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173 and that god was so alarmed at his austerities, that he himself became incarnate as Gādhi, son of Kusāmba.

KUSA-STHALĪ. 1. A city identical with or standing on the same spot as Dwarakā. It was built by Raivata, and was the capital of his kingdom called Ānarta. When Raivata went on a visit to the region of Brahmā, his city was destroyed by Punya-janas, i.e., Yakshas or Rākshasas. 2. A city built by Kusa, son of Rāma, on the brow of the Vindhyas. It was the capital of Southern Kosalā. Also called Kusā-vati.

KUSA-VATĪ. The capital of Southern Kosala, built upon the Vindhyas by Kusa, son of Rāma.

KUSHMĀNDAS. "Gourds. A class of demigods or demons in the service of Siva.

KUSIKA. A king who, according to some, was the father of Viswamitra, or, according to others, the first of the race of Kusikas from whom Gādhi, the father of Viswāmitra descended.

KUSUMA-PURA. "The city of flowers.' Patali-putra or Patna.

KUSUMĀYUDHA. A name of Kāma, or Cupid as the bearer of the bow (āyudha) of flowers (kusuma).

KUTSA. A Vedic Rishi and author of hymns. He is represented as being persecuted by Indra, but on one occasion he was defended by that god against the demon Sushna. It is said that Indra took him to his palace, and that they were so much alike that Sachi or Pushpotkatā, Indra's wife, did not know which was her husband.

KUVALĀSWA, KUVALAYĀSWA. · A prince of the Solar race, who, according to the Vishnu Purāna, had 21,000 sons, but the Hari-vansa numbers them only as 100. Attended by his sons he attacked the great Asura, Dhundhu, who lived in a sea of sand, and harassed the devotions of the pious sage Uttanka. They unearthed the demon and slew him, from which exploit Kuvalāswa got the title of Dhundhu-māra, slayer of Dhundhu ; but all his sons except three perished by the fiery breath of the monster.

KUVALAYĀPĪDA. An immense elephant, or a demon in elephantine form, belonging to Kansa, and employed by him to trample the boys Krishna and Bala-rāma to death. The attempt failed and the elephant was killed.

KUVERA. In the Vedas, a chief of the evil beings or spirits

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living in the shades: a sort of Pluto, and called by his patronymic Vaisravana. Later he is Pluto in another sense, as god of wealth and chief of the Yakshas and Guhyakas. He was son of Visravas by Idāvidā, but he is sometimes called son of Pulastya, who was father of Visravas. This is explained by the Mahā-bhārata, according to which Kuvera was son of Pulastya, but that sage being offended with Kuvera for his adulation of Brahmā, “reproduced the half of himself in the form of Visravas,” and had Rāvana and other children. (See Visravas.) Kuvera's city is Alakā (also called Prabhā, Vasu-dharā, and Vasu-sthali) in the Himālayas, and his garden Chaitra-ratha on Mandara, one of the spurs of Mount Meru, where he is waited upon by the Kinnaras. Some authorities place his abode on Mount Kailāsa in a palace built by Viswa-karma. He was half-brother of Rāvana, and, according to the Rāmāyana and Malā-bhārata, he once had possession of the city of Lankā in Ceylon, which was also built by Viswa-karma, and from which he was expelled by Rāvana. The same authority states that he performed austerities for thousands of years, and obtained the boon from Brahmā that he should be immortal, one of the guardian deities of the world, and the god of wealth. So he is regent of the north, and the keeper of gold and silver, jewels and pearls, and all the treasures of the earth, besides nine particular Nidhis, or treasures, the nature of which is not well understood. Brahmā also gave him the great self-moving aerial car Pushpaka (q.v.). His wife is Yakshī, Chārvī, or Kauverī, daughter of the Dānava Mura. His sons are Mani-grīva or Varna-kavi and Nala-kubara or Mayu-rāja, and his daughter Minākshi (fish-eyed). He is represented as a white man deformed in body, and having three legs and only eight teeth. His body is covered with ornaments. He receives no worship. The name Ku-vera, as also the variant Ku-tanu, signifies 'vile body,' referring to his ugliness. He is also called Dhana-pati, ‘lord of wealth ;' Ichchhā-vasu, who has wealth at will ;' Yaksha-rāja, 'chief of the Yakshas ;' Mayurāja, ‘king of the Kinnaras ;' Rākshasendra, 'chief of the Rākshasas ; Ratna-garbha, 'belly of jewels ;' Rāja-rāja, 'king of kings;' and Nara-rāja, king of men' (in allusion to the power of riches). From his parentage lie is called Vaisravana, Paulastya, and Aidavida or Ailavila. As an especial friend of Siva he is called Isa-sakhi, &c.

LAGHU-KAUMUDI-LAKSHMANA. 175 LAGHU-KAUMUDĪ. A modern and very much simplified edition of Pānini's Grammar by Varada Rāja. It has been edited and translated by Dr. Ballantyne.

