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KARUSHAS—KATHAKA. 153 Jj-^.-ijcj

KARUSHAS. A people of Malwa, inhabiting the back of \, the Vindhya mountains. They are said to be descended from Karusha, one of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata.

KASL Benares.

Ka<si KHAiVDA A long poem, forming a part of the Skanda Purana. It gives a very minute description of the temples of Siva in and around Benares, and is presumably anterior to the Mahomedan conquest . See Skanda Purana.

KASYAPA A Vedic sage to whom some hymns are attributed. All authorities agree in assigning to him a large part in the work of creation. According to the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, and the Puranas, he was the son of Marichi, the son of Brahma, and he was father of Vivaswat, the father of Manu, the progenitor of mankind. The Satapatha Brahmana gives a different and not very intelligible account of his origin thus:—" Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot); hence the word kurma (tortoise). Kasyapa means tortoise; hence men say, 'All creatures are descendants of Kasyapa.' This tortoise is the same as Aditya." The Atharva-veda says, "The self-born Kasyapa sprang from Time," and Time is often identical with Vishnu. The Mahabharata and later authorities agree in representing that Kasyapa married Aditi and twelve other daughters of Daksha. Upon Aditi he begat the Adityas, headed by Indra, and also Vivaswat, and "to Vivaswat was born the wise and mighty Manu." The Ramayana and Vishnu Purana also state that "Vishnu was born as a dwarf, the son of Aditi and Kasyapa." By his other twelve wives he had a numerous and very diversified offspring: demons, nagas, reptiles, birds, and all kinds of living things. He was thus the father of all, and as such is sometimes called Prajapati. He is one of the seven great i?ishis, and he appears as the priest of Parasu-rama and Rama-chandra.

KA-TANTRA A Sanskrit grammar by Sarva-varman. Edited by Eggeling for the Bibliotheca Indica.

KATA-PRU. 'Worm.' A class of beings similar to or identical with the Vidya-dharas.

KATHA Name of a Upanishad (q.v.). It has been translated by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica.

KATHAKA A school or recension of the Yajur-veda,

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occupying a position between the Black and the White. It is supposed to be lost.

KATHAi?iVAVA 'Sea of stories.' A compilation of miscellaneous stories in four books; the first two are the originals of the Hindi Baital Pachlsi and Singhasan Battlsl.

KATHA-SARIT-SAGARA 'The ocean of the rivers of stories.' A collection of popular stories by Soma-deva-bhaWa of Kashmir, made about the beginning of the twelfth century A.d. It is drawn from a larger work called Brihat-katha. Thet ext has been printed and in part translated by Brockhaus. •

KATYAYANA An ancient writer of great celebrity, who came after Panini, whose grammar he completed and corrected in what he called Varttikas, 'supplementary rules and annotations.' He is generally identified with Vararuchi, the author of the Prakrita Prakasa. Max Midler places him in the second half of the fourth century B.c.; Goldstiicker in the first half of the second century AC. ; Weber about twenty-five years a C. Besides his additions to Pamni's Grammar, he was the author of the Srauta-sutras which bear his name, and of the Yajur-veda Pratisakhya. His Sutras have been edited by Weber. A story in the Katha-sarit-sagara makes him the incarnation of a demigod named Pushpa-danta. A Katyayana was author also of a Dharma-sastra.

KATYAYANL A name of Durga. See Devi.

Kaumara The creation of the Kumaras (q.v.).

KAUMODAKl . The mace of Krishna, presented to him by Agni when engaged with him in fighting against Indra and burning the KhaWava forest .

KAUNDIiVYA An ancient sage and grammarian. He offended Siva, but was saved from that god's wrath by Vishnu: he was hence called Vishnu-gupta, 'saved by Vishnu.'

KAUNTEYA. Son of Kuntl. A metronymic applicable to Yudhi-sh/hira, Bhima, and Arjuna, but commonly applied to Arjuna.

KAURAVAS. Descendants of Kuru. A patronymic especially applied to the sons of Dhrita-rash/ra. See Maha-bharata.

KAUSALYA (mas.), KAUSALYA (fem.). Belonging to the Kosala nation. There are several women known by this name. The wife of Puru and mother of Janamejaya. The wife of Dasa-ratha and mother of Rama. (See Dasa-ratha.) The

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mother of Dhrita-rashrfra and the mother of Panrfu both were known by this name, being daughters of a king of KasL

KATLSAMBL The capital of Vatsa, near the junction of the Ganges and Jumna . An inscription found at Karra on the Ganges mentions that place as being situated in Kausambi-manrfala, the circle of Kausambi; but General Cunningham identifies the place with the village of Kosam, said to be still called Kosambinagar on the Jumna, about thirty miles above Allahabad. It is the scene of the drama Ratnavali.

KAUSHITAKL 1. A sakha of the i?ig-veda. 2. (Kaushitaki) the name of a Brihmana, an Aranyaka, and a Upanishad. (See those terms.) The Brahmana has been published with a translation by Professor Cowell in the Bibliotheca Indica.

KAlLSTKA. A devotee mentioned in the Mahabharata as having gone to a hell of torment for having pointed out to robbers a road by which they pursued and killed some persons who fled from them.

KAUSIKAS. Descendants of Kusika (q.v.). In one of the hymns of the Rig the epithet is given to Indra.

