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LINGA-LINGA PURĀNA. omnipresent, but I am especially in twelve forms and places.” These are the twelve great Lingas, which are as follow :
1. Soma-nātha. “Lord of the moon.' At Somnath Pattan, a city which still remains in Guzerat. This was the celebrated “idol” destroyed by Mahmūd of Ghaznī.
2. Mallikarjuna or Sri-saila. "The mountain of Srī.' On a mountain near the river Krishnā.
3. Mahā-küla, Mahū-kāleswara. At Ujjain. Upon the capture of Ujjain in the reign of Altamsh, 1231 A. D., this deity of stone was carried to Delhi and there broken up.
4. Omkāra. This is also said to have been at Ujjain, but it is probably the shrine of Mahādeva at Omkāra Māndhättā, on the Narmadā.
5. Amareswara. "God of gods. This is also placed at Ujjain.
6. Vaidya-nātha. “Lord of physicians.' At Deogarh in Bengal. The temple is still in being, and is a celebrated place of pilgrimage.
7. Rūmesa or Rāmeswara. “Lord of Rāma.' On the island of Ramisseram, between the continent and Ceylon. This Lingam, whose name signifies 'Rāma's lord,' is fabled to have been set up by Rāma. The temple is still in tolerable repair, and is one of the most magnificent in India.
8. Bhima Sankara. In Dākini. This is in all probability the same with Bhimeswara, a Lingam worshipped at Dracharam, in the Rajamahendri (Rajamundry) district, and there venerated as one of the twelve.
9. Visweswara. “Lord of all.' At Benares. It has been for many centuries the chief object of worship at Benares. Also called Jyotir-lingam.
10. Tryambaka, Tryaksha. “Tri-ocular. On the banks of the Gomati.
11. Gautamesa. “Lord of Gautama.'
12. Kedāresa, Kedūra-nātha. In the Himālaya. The deity is represented as a shapeless mass of rock.
Nāga-nātha or Nāga-nāthesa and Vāmeswara are other names, probably of No. 6 and No. 11.
LINGA PURĀNA. “Where Maheswara (Siva), present in the Agni Linga, explained (the objects of life), virtue, wealth, pleasure, and final liberation, at the end of the Agni Kalpa, that Purāna, consisting of 11,000 stanzas, was called the Linga by LOHA-MUKHAS-LOKA.
179 Brahmā himself.” The work conforms accurately enough to this description. “Although the Linga holds a prominent place in this Purāna, the spirit of the worship is as little influenced by the character of the type as can well be imagined. There is nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity: it is all mystical and spiritual. The work has preserved, apparently, some Saiva legends of an early date, but the greater part is ritual and mysticism of comparatively recent introduction.”—Wilson. It is not likely that this Purāna is earlier than the eighth or ninth century. This Purāna has been lithographed in Bombay.
LOHA-MUKHAS. 'Iron-faced men.' Described in the Mahā-bhārata as swift, one-footed, undecaying, strong men-eaters.
LOKA. A world, a division of the universe. In general the tri-loka or three worlds are heaven, earth, and hell. Another classification enumerates seven, exclusive of the infernal regions, also seven in number which are classed under Pātāla. The upper worlds are :-(1.) Bhur-loka, the earth. (2.) Bhuvar-loka, the space between the earth and the sun, the region of the Munis, Siddhas, &c. (3.) Swar-loka, the heaven of Indra, between the sun and the polar star. (4.) Mahar-loka, the usual abode of Bhrigu and other saints, who are supposed to be coexistent with Brahmā. During the conflagration of these lower worlds the saints ascend to the next, or (5.) Jana-loka, which is described as the abode of Brahmā's sons, Sanaka, Sānanda, and Sanat-kumāra. Above this is the (6.) Tapar-loka, where the deities called Vairāgīs reside. (7.) Satya-loka or Brahmāloka, is the abode of Brahmā, and translation to this world exempts beings from further birth. The first three worlds are destroyed at the end of each kalpa, or day of Brahmā; the last three at the end of his life, or of a hundred of his years ; the fourth loka is equally permanent, but is uninhabitable from heat at the time the first three are burning. Another enumeration calls the seven worlds earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place of birth, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth ; placing the sons of Brahmā in the sixth division, and stating the fifth, or Jana-loka, to be that where animals destroyed in the general conflagration are born again. The Sānkhya and Vedānta schools of philosophy recognise eight lokas or regions of material existence :-(1.) Brahmā-loka, the world of the superior deities; (2.) Pitri-loka, that of the Pitris, Rishis, and Prajāpatis; (3.)
Soma-loka, of the moon and planets ; (4.) Indra-loka, of the inferior deities; (5.) Gandharva-loka, of heavenly spirits ; (6.) Rākshasa-loka, of the Rākshasas ; (7.) Yaksha-loka, of the Yakshas ; (8.) Pisācha-loka, of the Pisāchas or imps and fiends.
LOKĀLOKA. "A world and no world,' A fabulous belt of mountains bounding the outermost of the seven seas and dividing the visible world from the regions of darkness. It is “ ten thousand yojanas in breadth, and as many in height, and beyond it perpetual darkness invests the mountains all around, which darkness is again encompassed by the shell of an egg." It is called also Chakra-vāda or Chakra-vāla.
