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It corresponds with the Kampila of moder n times, situated in the Doab on the old Ganges, between Badaun and Farrukhabad.

KAMYAKA The forest in which the PaWavas passed their exile on the banks of the SaraswatL

KAJVADA The sage who founded the Vaiseshika school of philosophy. See Darsana.

Kanchl One of the seven sacred cities, kodie Conjeveram.

KANDARPA The Hindu Cupid. See Kama.

K&iVDARSHL A Rishi who teaches one particular Kinda or part of the Vedas.

KAjVDU. A sage who was beguiled from long and severe austerities by Pramlochii, a nymph sent from heaven by Indra for this purpose. He lived with her some hundreds of years, which seemed to him only as a day, but he at length repudiated her and " went to the region of Vishnu." Pramlocha gave birth, in an extraordinary manner, to his daughter Marisha (q.v.).

KANISHKA "Hushka, Jushka, Kanishka." These are the names recorded in the Raja Tarangim of three great Turushka, that is Turk or Tatar, kings, who were of the Buddhist religion. It may, perhaps, be taken for granted that Hushka and Jushka come in their natural succession, for the names might be transposed without detriment to the metre; but the short syllable of the name Kanishka is required where it stands by the rules of prosody, so that the position of the name in the verse is not decisive of his place in the succession of kings. Nothing is known of Jushka beyond the simple recital of his name as above quoted, but the names of Kanishka and Hushka (or Huvishka) have been found in inscriptions and upon coins, showing that their dominions were of considerable extent in Northern India, and that they were, as the Raja Tarangim represents, great supporters of the Buddhist religion. The name of Kanishka has been found in inscriptions at Mathura, Manikyiila, Bhawalpur, and Zeda, while his name appears on the corrupt Greek coins as Kanerki. Huvishka's name has been found at Mathura and on a metal vase from Wardak in Afghanistan; on the coins his name is represented as Oerki. Kanishka preceded Huvishka, and it is certain that their reigns covered a period of fifty-one years, and probably more. The time at which they reigned seems to have been just before the ChrisKansa—kanya-kumarl 149

tian era. A Roman coin of the date 33 ac. was found in the tope of Manikyala, which was built by Kanishka.

KANSA A tyrannical king of Mathura, son of Ugra-scna and cousin of Devaki the mother of Krishna; so he was the cousin, not the uncle, of Krishna, as he is often called. He married two daughters of Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. He deposed his father. It was foretold that a son born of Devaki should kill him, so he endeavoured to destroy all her children. But Bala-rama, her seventh son, was smuggled away to Gokula, and was brought up by RohinL When Krishna the eighth was born his parents fled with him. The tyrant then gave orders for a general massacre of all vigorous male infants. Kansa became the great persecutor of Krishna, but was eventually killed by him. Kansa is also called Kalankura, 'crane' He is looked upon as an Asura, and is in some way identified with the Asura Kala-nemi.

KANSA-BADHA A drama in seven acts upon the destruction of Kansas by Krishna. The author is called Krishna Kavi, and the play was probably written about two centuries ago. It is weak as a drama, but "the language is in general good, although highly elaborate."—Wilson.

KAiVWA See Satapatha Brahmana.

Kavwa Name of a ifehi to whom some hymns of the i?tg-veda are ascribed; he is sometimes counted as one of the seven great i?ishis. The sage who brought up Sakuntala as his daughter. There are several others of the same name.

KAiVWAS. The descendants or followers of Kanwa.

KANYA-KUBJA The modern form of the name is Kanauj or Kinnauj, spelt in a variety of ways. 1. An ancient city of Hindustan on the Kali-nadi, an affluent of the Ganges, and lying a little to the west of the latter. It was once the capital of a powerful dynasty. It was known to classical geographers as " Canogyza." The name means "humpbacked damsel," and refers to a legend relating to the hundred daughters of King Kusa-nabha, who were all made crooked by Vayu for refusing to comply with his licentious desires. 2. A great national division of the Brahman caste. See Brahman.

KANYA-KUMARl 'The virgin-damsel.' A name of Durga. Her worship extended to the southernmost extremity of India in the days of Pliny, and 'Kumari' still appears in the name Cape Comorin.

KA PARDIN—KARNA.

KAPARDIN. 'Wearing the kaparda,' a peculiar braid or knot of hair. This epithet is applied to Siva, to one of the Rudras, and some others.

KAPI-DHWAJA An epithet of Arjuna, because he bore an ape (hxpi) on his standard (dhwaja).

KAPILA A celebrated sage, the founder of the Sankhya philosophy. The Hari-vansa makes him the son of Vitatha. He is sometimes identified with Vishnu and sometimes with Agni . He is said to have destroyed the hundred thousand sons of King Sagara with a glance. See Sagara.

KAPILA, KAPILA-VASTU. A town on the river Rohinl, an affluent of the Rapti, which was the capital of Suddhodana, the father of Gotama Buddha.

KAPILA PURAiVA. See Purana.

KAPLSA. Mother of the Pisachas, who bear the metronymic Kapiseya.

KARALL 'Dreadful, terrible.' In Vedic times one of the seven tongues of Agni (fire), but in later days a name of the terrible consort of Siva . See Devi.

KARDAMA According to the Mahabharata and Ramayana, he is one of the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma. According to other authorities, he, or another sage of the same name, was a son of Daksha or a son of Pulaha.

