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MAHĀ-BHASHYA. A commentary by Patanjali on the Grammar of Pānini, in answer to the criticisms of Kātyāyana. A fine photo-lithographed edition has been produced, under the superintendence of Professor Goldstücker, at the expense of the Indian Government. The work has received a long notice in Weber's Indische Studien, vol. xiii., and has been the subject of much discussion in the Indian Antiquary. Other editions have appeared in India.

MAHĀ-BHOJA. See Bhoja.

MAHĀ-DEVA. The great god.' A name of Siva. One of the Rudras.

MAHĀ-DEVĪ. "The great goddess.' A name of Devī, the wife of Siva. See Devī.

MAHĀ-KĀLA. “Great Time.' 1. A name of Siva in his destructive character. (See Siva.) 2. One of the twelve great Lingas. (See Linga.) 3. In the caves of Elephanta this form of Siva is represented with eight arms. In one hand he holds a human figure ; in another, a sword or sacrificial axe; in a third, a basin of blood ; in a fourth, the sacrificial bell; with two he is drawing behind him the veil which extinguishes the sun ; and two are broken off. 4. Chief of the Ganas or attendants on Siva.

MAHĀ-KĀVYAS. “Great poems.' Six are classified under this title :--(1.) Raghu-vansa ; (2) Kumāra-sambhava ; (3.) Megha-dūta ; (4.) Kirātārjunīya ; (5.) Sisupāla-badha ; (6.) Naishadha-charitra.

MAHĀ-MĀYĀ. See Māyā.

MAHA-NĀTAKA. The great drama.' The Hanumānnātaka (q.v.).

MAHA-PADMA NANDA. The last of the Nanda dynasty. See Chandra-gupta.

MAHA-PRALAYA. A total dissolution of the universe at the end of a kalpa, when the seven lokas and their inhabitants, men, saints, gods, and Brahmā himself, are annihilated. Called also Jahānaka, Kshiti, and Sanhāra.

MAHĀ-PURĀNAS. "The great Purānas.' The Vishnu and the Bhāgavata, the two great Purānas of the Vaishnavas.

MAHĀ-PURUSHA. “The great or supreme male ;' the supreme spirit. A name of Vishnu.

MAHĀRĀJIKAS. A Gana or class of inferior deities, 236 or 220 in number.


MAHAR-MAINĀKA. MAHAR. See Vyāhriti. MAHĀ-RĀSHTRA. The land of the Mahrattas. MAHAR-LOKA. See Loka. MAHARSHIS (Mahā-rishis). “Great Rishis.' The great Rishis or Prajāpatis. See Rishi.

MAHĀ-SENA. "The great captain.' A name of Kārtikeya, god of war.

MAHAT. The great intellect produced at the creation. See Vishnu Purūna, i. 29.

MĀHĀTMYA. “Magnanimity. A legend of a shrine or other holy place.

MAHĀ-VĪRA CHARITA. The exploits of the great hero (Rāma).' A drama by Bhava-bhūti, translated into English by Pickford. There are several editions of the text. “The situations and sentiments of this drama are of a stirring and martial description, and the language is adapted with singular felicity to the subject from which it springs."Wilson.

MAHA-YOGI. “The great ascetic. A name of Siva.

MAHĀ-YUGA. A great Yuga orage, consisting of 4,320,000 years. See Yuga.

MAHENDRA. A name of Indra. One of the seven mountain ranges of India ; the hills which run from Gondwāna to Orissa and the Northern Circars. See Kula-parvatas.

MAHESWARA. A name of Siva.

MAHISHA, MAHISHĀSURA. 1. The great Asura or demon killed by Skanda in the Mahā-bhārata. (See Krauncha.) 2. Also a demon killed by Chandā or Durgā.

MAHISHMATĪ, MĀHISHMATĪ. The capital of Kārtavirya, king of the Tālajanghas, who had a thousand arms. It has been identified by Colonel Tod with the village of Chuli Maheswar, which, according to him, is still called “the village of the thousand-armed.”

MAHODAYA. A name of the city of Kanauj. MAHORAGA (Mahā + uraga). "Great serpent.' The serpent Sesha, or any other great serpent.

MAINĀKA. A mountain stated in the Mahā-bhārata to be north of Kailāsa ; so called as being the son of Himavat and Menakā. When, as the poets sing, Indra clipped the wings of the mountains, this is said to have been the only one which escaped.

MAITREYA-MALINA-MUKHA. 195 This mountain, according to some, stands in Central India, and, according to others, near the extremity of the Peninsula

MAITREYA. A Rishi, son of Kusarava, and disciple of Parāsara. He is one of the interlocutors in the Vishnu and Bhāgavata Purānas.

MAITREYİ. Wife of the Rishi Yajnawalkya, who was indoctrinated by her husband in the mysteries of religion and philosophy.

MAITRI, MAITRĀYANI. An Upanishad of the Black Yajur-veda. It has been edited and translated by Professor Cowell for the Bibliotheca Indica.

MĀKANDĪ. A city on the Ganges, the capital of Southern Panchāla.

MAKARA. A huge sea animal, which has been taken to be the crocodile, the shark, the dolphin, &c., but is probably a fabulous animal. It represents the sign Capricornus in the Hindu zodiac, and is depicted with the head and forelegs of an antelope and the body and tail of a fish. It is the vehicle of Varuna, the god of the ocean, and its figure is borne on the banner of Kāma-deva, god of love. It is also called Kantaka, Asita-danshtra, .black teeth,' and Jala-rūpa, 'water form.'