LAKSHMANA. 1. Son of King Dasa-ratha by his wife Sumitrā. He was the twin brother of Satru-ghna, and the halfbrother and especial friend of Rāma-chandra. Under the peculiar circumstances of his birth, one-eighth part of the divinity of Vishnu became manifest in him. (See Dasa-ratha.) But according to the Adhyātma Rāmāyana, he was an incarnation of Sesha. When Rāma left his father's court to go to the hermitage of Viswāmitra, Lakshmana accompanied him, and afterwards attended him in his exile and in all his wanderings. He was also very attached to Rāma's wife Sītā, which gave rise to the reproach that the two brothers were husbands of one wife. On one occasion, indeed, Sītā reproached Lakshmana that he did not hasten to rescue Rāma from danger, because he wished to obtain herself. His own wife was Ūrmilā, the sister of Sītā, and he had two sons, Angada and Chandra-ketu. While Rāma and Lakshmana were living in the wilderness, a Rākshasī named Sūrpa-nakhā, sister of Rāvana, fell in love with Rāma and made advances to him. He jestingly referred her to Lakshmana, who in like manner sent her back to Rāma. When she was again repulsed she attacked Sītā, whom Rāma was obliged to defend. Rāma then called upon Lakshmana to disfigure the Rākshasī, and accordingly he cut off her nose and ears. The mutilated female called upon her brother to avenge her, and a fierce war ensued. When Sītā was carried off by Rāvana, Lakshmana accompanied Rāma in his search, and he ably and bravely supported him in his war against Rāvana. Rāma's earthly career was drawing to a close, and Time was sent to inform him that he must elect whether to stay longer on earth, or to return to the place from whence he had come. While they were in conference, the irascible sage Dur-vāsas came and demanded to see Rāma instantly, threatening him with the most direful curses if any delay were allowed to occur. To save his brother Rāma from the threatened curse, but aware of the consequences that would ensue to himself from breaking in upon Rāma's interview with Time, he went in and brought Rāma out. Lakshmana knowing his fate, retired to the river Sarayū and resigned himself. The gods then showered down flowers upon

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him and conveyed him bodily to heaven. 2. A son of Duryodhana, killed by Abhimanyu.

LAKSHMĪ. The word occurs in the Rig-veda with the sense of good fortune, and in the Atharva-veda the idea has become personified in females both of a lucky and unlucky character. The Taittirīya Sanhitā, as explained by the commentator, makes Lakshmi and Srī to be two wives of Āditya, and the Satapatha Brāhmana describes Srī as issuing forth from Prajāpati.

Lakshmi or Srī in later times is the goddess of fortune, wife of Vishnu, and mother of Kāma. The origin ascribed to her by the Rāmāyana is the one commonly received. According to this legend she sprang, like Aphrodite, from the froth of the ocean, in full beauty with a lotus in her hand, when it was churned by the gods and the Asuras. Another legend represents her as floating on the flower of a lotus at the creation. With reference to this origin, one of her names is Kshīrābdhi-tanayā, daughter of the sea of milk.' From her connection with the lotus she is called Padmā. According to the Purānas, she was the daughter of Bhrigu and Khyati. The Vishnu Purāna says, “Her first birth was the daughter of Bhrigu by Khyāti. It was at a subsequent period that she was produced from the sea at the churning of the ocean. ... When Hari was born as a dwarf, Lakshmi appeared from a lotus (as Padmā or Kamalā). When he was born as Rāma of the race of Bhrigu (or Parasu-rāma), she was Dharanī. When he was Rāghava (Rāma-chandra), she was Sītā. And when he was Krishna she became Rukmini. In the other descents of Vishnu she is his associate.” One version of the Rāmāyana also affirms that “ Lakshmī, the mistress of the worlds, was born by her own will, in a beautiful field opened up by the plough,” and received from Janaka the name of Sītā.

Lakshmi is said to have four arms, but she is the type of beauty, and is generally depicted as having only two. In one hand she holds a lotus. “She has no temples, but being goddess of abundance and fortune, she continues to be assiduously courted, and is not likely to fall into neglect.” Other names of Lakshmi are Hiri, Indirā, Jaladhi-ja, 'ocean born ;' Chanchalā or Lolā, the fickle,' as goddess of fortune ; Loka-mātā, 'mother of the world.'


177 LALITA-VISTARA. A work in Sanskrit verse on the life and doctrines of Buddha. It has been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica.

LĀNGALĪ. “Armed with a ploughshare.' Bala-rāma.

LANKĀ. 1. The island of Ceylon or its capital city. The city is described in the Rāmāyana as of vast extent and of great magnificence, with seven broad moats and seven stupendous walls of stone and metal. It is said to have been built of gold by Viswa-karma for the residence of Kuvera, from whom it was taken by Rāvana. The Bhāgavata Purāna represents that the island was originally the summit of Mount Meru, which was broken off by the god of the wind and hurled into the sea. 2. Name of one of the Sākinīs or evil spirits attendant on Siva and Devī.

LĀTA. A country comprising Kandesh and part of Guzerat about the Mhye river. It is also called Lār, and is the Λαρικη of Ptolemy.

LĀTYĀYANA. Author of a Sūtra work. It has been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica.

LAVA. One of the twin sons of Rāma and Sītā. He reigned at Srāvasti. See Rāma.

LAVANA. A Rākshasa, son of Madhu by Kumbhīnasī, the sister of Rāvana and daughter of Visravas. He inherited from his father an invincible trident which had been presented to him by Siva. He was surprised without his weapon and killed by Satru-ghna. Lavana was king of Mathurā and Satru-ghna succeeded him.

LIKHITA. Author of a Dharma-sāstra or code of law.

LĪLĀVATĪ. Charming.' The fanciful title of that chapter of Bhāskara’s Siddhānta-siromani which treats of arithmetic and geometry. It has been translated by Colebrooke and Dr. Taylor, and the text has been printed.

LINGA, LINGAM. The male organ. The phallus. The symbol under which Siva is universally worshipped. It is of comparatively modern introduction and is unknown to the Vedas, but it receives distinct notice in the Mahā-bhārata. “The emblem-a plain column of stone, or sometimes a cone of plastic mud-suggests no offensive ideas. The people call it Siva or Mahā-deva, and there's an end." In the Siva Purāna, and in the Nandi Upa-purāna, Siva is made to say, “I am


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