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omnipresent, but I am especially in twelve forms and places." These are the twelve great Lingas, which are as follow :—

1. Soma-ndtha. 'Lord of the moon.' At Somnath Pattan, a city which still remains in Guzerat. This was the celebrated "idol" destroyed by Mahmud of GhaznL

2. Mallikdrjuna or Srl-saila. 'The mountain of StL' On a mountain near the river Krishna.

3. Muhd-kdla, MaM-kdleswara. At Ujjain. Upon the capture of Ujjain in the reign of Altamsh, 1231 A.D., this deity of stone was carried to Delhi and there broken up.

4. Omkdra. This is also said to have been at Ujjain, but it is probably the shrine of Mahadeva at Omkara Mandhatta, on the Narmada.

5. Amareswara. 'God of gods.' This is also placed at Ujjain.

6. Vaidya-ndtha. 'Lord of physicians.' At Deogarh in Bengal. The temple is still in being, and is a celebrated place of pilgrimage.

7. Bdmesa or Rdmeswara. 'Lord of Rama.' On the island of Ramisseram, between the continent and Ceylon. This Lingam, whose name signifies 'Rama's lord,' is fabled to have been set up by Rama. The temple is still in tolerable repair, and is one of the most magnificent in India.

8. Bhlnia Sanhira. In Dakim. This is in all probability the same with Bhimeswara, a Lingam worshipped at Dracharam, in the Rajamahendrl (Rajamundry) district, and there venerated as one of the twelve.

9. Visweswara. 'Lord of all.' At Benares. It has been for many centuries the chief object of worship at Benares. Also called Jyotir-lingam.

10. Tryambaka, Tryaksha. 'Tri-ocular.' On the banks of the GomatI.

11. Gauta1msa. 'Lord of Gautama.'

12. Keddrem, Keddra-ndtha. In the Himalaya. The deity is represented as a shapeless mass of rock.

Naga-natha or Naga-nathesa and Vameswara are other names, probably of No. 6 and No. 11.

LINGA PURAiVA. "Where Maheswara (Siva), present in the Agni Linga, explained (the objects of life), virtue, wealth, pleasure, and final liberation, at the end of tho Agni Kalpa, that Purina, consisting of 11,000 stanzas, was called the Linga by

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Brahma himself." The work conforms accurately enough to this description. "Although the Linga holds a prominent place in this Purana, the spirit of the worship is as little influenced by the character of the type as can well be imagined. There is nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity: it is all mystical and spiritual. The work has preserved, apparently, some iSaiva legends of an early date, but the greater part is ritual and mysticism of comparatively recent introduction."—Wilson. It is not likely that this Purana is earlier than the eighth or ninth century. This Purana has been lithographed in Bombay.

LOHA-MUKHAS. 'Iron-faced men.' Described in the Mahabharata as swift, one-footed, undecaying, strong men-eaters.

LOKA A world, a division of the universe. In general the tri-loka or three worlds are heaven, earth, and hell. Another classification enumerates seven, exclusive of the infernal regions, also seven in number which are classed under Patala. The upper worlds are :—(1.) Bhur-loka, the earth. (2.) Bhuvar-loka, the space between the earth and the sun, the region of the Munis, Siddhas, &c. (3.) Swar-loka, the heaven of Indra, between the sun and the polar star. (4.) Mahar-loka, the usual abode of Bhrigu and other saints, who are supposed to be coexistent with Brahma. During the conflagration of these lower worlds the saints ascend to the next, or (5.) Jana-loka, which is described as the abode of Brahma's sons, Sanaka, Sananda, and Sanat-kumara. Above this is the (6.) Tapar loka, where the deities called Vairagis reside. (7.) Satya-loka or Brahmaloka, is the abode of Brahma, and translation to this world exempts beings from further birth. The first three worlds are destroyed at the end of each kalpa, or day of Brahma; the last three at the end of his life, or of a hundred of his years; the fourth loka is equally permanent, but is uninhabitable from heat at the time the first three are burning. Another enumeration calls the seven worlds earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place of birth, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth; placing the sons of Brahma in the sixth division, and stating the fifth, or Jana-loka, to be that where animals destroyed in the general conflagration are born again. The Sankhya and Vedanta schools of philosophy recognise eight lokas or regions of material existence :—(1.) Brahma-loka, the world of the superior deities; (2.) Pitri-loka, that of the Pitris, i?ishis, and Prajapatis; (s) 180 LOKALOKA—LOMA-HARSHANA.

Soma-loka, of the moon and planets; (4.) Indra-loka, of the inferior deities; (5.) Gandharva-loka, of heavenly spirits; (6.) Rakshasa-loka, of the Rakshasas; (7.) Yaksha-loka, of the Yakshas; (8.) Piiacha-loka, of the Pisachas or imps and fiends.

LOKALOK A 'A world and no world,' A fabulous belt of mountains bounding the outermost of the seven seas and dividing the visible world from the regions of darkness. It is "ten thousand yojanas in breadth, and as many in height, and beyond it perpetual darkness invests the mountains all around, which darkness is again encompassed by the shell of an egg." It is called also Chakra-vaWa or Chakra-vala.

