Thenard, of Paris, tions differing in moisture, temperature, and has restored a painting of Raphael's, thus exposure, from the stations which are natuinjured, by means of oxygenated water, ap

ral to them seldom from seminal admixplied with a pencil, which instantly took ture ; for were there no limit to the power out the spots and restored the white. The gratuitously ascribed to the first created gefluid was so weak, as to contain not more nera, the vegetable kingdom, long ere this than five or six times its volume of oxygen, period, would have become a confused and and had no taste.

heterogeneous assemblage of hybrids, deRipening Wall-Fruit.--Mr Henry Dawes, viating, in every respect, from one of the of Slough, has published the result of an

most essential and fundamental laws of experiment for facilitating the ripening of nature. wall-fruit, by covering the wall with black Pompeii : Shower of Ashes.-From a paint. The experiment was tried on a late eruption of Vesuvius, a shower of ashes vine, and it is stated, that the weight of fine fell on the now uncovered ruins of Pompeii. grapes gathered from the blackened part of M. de Gimbernat, a Spanish naturalist, has the wall was 201b. 10 oz. ; while the plain compared the substances of which this repart yielded only_71b. 1 oz., being little cent shower is composed, with those by more than one-third of the other. The which the city was anciently overwhelmed. fruit on the blackened part of the wall was

He could not find the smallest resemblance also much finer, the bunches were larger,

between them; insomuch that it appears and ripened better than on the other half; doubtful to him whether that city really was the wood of the vine was likewise stronger, ruined by a shower of ashes. The same and more covered with leaves on the black naturalist has observed, that within a few

days after the eruption, the crater of Vesu Principles of Vegetation. In the first vius was covered with crystals of sea-salt part of the fourth volume of the Transac. We have always understood that the action tions of the London Horticultural Society, of water was evident among the concurring we find an essay, by the Rev. William causes of the ruin of Pompeii, whether it Herbert, detailing various experiments on were fresh water, or consequent on any viohybrid vegetables, which appear to have lent action of the sea. At all events, the been conducted with great care and accu comparison instituted by M. Gimbernat, is racy. One inference drawn by the Rev.

a laudable attention; and, properly pursued, Gentleman from his success in producing may afford new light on the still obscure varieties in vegetables is, that all the species history of the calamities which had blotted of plants now existing have branched from out Pompeii from among the cities of the original genera, or, in other words, that earth. genera alone were created ; and that most Journey of Etymological Inquiry.—There of those plants, which are now considered is nothing equal, in point of evidence, to species, are no more than permanent varie- the bringing a theory to the test of experities : the saving word probable, is indeed

Professor Rask, whose Memoir on introduced into this hypothesis; but from the Origin of the Northern Languages was the tenor of the whole paper, it should crowned by the Academy of Copenhagen, seem the author gives full credit to this is at this time absent on a journey into A. favourite opinion. This conclusion, how. siatic Russia, with the design to examine the

ened part.

ence.

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