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their exile. General Cunningham has identified it with the modern Ara or Arrah.

EKA-DANSHIHA, EKA-DANTA. 'Having one tusk.' A name of Ganesa.

EKALAVYA Grandson of Deva-sravas, the brother of Vasudeva. He was brother of ySatru-ghna. He was exposed in infancy, and was brought up among the Nishadas, of whom ho became king. He assisted in a night attack upon Dwaraka, and was eventually killed by Krishna, who hurled a rock at him.

EKAMRA, EKAMRA KANANA A forest in Utkala or Orissa, which was the favourite haunt of Siva, and became a great seat of his worship as the city of Bhuvaneswara, where some very fine temples sacred to him still remain. They have been described by Babu Rajendra Lala in his great work on Orissa.

EKA-PADA 'One-footed.' A fabulous race of men spoken of in the Puranas.

EKA-PARiVA, EKA-PA7ALA These, with their sister Aparnii, were, according to the Hari-vansa, daughters of Himavat and Menu- They performed austerities surpassing the powers of gods and Danavas, and alarmed both worlds. Eka-panta took only one leaf for food, and Eka-pa/ala only one pit/ala (Bignonia). Aparna took no sustenance at all and lived a-paraa, 'without a leaf.' Her mother being distressed at her abstinence, exclaimed in her anxiety, "U-ma "—" o don't." Through this she became manifest as the lovely goddess Uma, the wife of Siva.

EKASH7AKA A deity mentioned in the Atharva-veda as having practised austere devotion, and being the daughter of Prajapati and mother of Indra and Soma .

EMOSHA In the Brahmana, a boar which raised up the earth, represented as black and with a hundred arms. This is probably the germ of the Varaha or boar incarnation. See Avatara.

GAD A A younger brother of Krishna.

GADHI, GATHIN. A king of the Kusika race, and father of Viswamitra. He was son of Ku«imba, or, according to the Vishnu Purana, he was Indra, who took upon himself that form.

GALAVA A pupil of Viswamitra. It is related in the Mahii-bharata that at the conclusion of his studies he importuned 104


his master to say what present he should make him. Viswamitra was annoyed, and told him to bring 800 white horses, each having one black ear. In his perplexity Giilava applied to Garurfa, who took him to King Yayati at Pratish/hana. The king was unable to provide the horses, but he gave to Galava his daughter MadhavL Galava gave her in marriage successively to Haryaswa, king of Ayodhya, Divo-dasa, king of Kiwi, and Uslnara, king of Bhoja, receiving from each of them 200 of the horses he was in quest of, upon the birth of a son to each from MadhavL Notwithstanding her triple marriage and maternity, Madhavi, by a special boon, remained a virgin. Galava presented her and the horses to Viswamitra. The sage accepted them, and had a son by MadhavI, who was named Ash/aka. When Viswamitra retired to the woods, he resigned his hermitage and his horses to Ash/aka, and Galava having taken Madhavi back to her father, himself retired to the forest as his preceptor had done. The horses were first obtained by the Brahman .ffichika from the god Varu?ia. They were originally 1000 in number, but his descendants sold 600 of them, and gave the rest away to Brahmans.

According to the Hari-van.«a, Galava was son of Viswamitra, and that sage in a time of great distress tied a cord round his waist and offered him for sale. Prince Satyavrata (q.v.) gave him liberty and restored him to his father. From his having been bound with a cord (gala) he was called Galava.

There was a teacher of the White Yajur-veda named Galava, and also an old grammarian named by Panini.

GAiVA-DEVATAS. 'Troops of deities.' Deities who generally appear, or are spoken of, in classes. Nine such classes are mentioned:—(1.) Adityas; (2.) Viswas or Viswe-devas; (3.) Vasus; (4.) Tushitas; (5.) Abhaswaras; (6.) Anilas; (7.) Maharajikas; (S.)Sadhyas; (9.) Rudras. These inferior deities are attendant upon Siva, and under the command of Ganesa. They dwell on Gana-parvata, i.e., Kailasa.

GA/VA-PATL See Gaensa.

GAiVAPATYA A small sect who worship Ga?ia-pati or Ganesa as their chief deity. GAiVAS. See Gana-devatas.

GAiVDAKl. The river Gandak (vulg. Gunduk), in Oude. GANDHA-MADANA 'Intoxicating with fragrance ' 1. A GANDHARA—G AND HARVA. 105

mountain and forest in Hiivrita, the central region of the world, which contains the mountain Meru. The authorities are not agreed as to its relative position with Meru. 2. A general of the monkey allies of Rama. He was killed by Ravana's son Indra-jit, but was restored to life by the medicinal herbs brought by Hans- man from Mount Kailasa.

GANDHARA, GANDHARA A country and city on the west bank of the Indus about Attock. Mahomedan geographers call it Kandahar, but it must not be confounded with the modern town of that name. It is the Gandaritis of the ancients, and its people are the Gandarii of Herodotus. The Viyu Purana says it was famous for its breed of horses.

