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and that god was so alarmed at his austerities, that he himself became incarnate as Gandhi, son of Kusamba.

KILSA-STHALl. 1. A city identical with or standing on the same spot as Dwaraka. It was built by Raivata, and was the capital of his kingdom called Anarta. When Raivata went on a visit to the region of Brahma, his city was destroyed by Punya-janas, ie., Yakshas or Rakshasas. 2. A city built by Kusa, son of Rama, on the brow of the Vindhyas. It was the capital of Southern Kosalu. Also called Kusa-vati.

KU.SA-VATL The capital of Southern Kosala, built upon the Vindhyas by Kusa, son of Rama.

KUSHMAiVDAS. 'Gourds.' A class of demigods or demons in the service of Siva.

KU&'IKA A king who, according to some, was the father of Vi.9wamitra, or, according to others, the first of the race of Kusikas from whom Gandhi, the father of Viswamitra descended.

KUSUMA-PURA 'The city of flowers.' PaMi-putra or Patna.

KUSUMAYUDHA A name of Kama, or Cupid as the bearer of the bow (uyudlm) of flowers (kusuma).

KUTSA A Vedic Bkhi and author of hymns. He is represented as being persecuted by Indra, but on one occasion he was defended by that god against the demon Sushna. It is said that Indra took him to his palace, and that they were so much alike that Sachi or Pushpotkafa, Indra's wife, did not know which was her husband.

KUVALASWA, KUVALAYASWA A prince of the Solar race, who, according to the Vishnu Purana, had 21,000 sons, but the Hari-vansa numbers them only as 100. Attended by his sons he attacked the great Asura, Dhundhu, who lived in a sea of sand, and harassed the devotions of the pious sage Uttanka. They unearthed the demon and slew him, from which exploit Kuvalaswa got the title of Dhundhu-mara, slayer of Dhundhu; but all his sons except three perished by the fiery breath of the monster.

KUVALAYAPLDA An immense elephant, or a demon in elephantine form, belonging to Kansa, and employed by him to trample the boys Krishna and Bala-rama to death . The attempt failed and the elephant was killed.

KUVERA In the Vedas, a chief of the evil beings or spirits

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living in the shades: a sort of Pluto, and called by his patronymic Vaisravana. Later he is Pluto in another sense, as god of wealth and chief of the Yakshas and Guhyakas. He was son of Visravas by Irfavirfa, but he is sometimes called son of Pulastya, who was father of Visravas. This is explained by the Maha-bharata, according to which Kuvera was son of Pulastya, but that sage being offended with Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, "reproduced the half of himself in the form of Visravas," and had Ravana and other children. (See Visravas.) Kuvera's city is Alaka (also called Prabha, Vasu-dhara, and Vasu-sthali) in the Himalayas, and his garden Chaitra-ratha on Mandara, one of the spurs of Mount Meru, where he is waited upon by the Kinnaras. Some authorities place his abode on Mount Kailiisa in a palace built by Viswa-karma. He was half-brother of Ravana, and, according to the Ramayana and Mahabharata, he once had possession of the city of Lanka in Ceylon, which was also built by Viswa-karma, and from which he was expelled by Ravana. The same authority states that he performed austerities for thousands of years, and obtained the boon from Brahma that he should be immortal, one of the guardian deities of the world, and the god of wealth. So he is regent of the north, and the keeper of gold and silver, jewels and pearls, and all the treasures of the earth, besides nine particular Nidhis, or treasures, the nature of which is not well understood. Brahma also gave him the great self-moving aerial car Pushpaka (q.v.). His wife is Yakshi, Charvi, or KauverI, daughter of the Danava Mura. His sons are Mani-grlva or Varna-kavi and Nala-kubara or Mayu-raja, and his daughter Mlnakshi (fish-eyed). He is represented as a white man deformed in body, and having three legs and only eight teeth. His body is covered with ornaments. He receives no worship. The name Ku-vera, as also the variant Ku-tanu, signifies 'vile body,' referring to his ugliness. He is also called Dhana-pati, 'lord of wealth," Ichchha-vasu, 'who has wealth at will;' Yaksha-raja, 'chief of the Yakshas ;' Mays raja, 'king of the Kinnaras ;' Riikshasendra, 'chief of the Riikshasas;' Ratna-garbha, 'belly of jewels;' Raja-raja, 'king of kings;' and Nara-raja, 'king of men' (in allusion to the power of riches). From his parentage he is called Vaisravami, Paulastya, and Airfavi<fa or Ailavila. As an especial friend of Siva he is called La-sakhi, &c.


LAGHU-KAUMUDL A modern and very much simplified edition of Panini's Grammar by Varada Raja. It has been edited and translated by Dr. Ballantyne.