MĀKĀRAS. The five m’s. See Tantra. MAKHAVAT. A name of Indra. MĀLATĪ-MĀDHAVA (Mālati and Mādhava). A drama by Bhava-bhūti, translated by Wilson. “This drama,” says the translator, “offers nothing to offend the most fastidious delicacy, and may be compared in this respect advantageously with many of the dramas of modern Europe which treat of the passion (of love) that constitutes its subject.”

MĀLAVA. The country of Mālwa.

MĀLAVIKĀGNIMITRA (Malavika and Agnimitra). A drama ascribed to Kāli-dāsa, and although inferior to his other productions, it is probably his work. The text, with a translation, has been published by Tullberg. There is a German translation by Weber, an English one by Tawney, and a French one by Foucaux. The text has been printed at Bombay and Calcutta.

MALAYA. The country of Malabar proper; the mountains bordering Malabar. See Kula-parvatas.

MALINA-MUKHA. “Black faced.' Rākshasas and other demons, represented as having black faces.



MĀLINI. “Surrounded with a garland (māla)' of Champa trees. A name of the city of Champā.

MALLIKĀRJUNA. A name of Siva. One of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga.

MALLINĀTHA. A poet, and author of commentaries of great repute on several of the great poems, as the Raghu-vansa, Megha-dūta, Sisu pāla-badha, &c.

MĀNASA. "The intellectual.' A name of the supreme being. Thus defined in the Mahā-bhārata : “ The primeval god, without beginning or dissolution, indivisible, undecaying, and immortal, who is known and called by great Rishis Mānasa.”

MĀNASA, MĀNASA-SAROVARA. The lake Mānasa in the Himālayas. In the Vāyu Purāna it is stated that when the ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru, it ran four times round the mountain, then it divided into four rivers which ran down the mountain and formed four great lakes, Arunoda on the east, Sitoda on the west, Mahā-bhadra on the north, and Mānasa on the south. According to the mythological account, the river Ganges flows out of it, but in reality no river issues from this lake, though the river Satlej flows from another and larger lake called Rāvana-hrāda, which lies close to the west of Mānasa.

MANASĀ, MANASĀ-DEVĪ. Sister of the serpent king Sesha, and wife of the sage Jarat-kāru. She is also called Jagadgaurī, Nityā (eternal), and Padmāvatī. She had special power in counteracting the venom of serpents, and was hence called Visha-harā.

MĀNASĀ-PUTRAS. "Mind (born) sons.' The seven or ten mind-born sons of Brahmā. See Prajāpati.

MANAS-TĀLA. The lion on which Devi rides.

MĀNAVA DHARMA-SASTRA. The code of Manu. See Manu Sanhitā.

MĀNAVA KALPA-SŪTRA. Manu's work on Vaidik rites. Part of it has been published in facsimile by Goldstücker.

MĀNAVĪ. The wife of Manu. Also called Manāyī.

MANDA-KARNI. A sage who dwelt in the Dandaka forest, and is said in the Rāmāyana to have formed a lake which was known by his name. His austerities alarmed the gods, and Indra sent five Apsarases to beguile him from his penance of “standing in a pool and feeding on nothing but air for 10,000


197 years." They succeeded, and became his wives, and inhabited a house concealed in the lake, which, from them, was called Panchāpsaras.

MANDĀKINĪ. The heavenly Ganges. The Ganges. An arm of the Ganges which flows through Kedāra-nātha. A river near the mountain Chitra-kūta (q.v.) in Bundelkhand. It was near the abode of Rāma and Sītā, and is mentioned both in the Rāmāyana and Mahā-bhārata. It would seem to be the modern Pisuni.

MANDALA. 'A circle, orb.' A circuit or territorial division, as Chola-mandala, i.e., Coromandel. According to one arrangement, the Sanhitā of the Rig-veda is divided into ten Mandalas.

MANDALA-NRITYA. A circular dance. The dance of the Gopīs round Krishna and Rādhā.

MANDA-PĀLA. A childless saint, who, according to the Mahā-bhārata, after long perseverance in devotion and asceticism, died and went to the abode of Yama. His desires being still unsatisfied, he inquired the cause, and was told that all his devotions had failed because he had no son, no putra (put, 'hell,'tra, ‘drawer '), to save him from hell. He then assumed the form of a species of bird called Sārngikā, and by a female of that species, who was called Jaritā, he had four sons.

MANDARA. The great mountain which the gods used for the churning of the ocean. It is supposed to be the mountain so named in Bhāgalpur, which is held sacred. See Kūrmaavatāra, under Avatāra.

MĀNDAVĪ. Daughter of Kusa-dhwaja, cousin of Sītā, and wife of Rāma's brother Bharata.

MANDEHAS. A class of terrific Rākshasas, who were hostile to the sun and endeavoured to devour him.

MĀNDHĀTRI. A king, son of Yuvanāswa, of the race of Ikshwāku, and author of a hymn in the Rig-veda. The Harivansa and some of the Purānas make Māndhātri to have been born in a natural way from his mother Gaurī, but the Vishnu and Bhāgavata Purānas tell an extraordinary story about his birth, which is probably based upon a forced derivation of his name. Yuvanāswa had no son, which grieved him much. Some holy sages near whom he lived instituted a religious rite to procure progeny for him. One night they placed a consecrated vessel of water upon an altar as part of their ceremony,

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