LOKA-PALAS. Supporters or guardians of the world. The guardian deities who preside over the eight points of the compass, i.e., the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the compass :—(1.)Indra, east; (2.) Agni,south-east; (3.) Yama, south; (4.) Siirya, south-west; (5.) Varuna, west; (6.) Vayu, north-west; (7.) Kuvera, north; (8.) Soma, northeast. Nim'ti is by some substituted for No. 4, and Prithivi or Siva, especially in his form Isana, for No. 8. Each of these guardian deities has an elephant who takes part in the defence and protection of the quarter, and these eight elephants are themselves called Loka-palas :—(1.) Indra's elephant at the east is Airavata. He is also called Abhra-matanga, 'elephant of the clouds ;' Arkasodara, 'brother of the sun;' Naga-malla, 'the fighting elephant;' Sada-dana, 'always in rat," Madambara, 'covered with ichor.' His wife's name is Abhramu. (2.) Agni's elephant at the south-east is Puwtfarlka and his female Kapila. (3.) Yama's at the south is Vamana and his female Pingala. (4.) Surya's at the south-west is Kumuda and his female is Anupama. (5.) Varuna's at the west is Anjana, whose female is Anjanavatl. (6.) Vayu's at the north-west is Pushpa-danta, whose female is .Subha-danti. (7.) Kuvera's at the north is Sarva-bhauma; and (8.) Soma's elephant at the north-east is Su-pratIka. The two other females are Anjana and Tamra-karm, whose spouses are doubtful. Anjanavatl is sometimes assigned to Su-pratlka. In the Ramayana (t.) Indra's eastern elephant is called Virupaksha; (2.) Varuna's elephant at the west, Saumanasa; (3.) Yama's at the south is Mahii-padrua, and (4.) Kuvera's at the north is Hima-pan<fara.

LOMA-HARSHAiTA (or Roma-harshana). A bard or panegyrist who first gave forth the Puriinas.


LOMA-PADA (or Roma-pada). A king of Anga, chiefly remarkable for his connection with i?ishya-.sWnga (q.v.).

LOPAMUDRA A girl whom the sage Agastya formed from the most graceful parts of different animals and secretly introduced into the palace of the king of Vidarbha, where the child was believed to be the daughter of the king. Agastya had made this girl with the object of having a wife after his own heart, and when she was marriageable he demanded her hand. The king was loath to consent, but was obliged to yield, and she became the wife of Agastya. Her name is explained as signifying that the animals suffered loss (lopa) by her engrossing their distinctive beauties (mudrd), as the eyes of the deer, &c. She is also called Kaushitaki and Vara-prada. A hymn in the i?ig-veda is attributed to her.

MAD A 'Intoxication.' Described in the Mahabharata as "a fearful open-mouthed monster, created by the sage Chyavana, having teeth and grinders of portentous length, and jaws one of which enclosed the earth and the other the sky," who got Indra and the other gods into his jaws "like fishes in the mouth of a sea monster."

MADAYANTL Wife of King Saudasa or Kalmasha-pada. She was allowed to consort with the sage Vasish/ha. According to some this was a meritorious act on the king's part and a favour to Vasish/ha ; according to others it was for the sake of obtaining progeny. See Kalmasha-pada.

MADHAVA A name of Krishna or Vishnu.

MADHAVA, MADHAVACHARYA A celebrated scholar and religious teacher. He was a native of Tuluva, and became prime minister of Vlra Bukka Raya, king of the great Hindu state of Vijaya-nagara, who lived in the fourteenth century. He was brother of Sayana, the author of the great commentary on the Veda, in which work Madhava himself is believed to have shared. Wilson observes, "Both the brothers are celebrated as scholars, and many important works are attributed to them; not only scholia on the Sanhitiis and Brahmanas of the Vedas, but original works on grammar and law; the fact no doubt being, that they availed themselves of those means which their situation and influence secured them, and employed the most learned Brahmans they could attract to Vijaya-nagara upon the works which bear their names, and to which they contributed their own labour and learning; their works were i82 MADHA Vi—madhyandina.

therefore compiled under peculiar advantages, and are deservedly held in the highest estimation." Among the works of Madhava are the Sarva-darsana-sangraha and the Sankshepa iSankaravijaya. Miidhava was a worshipper of Vishnu, and as a religious philosopher he held the doctrine of dwaila or dualism, according to which the supreme soul of the universe and the human soul are distinct. Thus he was opposed to the teaching of Sankaracharya, who was a follower of Siva, and upheld the Vedanta doctrine of a-dwaita, "no duality," according to which God and soul, spirit and matter, are all one. MADHA VL A name of LakshmL

MADHU. 1. A demon slain by Krishna. (See Kai/abha.) 2. Another, or the same demon, said to have been killed by Satru-ghna

MADHU-CHHANDAS. A son of Viswamitra, who had fifty sons older and fifty younger than this one; but they are spoken of as "a hundred sons." He is the reputed author of some hymns of the i?tg-veda.

MADHU-KA.SA Described in the Atharva-veda as "the brilliant grand-daughter of the Maruts, the mother of the Adityas, the daughter of the Vasus, the life of creatures, and the centre of immortality." She "sprang from the sky, the earth, the air, the sea, fire, and wind; " and it is added, "all creatures, worshipping her who dwells in immortality, rejoice in their hearts."

MADHURANIRUDDHA A drama in eight acts by Sayani Chandra Sekhara. It is quite a moder n work. "The subject is the secret loves of TJsha, daughter of the Asura Bana and Aniruddha, grandson of Krishna. The piece abounds too much with description to be a good play; the style has considerable merit."—Wilson.

MADHU-STJDANA 'Slayer of Madhu.' A name of Krishna.

MADHYA-DEiSA. The middle country, described by Manu as "the tract situated between the Himavat and the Vindhya ranges to the east of Vinasana and to the west of Prayaga (Allahabad)." Another authority makes it the Doab.

MADHYANDINA A Vedic school, a subdivision of the Vajasaneyi school, and connected with the Satapatha Brahmana. It had also its own system of astronomy, and obtained its name from making noon (madhya-dim) the starting-point of the planetary movements.

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