GANDHARL Princess of Gandhara. The daughter of Subala, king of Gandhara, wife of Dhrita-rash/ra, and mother of his hundred sons. Her husband was blind, so she always wore a bandage over her eyes to be like him. Her husband and she, in their old age, both perished in a forest fire. She is also called by the patronymics Saubali and Saubaleyi. She is said to have owed her hundred sons to the blessing of Vyasa, who, in acknowledgment of her kind hospitality, offered her a boon. She asked for a hundred sons. Then she became pregnant, and continued so for two years, at the end of which time she was delivered of a lump of fleslu Vyasa took the shapeless mass and divided it into 101 pieces, which he placed in as many jars. In due time Dur-yodhana was produced, but with such accompanying fearful portents that Dhnta-rashfra was besought, though in vain, to abandon him. A month afterwards ninetynine other sons came forth, and an only daughter, DuA-sali

GANDHARVA The 'heavenly Gandharva' of the Veda was a deity who knew and revealed the secrets of heaven and divine truths in general. He is thought by Goldstucker to have been a personification of the fire of the sun. The Gandhas generally had their dwelling in the sky or atmosphere, and one of their offices was to prepare the heavenly soma juice for the gods. They had a great partiality for women, and had a mystic power over them. The Atharva-veda speaks of "the 6333 Gandharvas." The Gandharvas of later times are similar in character; they have charge of the soma, are skilled in medicine, regulate the asterisms, and are fond of women. Those of Indra's heaven are generally intended by the term, and they

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are singers and musicians who attend the banquets of the gods, 'The Purinas give contradictory accounts of the origin of the Gandharvas. The Vishnu Purana says, in one place, that they were born from Brahma, "imbibing melody. Drinking of the goddess of speech (gam dhayaniah), they were born, and thence their appellation." Later on it says that they were the offspring of Kasyapa and his wife Arish/a. The Hari-vansa states that they sprang from Brahma's nose, and also that they were descended from Muni, another of Kasyapa's wives. Chitra-ratha was chief of the Gandharvas; and the Apsarases were their wives or mistresses. The "cities of the Gandharvas " are often referred to as being very splendid The Vishnu Purana has a legend of the Gandharvas fighting with the Nagas in the infernal regions, whose dominions they seized and whose treasures they plundered. The Naga chiefs appealed to Vishnu for relief, and he promised to appear in the person of Purukutsa to help them. Thereupon the Nagas sent their sister Narmada (the Nerbudda river) to this Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the regions below, where he destroyed the Gandharvas. They are sometimes called Gatus and Pulakas. In the Maha-bharata, apparently, a race of people dwelling in the hills and wilds is so called GANPHARVA-LOKA See Loka.

GANDHARVA-VEDA The science of music and song, which is considered to include the drama and dancing. It is an appendix of the Sama-veda, and its invention is ascribed to the Muni Bharata.

GANDINL 1. Daughter of Kasl-raja; she had been twelve years in her mother's womb when her father desired her to come forth. The child told her father to present to the Brahmans a cow every day for three years, and at the end of that time she would be born. This was done, and the child, on being born, received the name of GandinI, 'cow daily.' She continued the gift as long as she lived Sho was wife of Swa-phalka and mother of Akrura. 2. The Gangii or Ganges.

GAA\DIVA The bow of Arjuna, said to have been given by Soma to Varuna, by Varuna to Agni, and by Agni to Arjuna.

GAA'ESA (Gana + Isa), GA.VA-PATL Lord of the Ganas or troops of inferior deities, especially those attendant upon Siva. Son of Siva and ParvatI, or of Parvati only. One legend represents that he sprang from the scurf of Parvati's

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body. He is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles; hence he is invariably propitiated at the beginning of any important undertaking, and is invoked at the commencement of books. He is said to have written down the Mahabharata from the dictation of Vyasa, He is represented as a short fat man of a yellow colour, with a protuberant belly, four hands, and the head of an elephant, which has only one tusk. In one hand he holds a shell, in another a discus, in the third a club or goad, and in the fourth a water-lily. Sometimes he is depicted riding upon a rat or attended by one; hence his appellation Akhu ratha. His temples are very numerous in the Dakhin. There is a variety of legends accounting for his elephant head. One is that his mother Parvati, proud of her offspring, asked Sani (Saturn) to look at him, forgetful of the effects of Hani's glance. Sani looked and the child's head was burnt to ashes. Brahma told ParvatI in her distress to replace the head with the first she could find, and that was an elephant's. Another story is that Parvati went to her bath and told her son to keep the door. Siva wished to enter and was opposed, so he cut off Ganesa's head. To pacify ParvatI he replaced it with an elephant's, the first that came to hand. Another version is that his mother formed him so to suit her own fancy, and a further .explanation is that Siva slew Aditya the sun, but restored him to life again. For this violence Kasyapa doomed Siva's son to lose his head; and when he did lose it, the head of Indra's elephant was used to replace it . The loss of one task is accounted for by a legend which represents Parasu-rama as coming to Kailasa on a visit to Siva. The god was asleep and Gan&sa opposed the entrance of the visitor to the inner apartments. A wrangle ensued, which ended in a fight. "Ganesa had at first the advantage, seizing Parasu-rama with his trunk and giving him a twirl that left him sick and senseless. On recovering, Parasu-rama threw his axe at Ganesa, who, recognising it as his father's weapon (Siva having given it to Parasu-rama), received it with all humility on one of his tusks, which it immediately severed; hence Ganesa has but one tusk, and is known by the name of Eka-danta or Eka-dansh/ra (the single-tusked). These legends are narrated at length in the Brahma Vaivartta Purana.

Ganesa is also called Gajanana, Gaja-vadana, and Kari-mukha, 'elephant-faced;' Heramba;' 'boastful;' Lamba-karna, ' long

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