LAKSHMAiVA 1. Son of King Dasa-ratha by his wife Sumitri He was the twin brother of iSatru-ghna, and the halfbrother and especial friend of Rama-chandra. Under the peculiar circumstances of his birth, one-eighth part of the divinity of Vishnu became manifest in him. (See Dasa-ratha.) But according to the Adhyatma Ramiiyana, he was an incarnation of S'esha. When Rama left his father's court to go to the hermitage of Viswamitra, Lakshmana accompanied him, and afterwards attended him in his exile and in all his wanderings. He was also very attached to Rama's wife Sita, which gave rise to the reproach that the two brothers were husbands of one wife. On one occasion, indeed, Sita reproached Lakshmana that he did not hasten to rescue Rama from danger, because he wished to obtain herself. His own wife was tJrmila, the sister of Sita, and he had two sons, Angada and Chandra-ketu. While Rama and Lakshmana were living in the wilderness, a Rakshasi named iSurpa-nakha, sister of Ravana, fell in love with Rama and made advances to him. He jestingly referred her to Lakshmana, who in like manner sent her back to Rama. When she was again repulsed she attacked Sita, whom Rama was obliged to defend. Rama then called upon Lakshmana to disfigure the RakshasI, and accordingly he cut off her nose and ears. The mutilated female called upon her brother to avenge her, and a fierce war ensued. When Sita was carried off by Ravanu, Lakshmana accompanied Rama in his search, and he ably and bravely supported him in his war against Ravana. Rrima'.s earthly career was drawing to a close, and Time was sent to inform him that he must elect whether to stay longer on earth, or to return to the place from whence he had come. While they were in conference, the irascible sage Dur-vasas came and demanded to see Rama instantly, threatening him with the most direful curses if any delay were allowed to occur. To save his brother Rama from the threatened curse, but aware of the consequences that would ensue to himself from breaking in upon Rama's interview with Time, he went in and brought Rama out Lakshmana knowing his fate, retired to the river iSarayu and resigned himself. The gods then showered down flowers upon

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him and conveyed him bodily to heaven. 2. A son of Duryodhana, killed by Abhimanyu.

LAKSHML The word occurs in the i?ig-veda with the sense of good fortune, and in the Atharva-veda the idea has become personified in females both of a lucky and unlucky character. The Taittirlya Sanhita, as explained by the commentstor, makes Lakshmi and Sri to be two wives of Aditya, and the Satapatha Brahmana describes Sri as issuing forth from Prajapati.

Lakshmi or Sri in later times is the goddess of fortune, wife of Vishnu, and mother of Rama. The origin ascribed to her by the Ramayana is the one commonly received. According to this legend she sprang, like Aphrodite, from the froth of the ocean, in full beauty with a lotus in her hand, when it was churned by the gods and the Asuras. Another legend represents her as floating on the flower of a lotus at the creation. With reference to this origin, one of her names is Kshirabdhi-tanaya, 'daughter of the sea of milk.' From her connection with the lotus she is called Padma. According to the Purawas, she yyis the daughter of Bhrigu and Khyiiti. The Vishnu Purana says, "Her first birth was the daughter of Bhrigu by Khyiiti. It was at a subsequent period that she was produced from the sea at the churning of the ocean, . . . When Hari was born as a dwarf, Lakshmi appeared from a lotus (as Padma or Kamala). When he was born as Rama of the race of Bhrigu (or Parasu-rama), she was DharanL When he was Raghava (Rama-chandra), she was Sita. And when he was Krishna she became RukminL In the other descents of Vishnu she is his associate." One version of the Ramayana also affirms that "Lakshmi, the mistress of the worlds, was born by her own will, in a beautiful field opened up by the plough," and received from Janaka the name of Sita.

Lakshmi is said to have four arms, but she is the type of beauty, and is generally depicted as having only two. In one hand she holds a lotus. "She has no temples, but being goddess of abundance and fortune, she continues to be assiduously courted, and is not likely to fall into neglect." Other names of Lakshmi are Him, Indira, Jaladhi-ja, 'ocean born;' Chanchala or Lola, 'the fickle,' as goddess of fortune; Loka-mata, 'mother of the world.'

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LALITA-VISTARA A work in Sanskrit verse on the life and doctrines of Buddha. It has been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica.

LANGALl. 'Armed with a ploughshare.' Bala-rama, LANKA 1. The island of Ceylon or its capital city. The city is described in the Ramayana as of vast extent and of great magnificence, with seven broad moats and seven stupendous walls of stone and metal. It is said to have been built of gold by Viswa-karma for the residence of Kuvera, from whom it was taken by Ravana. The Bhagavata Purana represents that the island was originally the summit of Mount Meru, which was broken off by the god of the wind and hurled into the sea. 2. Name of one of the Sakinls or evil spirits attendant on Siva and Devi.

LATA. A country comprising Kandesh and part of Guzerat about the Mhye river. It is also called Lar, and is the AapiJt?j of Ptolemy.

LA7YAYANA Author of a Sutra work. It has been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica.

LAVA One of the twin sons of Rama and Sita. He reigned at Sravasti. See Rama.

LAVAiVA. A Rakshasa, son of Madhu by KumbhinasI, the sister of Ravana and daughter of Visravas. He inherited from his father an invincible trident which had been presented to him by Siva. He was surprised without his weapon and killed by Satru-ghna. Lavana was king of Mathura and Satru-ghna succeeded him.

LIKHITA Author of a Dharma-sastra or code of law.

LlLAVATl. 'Charming.' The fanciful title of that chapter of Bhaskara's Siddhanta-siromani which treats of arithmetic and geometry. It has been translated by Colebrooke and Dr. Taylor, and the text has been printed.

LLNGA, LINGAM. The male organ. The phallus. The symbol under which Siva is universally worshipped. It is of comparatively modern introduction and is unknown to the Vedas, but it receives distinct notice in the Maha-bharata. "The emblem—a plain column of stone, or sometimes a cone of plastic mud—suggests no offensive ideas. The people call it Siva or Maha-deva, and there's an end." In the Siva Purana, and in the Nandi Upa-purana, Siva is made to say, "I am


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