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work, and sings the loves of Krishna with Riidhii, and other of the cowherd damsels, but a mystical interpretation has been put upon it . The poems are supposed to have been written about the twelfth or thirteenth century. There are some translations in the Asiatic Researches by Sir W. Jones, and a small volume of translations has been lately published by Mr. Edwin Arnold. There is also an edition of the text, with a Latin translation and notes, by Lassen, and there are some others.

GOBHILA An ancient writer of the Sutra period He was author of some Grihya Sutras, and of some Sutras on grammar. The Grihya Sutras have been published in the Bibliotheca Indica.

GO-KARiVA. 'Cow's ear.' A place of pilgrimage sacred to Siva, on the west coast, near Mangalore.

GO-KULA A pastoral district on the Yamuna, about Ma'ura, where Krishna passed his boyhood with the cowherds.

JO-LOKA 'The place of cows.' Krishna's heaven; a modern addition to the original series of seven Lokas.

GO-MANTA A great mountain in the Western Ghats. According to the Hari-vansa it was the scene of a defeat of Jara-sandha by Krishna.

GO-MATL The GumtI river in Oudo; but there are others which bore the name. One fell into the Sindhu or Indus

GO-PALA, GO-VINDA 'Cow-keeper.' A name of the youthful Krishna, who lived among the cowherds in Vrindavana.

GOPALA-TAPANL An Upanishad in honour of Krishna. Printed in the Bibliotheca Indica.

GO-PATHA BRAHMAAA The Brahmana of the Atharva or fourth Veda. It has been published by Rajendra Lala in the Bibliotheca Indica.

GOPATI-Z'/SHABHA 'Chief of herdsmen.' 1. A title of Siva. 2. A demon mentioned in the Mahabharata as slain by Krishna.

GOPlS. The cowherd damsels and wives with whom Krishna sported in his youth .

GOTAMA The founder of the Nyaya school of philosophy. He is called also Satananda, and is author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book, which has been edited by Stenzler. He is frequently called Gautama.


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GO-VARDHANA A mountain in Vnndavana, which Krishna induced the cowherds and cowherdesses to worship instead of Indra. This enraged the god, who sent a deluge of rain to wash away the mountain and all the people of the country, but Krishna held up the mountain on his little finger for seven days to shelter the people of Vnndavana. Indra retired baffled, and afterwards did homage to Krishna.

GOVARDHANA-DHARA 'Upholder of Govardhana.' A title of Krishna.

GO-VINDA 'Cow-keeper.' A name of Krishna.

GRAHA 'Seizing.' 1. The power that seizes and obscures the sun and moon, causing eclipses; the ascending node, Raha 2. Evil spirits with which people, especially children, are possessed, and which cause sickness and death. They are supposed to be amenable to medicine and exorcism.

G-R/HA-STHA 'Householder.' A Brahman in the second stage of his religious life. See Brahman.

Gi?/HYA SUTRAS. Rules for the conduct of domestic rites and the personal sacraments, extending from the birth to the marriage of a man. (See Sutra.) The Grihya Sutras of Aswalayana have been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica.

Gi2/TSA-MADA The reputed i2ishi of many hymns in the second Mandala of the i?ig-veda. According to the Vishnu Purana he was a Kshatriya and son of Suna-hotra, being descended from Pururavas of the Lunar race. From him sprang Saunaka, the eminent sage versed in the /2tg-veda "who originated the system of four castes." The Vayu Purina makes iSunaka to be the son of Gritsa-mada, and Saunaka the son of iSunaka: this seems probable. "It is related of him by Savana that he was first a member of the family of Angiras, being the son of Suna-hotra. He was carried off by the Asuras whilst performing a sacrifice, but was rescued by Indra, under whose authority he was henceforth designated as Gntsa-mada, the son of iSunaka or Saunaka of the race of Bhrigu. Thus the Anukramanila says of him: He who was an Angirasa, the son of .S'una-hotra, became .Saunaka of the race of Blm'gu." According to the Mahabharata, he was son of Vita-havya, a king of the Haihayas, a Kshatriya, who became a Brahman. (See Vitahavya.) The Maha-bharata alludes to a legend of his having assumed the semblance of Indra, and so enabled that deity to

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escape from the Asuras, who. were lying in wait to destroy him. There are several versions of the story, but they all agree that after Indra had escaped Gritsa-mada saved himself by reciting a hymn in which he showed that Indra was a different person.

GUDA-KESA 'Whose hair is in tufts.' An epithet of At] una.

GUHA 'Secret.' 1. A name of the god of war. (See Karttikeya.) 2. A king of the Nishadas or Bhils, who was a friend of Rama. 3. A people near Kalinga, who possibly got their name from him.

GUHYAKAS. 'Hidden beings' Inferior divinities attendant upon Kuvera, and guardians of his hidden treasures.

GUPTAS. A dynasty of kings who reigned in Magadha. The period of their ascendancy has been a subject of great contention, and cannot be said to be settled

GURJJARA The country of Gujarat .