KAtLSTKL The river Kosi in Bihar, but there were more rivers than one bearing this name. SatyavatI, mother of Jamadagni is said to have been changed into a river of this name.

KAUSTUBHA. A celebrated jewel obtained at the churning of the ocean, and worn by Vishnu or Krishna on his bosom.

KAUTILYA Another name of Chanakya, the minister of Chandra-gupta. See Chanakya.

KAUTSA A rationalistic philosopher, who lived before the days of Yaska the author of the Nirukta. He regarded "the Veda as devoid of meaning, and the Brahmanas as false interpretations." Yaska replied to his objections.

KAUTUKA-SARVASWA A modern farce, in two acts, by a Panrfit named Gopl-natha. "It is a satire upon princes who addict themselves to idleness and sensuality, and fail to patronise the Brahmans."—Wilson.

KAVASHA, KAVASHA-AILUSHA Son of Ilusha by a slave girl . He was author of several hymns in the tenth book of the i?ig-veda. The Aitareya Brahmana relates that the ifrshis were performing a sacrifice on the banks of the SaraswatI, and that Kavasha was with them; but they drove him from among them because he was the son of a slave, and therefore unworthy

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to drink the water of the Saraswatl. When he was alone in the desert, a prayer was revealed to him by which he prevailed over the Saraswatl, and its waters came and surrounded him. The Bishia saw this, and knowing that it was by the special favour of the gods, they admitted him to their society.

KAVI-RAJA Author of a poem of studied ambiguity called Raghava-Panrfaviyam (q.v.).

KAVYA-DARSA 'Mirror of poetry.' A work on the Ars Poetica by Sri DandL It has been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica

KAVYA-PRAKASA. A work on poetry and rhetoric by Mamma/a Bha//a of Kashmir. It has been printed at Calcutta.

KAVYAS, KAVYAS. A class of Pitris; according to some they are the Manes of men of the third caste.

KAYAVYA The son of a Kshatriya by a Nishada female, who is related in the Maha-bharata to have risen by virtue, knowledge, and devotion from the state of a Dasyu to perfection.

KEDARESA, KEDARA-NATHA A name of Svn. Name of one of the twelve great Lingas. It is a shapeless mass of stone at Kedara-natha in the Himalayas. See Linga.

KEKAYA See Kaikeya.

KELI-KILA A demigod attendant upon Siva.

KENA, KENOPANISHAD. Name of a Upanishad (q.v.) translated by Dr. Roer for the Bibliotheca Indica.

KERAKAS. One-footed men who live in forests, according to the Mahabharata.

KERALA The country of Malabar proper on the western coast .

KESAVA 'Having much or fine hair.' A name of Vishnu or Krishna.

REST, KESTN. In the Maha-bharata, a demon who fought with and was defeated by Indra. In the Puranas, a Daitya who took the form of a horse and attacked Krishna, but was killed by that hero's thrusting his arm into his jaws and rending him asunder.

KESINl . Wife of Visravas and mother of Ravana; also called Kaikasi.

KESI-DHWAJA Son of Krita-dhwaja. Kesi-dhwaja "was endowed with spiritual knowledge," and he had a cousin, Khanrfikya, who "was diligent in the way of works and was renowned for religious rites." There was contention and hostilities W KETU—KHA TWANG A. 157

tween them, and Khancfikya was driven from his dominions. But they subsequently became useful to each other and friendly. Khanrfikya by his practical religion enabled Kesi-dhwaja to make atonement for the killing of a cow, and Kesi-dhwaja initiated Khanrfikya in the mysteries of spiritual meditation (yoga).

KETU. The descending node in astronomy, represented by a dragon's tail; also a comet or meteor, and the ninth of the planets. He is said to be a Danava, and son of Viprachitti and Sinhika. He is also called A-kacha, 'hairless Aslesha-bhava, 'cut offManda, 'ball' See Rahu.

KHAiVZ>AVA, KHAATDAVA-PRASTHA A forest and country on the banks of the Yamuna, which the Panrfavas received as their moiety when Dhrita-rashfra divided his kingdom. In it they built the city of Indra-prastha and made it their capital. The forest was consumed with fire by the god Agni assisted by Krishna and Arjuna.

KHAATOTKYA See Km-dhwaja.

KHARA A man-eating Rakshasa, the younger brother of Ravana. lIe was killed by Rama-chandra.

KHARVA. A dwarf. See Valakhilya.

KHASA A daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother of the Yakshas and Rakshasas, called after her Khasatmajas.

KHASAS, KHASAKAS, KHASlEAS. An outlying or border people classed with the iSakas and other northern tribes. Professor Wilson thought that traces of them might be sought among the barbarous tribes on the north-east of Bengal, the Khasiyas .

KHATWANGA (also called Dilipa). 1. A prince of the Solar race. In a battle between the gods and the demons he rendered great assistance to the former, who desired him to ask a boon. He begged that he might know the duration of his life, and the answer was, "Only an hour." He hastened to the world of mortals, and by earnest prayer he became united with the sup reme being, Vishnu. "Like unto Kha/wanga will there be no one upon earth, who, having come from heaven and dwelt an hour amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his liberality and knowledge of truth."—V. P. 2. A club; the club of Siva; it is also called Khinkhira and Pansula.

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