KARMA-MIMANSA The Purva-mimansa. See Dareana.

KARMA-MMANSA-StJTRA A work on the Vedanta philosophy, ascribed to Jaimini.

KARiVA. Son of Pritha or KuntI by Surya, the sun, before her marriage to Panrfu. Karna was thus half-brother of the Panrfavas, but this relationship was not known to them till after his death. KuntI, on one occasion, paid such attention to the sage Dur-vasas, that he gave her a charm by virtue of which she might have a child by any god she preferred to invoke. She chose the sun, and the result was Karna, who was born equipped with arms and armour. Afraid of censure and disgrace, KuntI exposed the child on the banks of the Yamuna^ where it was found by Nandana or Adhiratha, the suta or charioteer of Dhrita-rashfra. The charioteer and his wife, Radha, brought him up as their own, and the child passed as such. When he grew up, Indra disguised himself as a Brahman, and cajoled him out of his divine cuirass. He gave him KARXA-KARTA-VIRYA.

in return great strength and a javelin charged with certain death to whomsoever it was hurled against Kami became king of Anga or Bengal. Some authorities represent his foster-father as having been ruler of that country, but others say that Karna was made king of Anga by Dur-yodhana, in order to qualify him to fight in the passage of arms at the swayam-vara of DraupadL This princess haughtily rejected him, saying, "I wed not with the base-born." Karna knew that he was half-brother of the Panrfavas, but he took the side of their cousins, the Kauravas, and he had especial rivalry and animosity against Arjuna, whom he vowed to kill . In the great battle he killed Ghatotkacha, the son of Bhima, with Indra's javelin. Afterwards there was a terrific combat between him and Arjuna, in which the latter was nearly overpowered, but he killed Karna with a crescent-shaped arrow. After Karna's death his relationship to the PaWavas became known to them, and they showed their regret for his loss by great kindness to his widows, children, and dependants. From his father, Vikarttana (the sun), Karna was called Vaikarttana; from his foster-parents, Vasu-sena; from his foster-father's profession, Adhirathi and Suta; and from his foster-mother, Radheya . He was also called Anga-raja,' king of Anga;' Charm padhipa, 'king of Champa;' and Kamna, 'the bastard.'

KARiVA-PRAVARAA'AS. Men whose ears served them for coverings. They are mentioned in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, and other works.

KARAATA, KARAATAKA The country where the Canarese language is spoken, in the central districts of the Peninsula, including Mysore. The name " Carnatic" is derived from this.

KARTA-VlRYA Son of Krita-virya, king of the Haihayas. This is his patronymic, by which he is best known; his real name was Arjuna. "Having worshipped a portion of the divine being called Dattatreya, sprung from the race of Atri, he sought and obtained these boons, viz., a thousand arms and a golden chariot that went wheresoever he willed it to go; the power of restraining wrong by justice; the conquest of the earth and the disposition to rule it righteously; invincibility by enemies, and death at the hands of a man renowned over the whole world. By him this earth was perfectly governed," and of him it is said :—" No other king shall ever equal Karta-vlrya in regard

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to sacrifices, liberality, austerities, courtesy, and self-restraint." "Thus he ruled for85,o00 years with unbroken health, prosperity, strength, and valour."— V. P. He visited the hermitage of Jamadagni, and was received by that sage's wife with all respect; but he made an ill return for her hospitality, and carried off by violence, "the calf of the milch-cow of the sacred oblation." For this outrage Parasu-rama cut off his thousand arms and killed him. In another place a different character is given to him, and more in accordance with his behaviour at Jamad-agni's hut. "He oppressed both men and gods," so that the latter appealed to Vishnu for succour. That god then came down to the earth as Parasu-rama for the especial purpose of killing him. Kartavirya was the contemporary of Ravana, and when that demon monarch came "in the course of his campaign of conquest to MahishmatI (the capital of Karta-virya), he was captured without difficulty, and was confined like a wild beast in a corner of his city." The statement of the Vayu Purana is that Kartavlrya invaded Lanka, and there took Riivana prisoner.

KARTTIKEYA The god of war and the planet Mars, also called Skanda. He is said in the Mahabharata and Ramayana to be the son of Siva or Rudra, and to have been produced without the intervention of a woman. Siva cast his seed into fire, and it was afterwards received by the Ganges: Karttikeya was the result; hence he is called Agni-bhii and Ganga-ja. He was fostered by the Pleiades (Krittika), and hence he has six heads and the name Karttikeya. His paternity is sometimes assigned to Agni (fire); Ganga (the Ganges) and Parvati are variously represented to be his mother. He was born for the purpose of destroying Taraka, a Daitya whose austerities had made him formidable to the gods. He is represented riding on a peacock called Paravani, holding a bow in one hand and an arrow in the other. His wife is Kaumari or Sena. He has many titles: as a warrior he is called Maha-sena, Sena-pati; Siddha-sena, 'leader of the Siddhas;' and Yudha-ranga; also Kumara, the boy; Guha, 'the mysterious one;' Sakti-dhara, 'spear-holder;' and in the south he is called Su-brahmanya. He is Ganga-putra, 'son of the Ganges;' Sara-bhu, 'born in the thicket;' Taraka-jit, 'vanquisher of Taraka;' Dwadasa-kara and Dwadasaksha, 'twelve-handed' and 'twelve-eyed;' i?ijukaya, 'straight-bodied' See Krauncha.

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