HAIHAYA This name is supposed to be derived from haya, 'a horse.' 1. A prince of the Lunar race, and great-grandson of Yadu. 2. A race or tribe of people to whom a Scythian origin has been ascribed The Vishnu Purana represents them as descendants of Haihaya of the Yadu race, but they are generally associated with borderers and outlying tribes. In the Vayu and other Puranas, five great divisions of the tribe are named : Tiilajanghas, Viti-hotras, Avantis, Tu?u/ikeras, and Jatas, or rather Su-jatas. They conquered Bahu or Bahuka, a descendant of King Haris-chandra, and were in their turn conquered, along with many other barbarian tribes, by King Sagara, son of Bahu. According to the Maha-bharata, they were descended from iSaryati, a son of Manu. They made incursions into the Doab, and they took the city of KasI (Benares), which had been fortified against them by King Divo-dasa; but the grandson of this king, Pratardana by name, destroyed the Haihayas, and re-established the kingdom of Kasl. Arjuna-Kartavirya, of a thousand arms, was king of the Haihayas, and he was defeated and had his arms cut off by Para-su-rama.

The Vindhya mountains would seem to have been the home of these tribes; and according to Colonel Todd, a tribe of Haihayas still exists "near the very top of the valley of Sohagpoor, in Bhagelkhand, aware of their ancient lineage, and, though few i". number, still celebrated for their valour."

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HALA-BHi?/T. 'Bearing a plough.' Bala-rama. HALAYUDHA 'Who has a ploughshare for his weapon,' i.e., Bala-riima.

HANSA 1. This, according to the Bhagavata Purana, was the name of the " one caste," when, in olden times, there was only "one Veda, one God, and one caste." 2. A name used in the Mahabharata for Krishna. 3. A mountain range north of Meru.

HANSA Hansa and Dimbhaka were two great warriorbrothers mentioned in the Mahabharata as friends of Jara-sandha. A certain king also named Hansa was killed by Bala-rama. Hearing that "Hansa was killed," Dimbhaka, unable to live without him, committed suicide, and when Hansa heard of this he drowned himself in the Yamuna.

HANUMAN, HANUMAT, HANUMAT. A celebrated monkey chief. He was son of Pavana, 'the wind,' by Anjana, wife of a monkey named Kesari. He was able to fly, and is a conspicuous figure in the Ramayana. He and the other monkeys who assisted Rama in his war against Ravana were of divine origin, and their powers were superhuman. Hanuman jumped from India to Ceylon in one bound; he tore up trees, carried away the Himalayas, seized the clouds, and performed many other wonderful exploits. (See Surasa.) His form is "as vast as a mountain and as tall as a gigantic tower. His complexion is yellow and glowing like molten gold. His face is as red as the brightest ruby; while his enormous tail spreads out to an interminahle length. He stands on a lofty rock and roars like thunder. He leaps into the air, and flies among the clouds with a rushing noise, whilst the ocean waves are roaring and splashing below." In one of his fights with Riivana and the Rakshasas, they greased his tail and set it on fire, but to their own great injury, for with it he burnt down their capital city, Lanka, This exploit obtained for him the name Lanka-diihL His services to Rama were great and many. He acted as his spy, and fought most valiantly. He flew to the Himalayas, from whence he brought medicinal herbs with which he restored the wounded, and he killed the monster Kala-nemi, and thousands of Gandharvas who assailed him. He accompanied Rama on his return to Ayodhya, and there he received from him the reward of perpetual life and youth. The exploits of Hanuman Hanuman-nataka—hari-hara. I 17

are favourite topics among Hindus from childhood to age, and paintings of them are common. He is called Marut-putra, and he has the patronymics Anili, Maruti, &C., and the metronymic Anjaneya. He is also Yoga-chara, from his power in magic or in the healing art, and Rajata-dyuti, 'the brilliant.' Among his other accomplishments, Hanumat was a grammarian; and the Ramayana says, "The chief of monkeys is perfect; no one equals him in the sastras, in learning, and in ascertaining the sense of the scriptures [or in moving at will). In all sciences, in the rules of austerity, he rivals the preceptor of the gods.

... It is well known that Hanumat was the ninth author of grammar."—Muir, iv. 490.

HANUMAN-NATAKA A long drama by various hands upon the adventures of the monkey chief Hanuman. This drama is fabled to have been composed by Hanuman, and inscribed by him on rocks. Valmlki, the author of the Ramaya?)a, saw it and feared that it would throw his own poem into the shade. He complained to the author, who told him to cast the verses into the sea. He did so, and they remained concealed there for ages. Portions were discovered and brought to King Bhoja, who directed Damodara Mi.«ra to arrange them and fill up the lacunae. He did so, and the result was this drama. "It is probable," says Wilson, "that the fragments of an ancient drama were connected in the manner described. Some of the ideas are poetical, and the sentiments just and forcible; the language is generally very harmonious, but the work itself is, after all, a most disjointed and nondescript composition, and the patchwork is very glaringly and clumsily put together." It is a work of the tenth or eleventh century. It has been printed in India.

HARA A name of Siva.

HARL A name which commonly designates Vishnu, but it is exceptionally used for other gods.

HARI-D WAR A 'The gate of Hari.' The modern Hardwar. The place where the Ganges finally breaks through the mountains into the plains of Hindustan. It is a great place of pilgrimage.

HARI-HARA A combination of the names of Vishnu and Siva, and representing the union of the two deities in one, a combination which is differently accounted for.

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