LOKA-PĀLAS. Supporters or guardians of the world. The guardian deities who preside over the eight points of the compass, i.e., the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the compass :-(1.) Indra, east ; (2.) Agni, south-east; (3.) Yama, south ; (4.) Sūrya, south-west ; (5.) Varuna, west ; (6.) Vāyu, north-west; (7.) Kuvera, north ; (8.) Soma, north-east. Nirriti is by some substituted for No. 4, and Prithivi or Siva, especially in his form Īsāna, for No. 8. Each of these guardian deities has an elephant who takes part in the defence and protection of the quarter, and these eight elephants are themselves called Loka-pālas :-(1.) Indra's elephant at the east is Airāvata. He is also called Abhra-mātanga, "elephant of the clouds ;' Arkasodara, brother of the sun;' Nāga-malla, “the fighting clephant;' Sadā-dāna, 'always in rut;' Madāmbara, 'covered with ichor.' His wife's name is Abhramu. (2.) Agni's elephant at the south-east is Pundarīka and his female Kapilā. (3.) Yama's at the south is Vāmana and his female Pingalā. (4.) Sūrya's at the south-west is Kumuda and his female is Anupamā. (5.) Varuna's at the west is Anjana, whose female is Anjanavatī, (6.) Vāyu's at the north-west is Pushpa-danta, whose female is Subha-dantī. (7.) Kuvera's at the north is Sārva-bhauma; and (8.) Soma's elephant at the north-east is Su-pratika. The two other females are Anjanā and Tāmra-karnī, whose spouses are doubtful. Anjanāvati is sometimes assigned to Su-pratīka. In the Rāmāyana (1.) Indra's eastern elephant is called Virūpāksha ; (2.) Varuna's elephant at the west, Saumanasa; (3.) Yama's at the south is Malā-padna, and (4.) Kuvera's at the north is Hima-pāndara.
LOMA-HARSHANA (or Roma-harshana). A bard or panesyrist who first gave forth the Purānas.
LOMA-PĀDA (or Roma-pāda). A king of Anga, chiefly remarkable for his connection with Rishya-sringa (q.v.).
LOPĀMUDRĀ. A girl whom the sage Agastya formed from the most graceful parts of different animals and secretly introduced into the palace of the king of Vidarbha, where the child was believed to be the daughter of the king. Agastya had made this girl with the object of having a wife after his own heart, and when she was marriageable he demanded her hand. The king was loath to consent, but was obliged to yield, and she became the wife of Agastya. Her name is explained as signifying that the animals suffered loss (lopa) by her engrossing their distinctive beauties (mudrā), as the eyes of the deer, &c. She is also called Kaushitakī and Vara-pradā. A hymn in the Rig-veda is attributed to her.
MADA. 'Intoxication.' Described in the Mahā-bhārata as “a fearful open-mouthed monster, created by the sage Chyavana, having teeth and grinders of portentous length, and jaws one of which enclosed the earth and the other the sky," who got Indra and the other gods into his jaws “like fishes in the mouth of a sea monster."
MADAYANTI. Wife of King Saudāsa or Kalmāsha-pada. She was allowed to consort with the sage Vasishtha. According to some this was a meritorious act on the king's part and a favour to Vasishtha ; according to others it was for the sake of obtaining progeny. See Kalmāsha-pāda.
MADHAVA. A name of Krishna or Vishnu.
MADHAVA, MADHAVĀCHĀRYA. A celebrated scholar and religious teacher. He was a native of Tuluva, and became prime minister of Vira Bukka Rāya, king of the great Hindu state of Vijaya-nagara, who lived in the fourteenth century. He was brother of Sāyana, the author of the great commentary on the Veda, in which work Madhava himself is believed to have shared. Wilson observes, “Both the brothers are celebrated as scholars, and many important works are attributed to them ; not only scholia on the Sanhitās and Brāhmanas of the Vedas, but original works on grammar and law; the fact no doubt being, that they availed themselves of those means which their situation and influence secured them, and employed the most learned Brāhmans they could attract to Vijaya-nagara upon the works which bear their names, and to which they contributed their own labour and learning; their works were 182
therefore compiled under peculiar advantages, and are deservedly held in the highest estimation.” Among the works of Mādhava are the Sarva-darsana-sangraha and the Sankshepa Sankaravijaya. Mādhava was a worshipper of Vishnu, and as a religious philosopher he held the doctrine of dwaita or dualism, according to which the supreme soul of the universe and the human soul are distinct. Thus he was opposed to the teaching of Sankarācharya, who was a follower of Siva, and upheld the Vedānta doctrine of a-dwaita, “no duality,” according to which God and soul, spirit and matter, are all one.
MĀDHAVĪ. A name of Lakshmi.
MADHU. 1. A demon slain by Krishna. (See Kaitabha.) 2. Another, or the same demon, said to have been killed by Satru-ghna.
MADHU-CHHANDAS. A son of Viswamitra, who had fifty sons older and fifty younger than this one ; but they are spoken of as “a hundred sons.” Ile is the reputed author of some hymns of the Rig-veda.
MADHU-KASĀ. Described in the Atharva-veda as “the brilliant grand-daughter of the Maruts, the mother of the Adityas, the daughter of the Vasus, the life of creatures, and the centre of immortality.” She “sprang from the sky, the earth, the air, the sea, fire, and wind;” and it is added, “all creatures, worshipping her who dwells in immortality, rejoice in their hearts."
MADHURĀNIRUDDHA. A drama in eight acts by Sayani Chandra Sekhara. It is quite a modern work. “The subject is the secret loves of Ūshā, daughter of the Asura Bāna and Aniruddha, grandson of Krishna. The piece abounds too much with description to be a good play; the style has considerable merit.”—Wilson.
MADHU-SŪDANA. “Slayer of Madhu.' A name of Krishna.
MADHYA-DESA. The middle country, described by Manu as “the tract situated between the Himavat and the Vindhya ranges to the east of Vināsana and to the west of Prayāga (Allahabad).” Another authority makes it the Doab.
MADHYANDINA. A Vedic school, a subdivision of the Vājasaneyī school, and connected with the Satapatha Brāhmana. It had also its own system of astronomy, and obtained its name from making noon (madhya-dina) the starting-point of the planetary movements.